Newspaper Page Text
VOL NUMBER 26.
'. ALLIANCE CONGRESS. I The national Farmers Alliance Hold Tin Hundred Delegates Attend To Enplaslze Former Pleas for Public Polk Re-elected President and EMTHD8IASTIC 'HAYSEEDS." IGJJI OCALA, Fla. Dec. 6.—Special Correspond ence: The annual meeting of the Nation al Farmers Alliance and Industrial Union of America, assembled in this city last Tuesday and was called to order by Presi dent Polk in the afternoon. The conven tion has about 300delegates representing *11 but a few states of the union and at tills writing is pronounced the most en thusiastic and most interesting annual meeting ever held. In addition to the regular delegation from each state Alli ance, there are large numbers of other members of the order present and tit is estimated that about 1500, Alliance men loastant attendance at the conven ». EMgg, anjj^siill larger number keep going ^nd do*J©g from day to day, remaining only as long as their slender purses will permit of the extravagant hotel rates that are exacted from them as a tribute, IBESIDENT POLK'S MESSAGE. Much of the time Tuesday afternoon •was taken up in reading the, annual mesr pageof President Polk, which is *ery d&- work. Reviewing the present situa tion of (the country, President Polks says: The jgseat and universal depression, under w,hich the agricultural interests of this United States are sufferings is, in view of our surroundings and conditions, an anomaly to the student of industrial progress. No country or people in all history have been so favored and blest with opportunity and favorable condi tions for the successful and profitable prosecution of agricultural industries. With seals, climate and seasons admir ably adapted to :the successful growth of ailihe^reat stsgle crops, demanded by borj^^^ee—with a people justly noted industry, frugality, and pro gresSKcnterprise, and characterized by an aggressiveness in material develop ment which has HQ parallel in history— with transportation facilities, inland and upon the seas, equal to the productive power of the country—witha development in railroad and manufacturing enterprise, and in .the growth of villages, towns and cities—-marvelous an its expansion—with the rapid, accumulation of collossal for tunes iii the hands *f the few—why, in stead of sthe happy song of peace, eon tentmeirt and plenty, which should bless the homes of the farmer and laborer of the country, should we hear tbe constant and universal wail, of "hard times?" To solve this significant and vital question in the light of equity, jus tic and truth, is the underlying principle, the holy mis sion and inspiration of this, the greatest industrial revolution of the ages. This great organization, whose jurisdiction now extends to thirty-five (35) states of this union, and whose membership and CO-workers number millions of American freemen—united by a common interest— conlruuted by common dangers—impell ed by a common purpose—devoted to a C^iPijB^ountry—standing for a common "THJutffeancl guided by the dictates of an ejBte^patriotism will, in the exercises of conservative political action, strive to /'equal rights for all and special privil eges to none," and secure indeed "a gov ernment of the people, for the people and by the people." ggjgj, J|| No patriot can view, but with feelings of gravest apprehension and alarm, the growing tendency, under the fostering care of our politico-economic systems, to the centralization of money power and the upbuilding of monopolies. Central ized capital, allied to irresonpsible cor porate power, stands today as a formida ble menace to individual rights and popu lar government. This power is felt in our halls of legislation, state and national— in our popular conventions—at the ballot box, and in our temples of justice, and it Mfi s^m tAk •vr i. mf mf ,/ ••••ft-:-""- WP: :'r.' ":f: c'v^v., arrogantly lays its unholy hand on that greatest and most powerful lever of modern thought and action the public press of our country. PROGRESS OF ORGANIZATION. Since our last annual meeting in the city of. St. Louis, the states of Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Cali fornia, Colorado, West Virginia, Penn sylvania, and Oklahoma htive been added to the roll-call of our Supreme Council Organizers are at work in the states of Washington, OregoH, Ohio, New York, New Jersey and Arizona. And in all these states the fields are ripe but the laborers are few. I cannot too earnestly urge the importance of devising means and for the prompt occupation of these, and other states, with competent and active organizers. During the year I ha^e visited officially twenty-four (24) and every where I found a zealous interest and harmonious spirit among the brotherhood. Indeed the order was in finer spirit or more united- in purpose than it is today. In this connection the president urges the question of lecturers which he regards as the most essential to the upbuilding of the order. He recommends the policy of employing state lectuc&s at fixed sala ries to be paid out of the national or state treasuries, and in sufficient numbers to canvass the whole field thoroughly dur-. itig the next^year. A TUB PRESS '•By far the most potent and influential power underlying this great revolution of industrial and economic thought," says the president "has been the reform press. At the earliest practicable moment the supreme council should devise a plaq which will give to Vevery family in the