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Dakota farmers' leader. (Canton, S.D.) 1890-19??, December 05, 1890, Image 1

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VOL.1. NUMBER 24.
M0N6P0LY CONTROLS WHEAT.
4 8trikin
Chicago's wheat market is controlled by
the Standard Oil Company. For nearly
four years the octopus has deftly mani
pulated the wheat markets of the country,
and it has done its insidious work so
quietly, but at the same time so effective
ly that few in the trade have even dream
ed of the extent of its power. The
petroleum market is now only a play
[6 giant'1 corporation with its
thing for'
untold A,
bl^jfifift
blooS^^^f the oil trade of the country
But simulations in crude petroleum is
and hakbeep for months in the dumps,
and trading is practically dead. It was
the Standard that killed the oil cock
robin, -And hundreds of brokers who once
dabbled in the greasy commodity have
been driven: out of business and been
compelled to seek a livelihood in other
channels. Some of these self same
brokers are in Chicago now. The once
lively petroleum exchange in New York,
Bradford, Pitsburg, Titusville, Philadel
phia and Oil City, in days not long gone
by traded in millions of barrels daily.
Now the average daily clearances of all
the exchanges combined are so small that
they are of no significance and a move
ment is on foot to shut up the handsome
oil exchange in Pittsburg.
!3,
Ziu
at enormous expense one of the
posted men'in the trade. All he had
to do was to make the market. He had
his office at 20 Broadway. There he weat
every morning and from the bead moguls
of the comparfy received hie ordersjfor
the day. If the Standared ordered a
bull market it was a bull if it wanted to
bear, it issued its flat, and the market
was a bear. That one man. manipulated
the market as he pleased. Brokers form
ed combinations to fight him, but ruin
stared them in the face, and one by one
the big traders were gathered under the
Standard's all-powerful wing. Today—
well, the memory of it all makes me sick
at heart. There was one restriction
placed on the Standard's hired man. He
was bound by oath not to speculate,
therefore his identity was kept a secret..
"You remember the story about Samp
son and the woman, told in holy writ.
Well, this all-powerful indivjdua}, who
bore the common name of Jones, had his
Deliah. While in New York I frequent
ed a French restaurant on Twenty-third
street. The proprietoi spoke poor Eng
lish. I was then a, broker cn the floor of
the consolidated stock and petroleum ex
change and represented a big oil produc
ngfirni. One day the restaurant manr
came to me and ordered me to buy. 1,000
shares pf New York & New England
railroad stock. You know Rockfeller is
the heaviest holder of the company's
stock, and the Standard Oil Company
runs and directs the road. He oifered
$100 as a margin, I told him" that the
stock was liable to fluctuate four or- five
points either way. Then in his bad Eng
lish he told me that he knew what he
was about that the stock would not go
below 43fc. I knew that he had money
and would meet his obligation, so I.filled
the order. Sure enough he called the
turn and cleared $1,300. The next day
he sold short and again came out a big
winner. Then he tried oil and wheat
and his luck was simply phenomenal. I
began to cultivate his acquaintance. I
became a regular patron and he engaged
me as his broker. One day, while drunk,
J-j'.
4
Interesting Story Told of the
O pa it if
mkes Money. yt
The Price^pf Farm Protects, Railroads,
Congress and State Legislature Un*
derits Thumb.
For years it
Jons at its back.
iyeh now is sucking the life
the oil trade of the
The Standard Oil company killed specu
lation in crude oil because it found it to its
3Z3&(terest to do so. A wealthy but retired
Tcflker who knows all the ins and outs of
,ncl wheat trades is spending a few
It'one of Chicago's leading hotels,
made some startling revelations as to
the status of the Standard Oil Campany
on the wheat question. "The Standaed,''
he said, "went into wheat four years ago,
and today controls not only the Chicago
market but the markets of the country.
The standard's leade?,broker for a long
time was Hutchinson, and the 'lig,four,'
most the identical methods which char
acterized its treatment of the oil market.