order a thoroughly reliable paper devoted to the interests of the Alliafcce. SPt§=:! REFORM LEGISLATION President Polk further recommended the organization of a national legislative council whose duty it shail be to have charge of :such legislation as may be of interest to agriculture. His Idea is to have this council composed of the nation al president ot the Alliance as ex-officio chairman, and of the presidents of all the states represented in the supreme council and that the legislative council should hold its regular annual meeting at a designated time and place,, for delibera tion and to transmit to the membership oi^r in^6B^t^rttn~meMum'br bills such as they may-decide should be enacted into law. N4A CITIZEN OS DOLLAR. The message dwells .with great stress upon the importance of the finances of the county saying let us not be diverted through the machinations of political in trigue, from the great and paramount issue now before the American people.— Financial Btform. Let this be the slogan and the rallying cry 8f She people until relief shall come. We cannot hope for relief if we accept the finanoial policy adopied'and practiced for a quarter of a century, by the two .great political parties of the country. Never in the political history of the countay was there such universal interest amdlig the people and such urgent de mand on the political parties for financial reform, arj characterized the recent cam paign, and yet the great effort of the leadars of each of these parties and df the partisan press, was to give overshadow ing prominence to questions and issues, partaking largely of a partisan character to the exclusion of the one great .vital, living issue.— financial reform. Indeed, the evasion *f this great issue has been prominently characteristic of the two great parties for the past twenty-ilve years. The great absorbing question, let ane repeat, before the American people, is not whether the democratic or the re publican party, with their evident sub serviency to the will of corporate and money power, shall be in the ascendency, but the question is, whether under our republican form of government, the citizen or the dollar shall be the soverign. A system of finance which recognizes and secures to every citizen of this coun try ati tiquit&biti, fair aiid just ri^lit to share its benefits and which will furnish volume of circulating medium, ad- equate to the legitimate demands of the country, at a low rate of interest, is the greatest and most urgent need of the times. With a well worded tribute to the non Sectional proclivities of the Farmers Alli ance, the message closes with a beautiful and touching appeal to the)* valor and patriotism of the membership of the order. SECTIONAL LINES BROKEN"! 5 After the reading of the message Presi dent Loucks of the South Dakota Alli ance made a short but eloquent address touching the subject of sectionalism in the message. Your correspondent has seen Mr. Loucks at his best in' many a campaign speech but never has he heard the invincible Dakotan speak with greater fervor. An old confederate soldier from Indiana moved that all exsoldiers in the hall who indorsed this sentiment express ed by Mr. Loucks arise to their feet, and 75 or 100 arose amid great enthusiasm.— Continued, next week. •-.. v.- .. yi.l A Faithful LEADER In the Cause of Ec and Reform, the Defender of Truth and Justice, the Foe of Fiaud and Corruption. BEAUMONT'S POWERFUL SPEECH, of the Address Delivered by Ralph Beaumont at Canton, Oeto 18, Principles of the Knights'-of Labor iber, with all that labor organizations have been charg ed with, they have yet to be accused of being mean enough to sell the home from the family. Yet society does that an nually. "But," they say, "you fellows are awful mean you will not let any one work with you who doesn't belong to your union." Are we the only fellows that will not allow anyone to work, that does not belong to the union? Let us see. There are the lawyers, do they npt have1 a union? I think they do. Now, let me tell you, I can go into the workshop of a lawyer—the county courthouse—of my county, and I can plead a better case than nine out of ten lawyers in my county. And I understand more common law t^an nine out of ten of thtac fellows. Be cause common law is based on common sense, and there is only one in ten of those that are possessed of any. At least they never use it in their business, if they have any. Let any two of you, men get into a dispute about your line fence, and go to a lawyer at your county seat and ask him to give you. a little common sense .advice to straighten you" out. Will he give it to you? Nota bit of it. -What will he do?' He will go to his library and pull down a book and tell you what a judge said two hundred years ago on a case like that, and charge you five dol lars apiece for it! Now let us take a case for illustration. Supposing my neighbor Johnson gets into a dispute with his neighbor Jones. He comes to me and says, Mr. Beaumont, I have got into a disagreement with* my neighbor Jones about apiece of land and we propose to settle it in the county court. I would like you to plead my case for me. I re plied all right I will do it. The day of the trial comes. Mr. Jones' lawyer states hiscase and sits down. I then address the court, saying, Your Honor, I am here in the interest of m^ ^Uen^ Jlr. ^Johnson., The judge says, what lis your name. I reply, my name is Ralph Beauihont. He: Have you got a