It pulls the string from its tall marble
building at 26 Broadway, New York, and
prices advance or decline at its sweet
will. The story sounds unreasonable,
does it not? Mark my words well.
Some day, and it is not far distant, the
wheat trade' will wake up and And icself
firmly enmeshed in the terrible tentacles
of the octopus. What is true of the oil
market will be repeated, but on a much
larger scale, in wheat. Do you know
the Standard worked the oil market?
as simple enough. The Standard
wzr/^m. & ATgrv^ v, ^!t ?t ^'c/Y-
he told me the secret of his remarkable
success. The Standard's oil market
juggler had a girl and he regularly came
to the Frenchman's restaurant for his
meals. He gave the Frenchman tips
what to buy or sell and the latter, like a
smart fellow, followed the advice thus
given and soon became rich. I was not
slow to follow up his pointers and al
though I often did so against my own
judgment I always came out a winner.
The Standard reminds me of the
Great East India Company. That con
cern, you will remember, was the mander
of its time. It absorbed everything in
reach, and fianally became so everlasting
ly big that it fell to pieces of its own
weight. Its collapse created one of the
greatest sensations of the age. The
Standard Oil Company is a modern East
India affair. It wants the earth, and it
has nearly got it. Some may, say within
ten years from now, it will collapse, like
a soap bubble, of its own weight. It
carries the transportation companies that
run out of New York in the palm of its
hand. It owns outright the Nevf York,
New Haven & Hartford Railroad. It has
absorbed the great Richmond Terminal
system. It 'is on the best of terms with
the Vanderbilts and twists that great
corporation around its little finger. It
owns a line of steamers plying from New
York to points on the Atlantic coast. It
owns a score or two of iron tank vessels,
in which petroleum is exported in bulk
to European ports, thus saving enormous
freight charges. It owns one of the most
complete private telegraph systems in the
world, with wires extending from New
York to Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore,
Washington, Pittsburg. Cleveland, Chi
cago and all the great points in the
country. It owns and operates great pipe
lines, which transport oil from the oil
districts to New York, Baltimore, Bay
onne, N. J., Pittsburg, Cleveland, Lima,
Findlay and Chicago. It has swallowed
up the Tidewater Pipe Company, which
has lines running from the Bradford oil
field to New York and Philadelphia. ^It
owns all the the great oil refineries in the
country and has by underhanded and dis
reputable means undermined, ruined and
bought in at .a sacrifice scores .of its
rivals. It rules the oil producing fields
with a rod of iroij an.d has willfully bank
rupted hundreds of honest producers. It
iowiff ,Q&fii^t^4frearc^ the
iron oil tank
r'cars
in the courttry and
dictates to the railroads the number of.
cars outside refiners shal receive. Until
the inter? state law went into effect it
made pupets.of railroads, and ever since
it sprang into being has drawn enormous
rebates from them. It has robbed and
pillaged right and left, and has laid'bare
and made desolate the once beatutiful
and prosperous oil country. It controls
city and village councils, state legisla
tures and executives of states.
"Take up the railroads right here .in
Chicago as an illustration of the Stand
ard's ever spreading influence. Did you
know that the Standard virtually owns
and operates the Union Pacific, and that
the close and friendly relations that exist
between the Union Pacific and the Chica
go & Northwestern were brought about
by Standard gold? Well, it is so. The
Standard, through Rockefeller, is the
heaviest holder of Northwestern stock,
and the Standard frames the policy for
the two roads to operate under. There is
the Rock Island, too. The Standard
holds a very large block of its bond fives
and likewise1 knows all about the inner
movements of the road. And there is the
great Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul.