union card? I reply, I do not know what you'mean, sir. Do you belong to the lawyer's union, the bar of this county? I reply, no, sir.1 He then points to the court constable, saying, remove that man from the roont he a scab. A lawyer has a law incorporating his unions, and -when a non-union man goes to work in his shop he puts him out by law. But in times past when we un ion men have undertaken to keep non union men out of our jobs, because they would not pay taxes to keep up the wages, it has been customary for the governor to call out the military, and hold him there at the point of the bayonet. Th^jks to organized labor, that day has gone by. No governor in America dares to do that today. He knows that he could not get elected again if he did. That is the dif ference, my friends, between having your union incorporated under the law and not having in incorporated. I once asked tone of these limbs of the law how it wastfchat. he had his unions incorporat ed, while he denied .the right to have mine receive the same benefits. He re plied that it was necessary in order to have good lawyers. I informed him if that wae the reason .the law was made it was tin\e it was repealed, as it was a mis erable failure in that respect that if there were as many botches in the shoe trade as there are in the law I would disown my trade. The next, Article VII, reads as follows: "The enactment of laws to compel cor porations to pay their employes weekly in lawful money, for the labor of the pre ceding week, and giving mechanics and laborers a first lien upon the product of their labor to tire extent of their full wages." In order to explain this section, I will have to relate an incident that came un der my observation some few years age. In 18761 resided in New Jersey, and within eighteen miles of where I resided there were that number of glass manu facturing establishments. The employes in these factories only received their pay once a year. That was when their fires went out for the two hot months in the year—July and August. Now, my friends, how do you suppose the people managed to live during the year. Well, let me show you. If one of these men wanted to purchase an article, he went to the company's office, and the book keeper gave him a printed due bill with the figures five, ten, and so on up to fifty, making five hundred in all, and he then took this due bill to the company store. And if he bought a five cent cigar be handed the due bill to the clerk who took it and pulled a punch out of his pocket 4 1 -r & -isaa 1 •^v -~t?0 ',' VA:::^.fv--?^':'. -V^ ''-I' 3' CANTON, SOUTH DAKOfA, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1890. 91.00 PER ANNUM. and punched out five cents, and if it was ten, he punched out teu, and wheii he had punched out the .whole thing, he had punched thapoor fellow out of five dol- Nowv jfellow citizens, west of the Alleghany mountains there existed that time aa|ther lot of glass manufac turers who paid their help in cash: every Saturday n&ht. These inanufactuiers found thatf the Jersey manufacturers into the Western and underselling them in the How do yotKsuppose, my friends, were able tojclo this? Well, now, let me show you h( they were able to do this. These manuFacturers were selling glass at cost with iut making'any profit. Now you will n.ai irally ask me how they were able to do tl is? Let me illustrate: There is a firm em loying three hundred hands, whose w,ige| were' $100,000 pe annum. Under thiSjj ue bill system,, every dollar had to be taken out in the company store which charged them 30 per cent more than they c|uld have bought the same amount anjrjflrhere for cash, and ten per cent legitimate profit outside of that, making 830 000 per annum profit on the store, so that they did not have to make anything biji glass. We desire a law com pelling corporations to pay their help every Saturday, in lawful money, so that the help can buy the cheapest. Now in Pittsburg and the west there was another lot of glass manufacturers. They belonged to the American Glass Manufacturer's association. Their help belonged to local assembly 300 of the Knights of fLabor, that composed every window glass blower in America. All at once the western manufacturers notified the members of our organization that one of two things had to take place: We either had to come down twenty percent, in our wages or that Jersey workmen come up twenty per cent on his—other wise .the western manufacturers would loose the market as the Jerseyman was underselling them in.the market. After they told US that, what do you suppose we did,? I,want to' tell your workmen who do not belong to unions, what we' did. We/went down into our pockets and pulled out the half dollars and twenty five cent pieces and filled up the treasury. Then we sent a lot of Labor agitators down to jersey. You have seen what the great daii^ papers .have been saying to you aboujtjthese labor agitators for the fiMt have been,gj ing him out to you as a' man having horns, with a torch in one hand and re ceipts for. making dynamite in eVery pocket that he had. They, have been telling you that he was a dangerous fel low. Now I am one of those fellows Don't I look dangerous? Weil desire to say right here for- the benefit of Of editors and what small ones there may be in this vicinity, that it is not what we have got itf our hands and pockets that they are afraid of, but it is what we have got in our heads, such things as I am telling