The Standard has it, too, and controlling
blocks of its stock are locked up in the
Standard's roomy vaults at 26 Broadway
The Atchison, ,Topeka & Santa Fe, yon
remember, has just purchased the Colora
do Midland and is preparing to gobble
up another road,, I see the Standard's
hand in the deaL It is virtually interest
ed because it will secure two routes into
California and thus promote its trade on
the Pacific coast. It is going into other
railroads too, and soon will become as
powerful in manipulating railroad stocks
as it has been in controlling oil and
wheat. Within a few years the Stand
ard has grown amazingly. Ten years
ago its great specialty was oil alone. Now
it is in the sim on wheat, owns thousands
of miles of railroad and is the father and
principal owner of the great lead trust,
the linseed oil trust, the cotton oil trust
and other great trusts that the public
knows little or nothing about. It was a
small stream once, but now it is a mighty
river and is fed'by numerous tributaries.
Millions now roll in where thousands
came in before, and the mighty river is
nearing its flood ttde and. soon will over
flow its bank-and go tearing on to dis
traction. When its well fortified levees
break, as break they will, the event will
be the marvel of the century.
"New York, as I remarked, is bodily
owned by the Standard. It owns the big
gas plants in New York and Brooklyn, is
the principal stockholders in the New
W, F. -T.
York Steam Heating Company, and is in-1 ing, laboring men unit farmers are speci
terested in the "L" railioads and other allv mviu to be rci'se'it.
worn ifarmrr
,.v ij •, tim i/'^fw
A Faithful LEADER In the Cause of Economy and Reform, the Defender of Truth and Justice, the Foe of Fiaud and Corruption,
CANTON, SOUTH DAKOTA, FRIDAY, DEGEMBER 5, 1890.
municipal enterprises. It is also financi
ally interested in every bank in New
York, and if you will look over the list
of directors in the banks yon will, find
that Standard names figure in every one
of them, including the reliable Chemical
Bank. It is impossible for any man or
corporation to secure a large loan in* New
York without the Standard knowing all
about it. It is like walking into the
spider's parlor. The Standard gets the
points and squeezes the Itckless individu
al or corporation until he or it is as
barren of meat as a skeleton. The Stand
ard has the run of Wall street and is solid
on the big deals. What is true about the
railroads running out of New York is
true of the monev" market. The Stand
ard feels its pulse a..d is its self-appoint
ed physician. As for newspapers, the
Standard has gone into that business too.
It owns enough stock in the New York
Tribune to dictate the policy to be pur
sued bj' the financial department, and
absolutely controls the petroleum market
report. It also owns enough stock in
Colonel Shepard's Mail and Express to
get everything it wants. Then it has its
own established organs in Toledo, Brad
ford and Oil City and has the inside ear
of scores of papers scattered about the
country, which it subsidizes with a
lavish hand.
It owns gas plants in Philadelphia* St.
Louis, Cleveland, Indianapolis and other
cities, and is the principal owner in your
Own Chicago gas trust. So far the Stand
ard has riot paid much attention to Chica
go, but is reaching out this way, and it
will soon make its influence felt in banks
and financial institutions. It has given
up its scheme for the present to pipe
natural gas into Chicago, but it is only
bluffing, and when the time comes will
jump into this city as it has into New
York. It owns miles of prolific gas terri
tory,-and has by recent purchases become
the heaviest individual oil producing as
well as transportation concern in the.
universe. Pretty soon, if not checked, it
will own the earth.,
STATE DAIEYMEN'S ASSOCIATION,'.''
There will be a meeting of those in
terestdd in the permanent organization of.
the dairy interests of South Dakota at
DeSmet, Kingsbury county on Thurs
day, December 11th, at4 o'clock p.m.
Those, interested in dairy, creamery
cheesft'^malcing
earnestly requested to be present. Coun
ty organizations are Requested to appoint
delegates. Reduced railroad- and hotel
fares have been secured. The State
Horticultural Society hold their annual
session at the same place December 10th
10 12th, and delegates can avail them
selves of attendance at both meetings.
A. H. WIIEATON,
BushkeiiI*
Tem. Pres.
Tem. Secy.
VICE PRESIDENTS.
C, H. Gil'!, Clear Lake, Deuel Co.
C. E. Pope, Estelline, Hamlin Co.
Mr McFarland, Broadland, Beadle Co.