you today. Well we went down and talked with those Jersey workmen and told them that they were being robbed out of twenty per cent, of their wages. Why, my friend there are lots of people who: are being robbed today and they don't know it and, the worst thing about it is, that a major ity of that class get mad if you tell them of it. But we finally got them to see it. When they inquired what they were to do about it, we replied: "Form an organiza tion, just as your employers have done. Join our orders, we will- help you along. Then they ..all joined our organization and we used to meet with them in halls for two or three hours one night in the week, and they soon saw how badly they were robbed. An$ then they got mad, and said they would.not be robbed any more, and they all marched down to the com pany's office together one Saturday night, When the book-keeper saw them coming he made out one of the due bills and handed it to the first fellow that come along. When the fellow said he did not want that, the book-keeper asked him what he wanted, and he replied that he wanted his pay The book-keeper informed him that they did not pay only once a year in that factory. Then the workman said that that was played out. "Why," said the book-keeper, are you not going work on these conditions?" The man replied that he was not. The book keeper retorted that he could not work at that establishment then. "Well," repli ed the man, "then we won't work." Then all the capitalistic press of New York and Philadelphia put it out in big display type that "All those Jcioey glass workers were on a strike." Why, capi tal had been striking them out of twenty cents on the dollar for ten years before that, and there some papers had never found it out. Welf, do you suppose that they paid us every Saturday night? Oh no! They sent over to Belgium and brought a ship load of Belgian glass workers to work in our places. What do you suppose we did? Why, we went down into our pockets and pulled out the half, dollars and quarters and filled *up the treasury again. Then we sent an other lot of agitators down to Jersey. They were not fellows like we, this time. They were fellows that could talk Dutch. Those were Dutchman that they had brought over. Every night these agita tors would talk Dutch to a few of them, have their passage paid back to Germany out of those half dollars and twenty-five cent pieces. Finally we got them all back to Germany, and tne bosses could not get anyone else to work in their mills. They then put us back and paid us every Saturday night, and now they have got used to it they do. not mind anything about it.—To be Continued. •gfcr. FARM. FIELD Selected and Original Article on Topics of intent tieai Men for the Vse cf, and Farmers, .JABS' EXPERIENCE. ,S Seven years' experience with silosat the Michigan Agricultural station leads to the following conclusions: The silo should be built of lumber, and located as near the feeding place as possible, and on the same level. A-silo 22 feet deep, 10 feet wide, and 14 feet long, will be sufficient for six months' feeding of ten cows weighing 1,000 pounds easy, which will consume 600 pounds of ensilage daily.* For the silo the corn should not be harvested until w&l matured. A great deal of the feeding value has been lost in the past by cutting while too green and succulent. Silage corn should never be fed alone to obtain the best result, nor in too large proportion when combined with other fodder. Silage and cover hay combined make a most ex cellent,. mixture for coarse fodder. These, with bran,: shorts, corn meal, etc., in proper proportions, make the most econ omical food for young cattle and for mak ing milk.and beef. 'If... BAima HAT? Some of the states have that hay shall not be baled before Septem ber, and with others the rule is generally observed. Formerly less care was taken, and the interiors of the bales were spoileQ and the market injured. Country Genile man says on the. subject. The fitness of hay the for baling depends strictly on the degree of dryness rather thau on the time. In hot and dry weather hay will dry more in a few days than in a much longer when the weather is cool and damp. For baling, hay requires more thorough dry ing than when thrown loosely into the bay. When made solid by baling, the damp vapor cannot escape from the inter ior, and it is therefore necessary to give sufficient time for the dampness to pass off. This period would vary with seasons and with the ripeness of the crop, but as a general rule, to be observed in all sea sons, five or six weeks are usually allowed. In Some soils we, find a large quantity of organic acids, to the great injury of land. Such soils are termed 'sour," and the presence of the acids can be told by the character of vegetation, which is al ways harsh and of little value. The beneficial action of lime in such cases arises from the lime combination with the acids, which makes the land sou£, and thus neutralizing them, turns them into a condition that is harmless. The combination' forms carbonate of, lime, or some other salt of lime. The effect of lime upon inorganic mat ter, says Ohio Farmer, must not be for gotten, for these are all important.. In very many cases it liberate potash ana soda from a dormant state and renders them available to plants. The most im portant action in this respect is the for mation of double silicate of alumina and soda exists in soil, and lime is added, the silicate gives