O. A. Helvig, Canton, Lincoln Co,
Prof. Lewis Foster, Brookings, Brook
ings Co.
J:io. D. Warner, Frankfort, Spink Co.
A. L. YanOsdel, Yankton, Yonkt.cn
Co.
C. H. Thomas Wessington Springs,
Jerauld Co.
A. W. Frost, Montrose, McCook Co.
Miss Mattie A. Turner, Ree Heights,
Hand Co.
Prof. W. H. H. Phillips, DeSmet,
Kingsbury Co.
H. W. Smith. Sioux Falls, Minnehaha
Co.
A. Bliss, Aberdeen, Brown Co.
ADJOURNED,
•Th-e Stookholoers ofths Parai0j*s Leader Meet and
Adjourned to Doo. 9 th.
The following is the official report of the
proceedings of tne stockholders of this
.paper held in this city last Tuesday:
Canton, Dec. 5, 1890. The regular
annual meeting of the stockholders of the
South Dakota Farmers Publishing Com
pany was called to order by vice Presi-.
dent Jere Gehon.
On motion Ed Watdwell was chosen
secretary of the meeting.
The chair laid before the meeting the
fact that it would be necessary for the
regular quarterly meeting of the board
of directors to take pi ace before the stock
holders could meet and act upon the re
port of the board. The board meeting
would be held next Saturday, Dec. Gil,
and accordingly it would be necessary for
this meeting to adjourn until after, that
date. Thereupon a motion was made to
adjourn tt) Saturday. Dec. 20. Motion
was amended by substituting Tues
day Dec. 9, and the motion carried. The
meeting them adjourned to that date.
JEKE GEIIO^,
ED WAKDWEI.T,, Vice President.
Secry. prolem.
The Knights of Labor meeting," which
was'advertised for two weeks ag:\ v.-ilL be
held at the court- house tomorrow even-
.v^£«p^r_r«^A i-i
THE FARM, FIELD AND GARDEN,
Selected and Original Articles
Topics of Interest to
1
fS
On Various
Rural
Readers. 'k:
Practical Information, Submitted By Praoti
cat Men For the Use of Stock-
n,en
ond Farmers.
The fruit crop of this country the
-esent year is a most unsatisfactory
one, with almost complete failures in
some of the principal apple growing dis
tricts and with such diminished yields
in others that the states which can real
ize on half, third or quarter crops are
deemed fortunate. The often recurring
vicissitude^ of the apple crop are having
a discouraging effect on many.farmers,
leading them to the belief that the crop
is not as profitable on the average as
grain crops or a more diversified charac
ter of fanning. It is said that with oc
casional crops so large as to glut the
markets, followed. by off years, or per
haps an almost apple famine year like
the present a better use can be made of
the land than to encumber it with apple
trees. At the least it is thought by the
dissatisfied ones that the orchard area
of the country should not be increased
to add to unprofitable over production
on the one hand and unprofitable occu
pancy of fruitless acres on the other.
While it is true that we have off years
with their insect bitten, knotty apples
and alternate years of plenty with unre
munerative prices, it is nevertheless
worthy of careful consideration whether
improved methods of cultivation, more
care in thp selection of varieties and
more attention to the preservation and
marketing of the crop may not do very
much toward lessening the grounds for
such complaints.
In the first place, in fruitful- years a
large proportion of the crops i3 unsalable,
because of its imperfections and znany
undesirable varieties. It may also be so
far from market as to make it unprofit
able. Rarely," indeed, i3 there a year
when apples of first class quality will
not, pay handsomely for tlieir raising, if
witnin reack of good, transportation fa
cilities. There are many varieties so
excellent that when produced in their
bes£ condition they are never in exces
sive supply. Of such fruits the markets
of Europe: and our own cities are al
ways r6gdy receive large quantities.
Again,~in ha^erdp years1 the advancbiin
WljpDelr yfeld, esjS6t^^TfwcSPevbtir'
been taken ,to combat insect foes at the
proper times. As a rule orchards re
ceive so little attention that it is a won
der xiiany of them are not even more un
profitable. Instances are known of
orchards of fine varieties where the .trees
stand so closely packed together that
the sun cannot strike the ground at all
during the leafy season. In some of
these there has not been even a quarter
crop of good apples in any year of the
last four, except it might be along the
borders or on branches so high as to
make the cost of gathering them equal
to their value. An orchard growing
rampant for want-of judicious pruning
or clumps of apple trees closely huddled
together on rich soil must of necessity
be unprofitable.
Many of the unprofitable orchards are
so unwisely located that an experienced
orchardist might confidently predict
their future before they came into bear
ing. Low lying, rich alluvial lands can
without doubt be put to better use than
raising apples where good keeping* quali
ties are to determin® their value. Un
less a farmer has spots of high or rolling
land of only medium fertility for grain
crops orcharding beyond enough for his
own or immediate neighborhood wants
is not advised. Furthermore, there is
the same necessity for rotation in or
charding as with grain crops. Only in
those cases wherei the nature of the loca
tion makes it an exceptionally favorable
one should an old orchard be succeeded
by a new one on the same ground, says
the agricultural editor of The New York
World, authority for the foregoing.
Dressing and Shipping Poultxy.
Following are the directions given by
one of the leading commission firms of
New York to their patrons:
To insure the highest -market prices
for poultry the birds must be well fat
tened crops empty when killed nicely
and well picked and skin not broken or
torn thoroughly cooled, bat not frozen.
Pack in boxes with a layer of clean
straw (rye straw is the best) between the
layers of poultry in the same posture in
which the birds roost. Mark the box.
specifying what it contains. Send invoice
by mail. Ship to reach destination about
the middle of the week—never to arrive
as late as Saturday.
In New York city there is an ordi
nance that specifies that neither chick
ens nor turkeys shall be offered for sale
unless the crops are free from food.
"While poultry for New York and some
other markets is seldom if ever drawn,
that designed for Boston and other New
England markets is relieved of the en
trails when killed. It is important,
therefore, that producers should learn
previous to shipping just what their spe-
7
li
aepaxate packages, in sending-potfltry
for the holidays endeavor to have your
shipments reach their destination three
or four days in advance. Bear in mind
that the big demand for fine, large tur
keys comes at Thanksgiving, andrthat
prime geese catch the fancy prices at
Christmas. Soon after January prices
go up again. Capons meet a-gtiod mar
ket from the 1st of February on until
about Easter.
give drink to their babes and mis with
their food. Wax or bee tallow is not
gathered like the other material, but se
creted under little
scales underneath the
abdomen. When waxmaking they eat
honey and hitng together in clusters
while the operation proceeds, causing
their owners often to judge them wrong
fully, thinking them idle.
The queen begins to. lay as soon as
pollen can be secured from blossoms,
which is mixed with honey and water
partly diyssted by the bee and laid in
the cells with the eggs to feed the lame
as soon as hatched. In about three days
the lair® hatch a tiny worm without
legs. They are fed until about nina or
ten days, when they nearly fill the cell
and refuse to eat and are sealed over.
Around themselves they spin a silken
sack changed from larvae into a perfect
bee, coming forth in about twenty days
from hatching, and four days later go
forth as master workmen, wearing out
their lives during the busy season in
about six weeks. Queen cells can readi
ly be distinguished from other cells,
much resembling an acorn cup, and are
placed in the comb vertically instead of
horizontally in the outer edge. Young
queen bees are fed with royal food and
come to perfection a few days sooner
than the others.—Wisconsin Farmers'
Institute.
An Interesting Potato Experiment.
A World correspondent writes as fol
lows: This season I have had some of
the largest and finest potatoes that
ever saw grown in New Jersey, and the
strange part of it is that I did not plant
them. Last winter the weather was so
mild that the potatoes scattered in the
ground from last year's planting—such
as were too small to pick up wh A the
crop was gathered—came up last spring
and appeared so thrifty that I determined
to try an experiment. I put wood ashes
on them and plowed and hoed thnm, and
was well paid for my trouble. The vines
continued to grow as late as Aug. 16,
while the vines and potatoes planted in
the regular way were dead and the pota
toes not nearly so large.
Loss in Manure.
It is new quite generally admitted
that the best way of saving manure and
preventing its waste is to haul it out as
soon as convenient and spread it on the
ground where it is most wanted. When
left for months in the barn yard there is
always loss from leaching and soaking
into the ground, where it does no goocl
If hauled out and spread the soil absorbs
and holds all that is leached out by the
rains. In this way the loss is reduced!
tp a minimum, except that it may be On
grounds so sandy or'gravelly that there
is nothing to retain fertility near its sur-.
cial market requires. This information face, or so steep that surface wasMn'
may be obtained by writing
direct to
one's carries it off.
commission merchant for instructions. I
Many firms have printed circulars con-! MaiinsV5neeai-.^f
taining directions, which are sent out on
Vinegar making is easy enough if
ble, ship
chickens, ducke, turkeys, etc., in! *«=el warm place, filled up to the
^7 Ptmg. and refilling as needed.
'0&'-
J, iMtnfsi
fBfr gp' IP?
fv.'-f!
The wholesale grocers appear to bethe
only ones to favor the ordinance to-sell
produce by weight. Truck farmerstand
retail fruit dealers aiid grocers general
ly express themselves against the move
ment.
THE HONEY BEE AT HOME.
All About the Internal Affairs of A Bee
Hive—Workers, Drones and Qneen.
An average colony contains 80,000 in
habitants, composed of a queen or mother
bee, several hundred drones or males and
workers of undeveloped gender, the mass
of the colony. The queen, the only per
fect female, seems to have allotted to her
aa sole duty the depositing of eggs in
brood cells, prepared -by the workers.
From one hundred to nearly if not quite
two thousand are deposited daily, ac
cording to the season and weather. She
can readily be distinguished from the
others by her size, which is much larger.
She possesses a sting, but never uses it
except in combat with a rival queen:
never goes abroad after her bridal tour,
except with a colony swarming, and re
tains her vigor about three years. The
drones, or males, are bees of leisure, and
differ much in appearance from the
qneen. They are less active, have no
sting, no proboscis for gathering honey,
no basket for pollen, no sacks for the
secretion of wax which the workers have.
In the latter part of summer they are
usually looked upon as unnecessary and
burdensome members of society and are
put to death.
The worlrcra are the sole laborers,
bringing into the hive four substances,
out of which are produced all things
necessary for the construction of, the
hive, raising the young, etc. First-r
Honey nectar'of flowers extracted by a
kind of proboscis, stored in honey sacks
and carried to hive. This, honey has to
be prepared by mixing with it formic
acid secreted in the bees' jaws and mixed
with honey by vigorous stirring. Sec
ond—Pollen dust is used to feed ypung
bees and cap over their cells, as it is por
ous and very much cheaper. Third—
Propolis or bee glue obtained from the
willow, poplar and qther trees, used to
$nd creyices and as stays
you
written apribcatton."
WheneveTpractira" I Jlave S00*1 cider and pattetfee. Keep the, toe bees live and work. A hive of bees
1 1
fc mj ^'1
'*Hsfe'
$1.00 PER ANNUM.
done worELngctraw off into an, old vine
gar barrel, filling it not over two-thirds
full. Keep the bung hole covered with
apiece of screen to exclude vmegar flies.
If kept in a warm place it may make
good strong! vinegar in less than six
months' time. In an ordinary cellar it
wp take longet..
What Others Say.
From time to 'time, says The Rural
New Yorker, we have noted the fact
that the male .asparagus plant is thriftier
than the female plant, giving larger
shoots and lairger and' more vigorous
plants. This is .natural enough, since
the males are not dwarfed by seed bear
ing. Mr. W. J. Green, of the Ohio sta
tion, is investigating the subject. He
finds that the sterile plants are not only
the more vigorous but give the earlier
cuttings.
G. M. Doolittle says in American
Sural Home: "if I wish to keep comb
honey so late in the fall that the tem
perature of the room falls below 85
degs.
I place an oil stove in it, and by regulat
ing the flame to suit the circumstances a
temperature of 90 to 95 degs. is main
tained. In that way the honey is in per
fect condition when sent to market, in
which shape it will stand much abuse
before it will begin to ooze out of. the
Cells."
TAKE CARE OF THE MANURE.
The Importance of Good Feeding and'
Bedding for Stock in Staking Olannre.
In a general way farmers understand
that a considerable part of the value of
what they feed to stock goes to the
manure heap, but neither the importance
of judicious feeding nor good bedding,,
nor the means are appreciated as they
should be. It requires study to learn
how to make valuable manure profitable.
High feeding will not always do it,
neither will keepihg a large amount of
stock do it. In making manure profit
able, keep no more stock on the farm
than is needed to work it, and only young
stock that yearly increase in value. These
can be fed such food as will supply all
their needs and return to the soil a
manure richer in plant food than the
crop just taken off. The bedding of this
Stock is more essential in making rich
manure as well as increasing the bulk
than many might suppose, for the liquid
is the most valuable. Not only is it
richer in plant food, but the plant food
is more available for crops. But not
withstanding this very few provide any
bedding at ail while still fewer use the
best.
A German authority found that'1,000
pounds of hedding, absorbed the^•pilaw?
good Btraw-. 3.00D
pounds sawdust. 8,571: lei& raHngs,
4,330 and peat, 4,433. From this it
seems that leaves are next to the most
valuable material that can be had for
bedding. Not only do leaves make a
better bedding, but they have a great
manurial value in themselves. Nearly
every farm has
some woodland attached,
and in that woodland annually goes to
waste forest leaves that could and should
be utilized as fertilizing matter and for
bedding. The off days and parts of days'
when there is riot much else to do can
be profitably employed in gathering up
the leaves and hauling them to the barn,
where they can be used as bedding for
the horses, cattle and pigs, as well as
spread thickly in the barnyard to absorb
the liquid portions of the manure which
would otherwise be wasted by evapora
tion and drama' o. This bedding should
be. removed to good place arid formed
into a compost and othor fresh, clean,
bedding put in its place.—So ihem Cul
tivator.
Selling Strawv
"Whenafanner sells hi3 to
be earned off the farm/ jg selling fer
tility and robbing tb6.ian,i. when rye
straw will sell for as much or more per
ton tnan hay tho -inducement to let it go
will generally prevail, but something
sufficient to compensate for the loss
should bo-substituted. Wheat straw is
better for beddrng animals than for feed
ing to them, although the dry cows and
young stock will be benefited by having
access to the straw stacks through the
winter. Whatever they eat will be
saved for the farm in tho manure, and
while tho nourishment they will get
from it will not be large it will make a
considerable saving in hay and fodder.
The same care should be exercised in
getting all that is valuable out of the
straw as from tho other farm products,
and where straw is sold for bedding to
stables in the town the farmer should
stipulate that he is to be paid in manure.
Where so much is yearly taken oS the
farm that does not return in any form
care should be taken to utilize every
thing that will retain fertility on it.
Bedding the animals well through the
wintef l:cep3 them clean and comfort
able, and they will thrive better on less
food than they will on bare or filthy
floors. Besides, it makes the best use for
most of. tho straw.
A Colony of Dees.
Beginners are often perplexed by the
promiscuous uso of the terms "swarm of
bees," "hive of bees" and "colony of
bees." A swarm properly raosns the
bees that leave tho hive in natnval divi
sion, tho bees that collect in a cluster
will be
gin anew their labors constructing
combs rearing broods in a word, thus
establishing a new colony. Tho term
colony" is used to signify
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-0Iie hive. A hive is the box in which
is often alluded to as a swarm or a
When colony.
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