up the soda and takes up the lime, forming silicate of alumina and lime. If potash be added the lime given up and the potash taken up, form ing silicate of alumina and potash. If ammonia comes in contact with, it the potash is cast aside for the ammonia, forming silicate of alumina and ammo nia. As clay consists very largely of silicate of alumina, the action of lime on clay soils is seen to be important. Applied to clay lands, lime disintegrates, or breaks up the hard, tenacious, "pack" charac ter, and makes their tillage much easier when caustic or quicklime is applied to sandy soils it makes them more adhesive, more compact and more retentive of mois ture. Lime does not exhaust soils, ex cept as it prepares unavailable plant food so that crops can take it up. It is the crop that exhausts, not the lime. The latter really adds to the soil, as lime is plant food itself. An English authority sums up the ad vantages of lime as follows: It encour ages decomposition of organic matter, neutralize injurious acids, liberates al kaline matters, promotes the formation of double silicates, favors the production of nitrate of-potash, contributes food es sential for the perfect growth of plants, and improves the physical character of the soil and promotes healthy growth. MANURES FOB WHEAT. In an experiment made by the North Carolina experiment station a series of plots was laid out in such manner that one end of each plot should be on land on which cow peas had been previously plowed under. The whole was sown to wheat, and kaint, acid phosphate and cot ton seed meal were applied to the several plots, singly and combination, two il jSfe Sit plots being left without any fertilizer. The result was that on the land which had had no fertilizer the highest increase of any of the fertilized over' theunfertiliz was four bushels per acre (for cotton seed meal,) while on the green manured land the increase from the vines was from six bushels at the least to fifteen bushels per acre, averaging PUMPKINS AMD KEL0 ••. fi'v- •v'. .'.'-v-•.••-•.'' •'•••. v,v .. r'i ,k*u Trtrrta patiptimtaa MMAS fasten and are able to resist the winter -m frosts. The great area of winter killed -wheat f! might, to a very large extent^ be prevent ed by careful plowing. The prevention for loss in condition fs good seed sown early. Good seed means a good stand. Sown early it means A good sod, a wall S tillered crop, and it means further a frost resisting crop, ^fhese are the main' factors in securing a good yielding crop at harvest time. Light, poor seed means: a defective stand, a weak plant, easily frosted, and light, poor heads upon that/ which survives.—Southern Planter. TEASES AND OCCUPATION. The Youth's Companion for give an instructive and helpf-jj seiies of£'1 papers, each-of which ^scrlbes character of. some leading trade for boysv or occupation for Girl^ Thpy give formation as to ^he Apprenticeship re-' quired to learn each, the wages expected, the qualities'heeded in order to enter, and the prospects of success. To new sub scribers who send $1.75 at once the paper will be sent "free to Jan. 1, 1891, and for a full year from that date. Address, the Youth's Companion, Boston Mass. FABM NOTES. To have as uccession ot peas and corn' through the fintire season, plant- of each wm 1'^' that Michigan Farmer tells of tests have been made to ascertain the truth of the belief that new and fresh seeds' of squashes,, pumpkins and melons produce plants which run to vines more than those from old seeds. About 450 were grown, all of which were ^accurately measured and the fruit accurately weigh ed. There was no evidence whatever that older seeds give shorter and more productive vines. In fact there was no uniformity of behavior between seeds of like ages. All the variation was evident ly due to heredity of the individual seeds, or to other conditions than the age of the OP THE WHEAT 0E0P.' A careful examination of the report of the harvesting of the winter wheat crop throughout the whole country leads to the conclusion that there will be a heavy de- ji ficit in the crop. Not only will this be jj| caused by a reduced area, but by a heavy reduction in condition. This reduction in area and condition is coincident in many places with splendid crops greatly above the average in condition. Inquiry into the matter shows that to a very great extent the reduction is to be .attributed to poor preparation of the land and to the sowing of bad seed. Now both these •causes are preventible and should be corrected. To secure a good crop of wheat it is necessary that the land, in good heart, should be selected. A clover sod is the seed bed. This should be plowed down early, and it should be done carefully so as to obtain a firm seed bed. Too often the plowing is carelessly done. The sod is not thoroughly turned and laid com pactly. The result is an uneven bed, partly light and partly solid. No subse quent harrowing or working can correct these defects. The light soil holds the water and freezes quickly and the seed is thrown out. Wheats perhaps, more than anyothercereal, requires a firm seed HIS rfJajjU ,.-f fe- 1 t" f9 th(?" Afj 1 at intervals of eight or ten days. A lit tie care in t'nis way will add much to the comfort of living on the farm. We farm too much land for the amount of crops we raise, and we raise too large crops for the price we get for them. Here's the great trouble with farming.' Overproduction is swamping us. Don't let that costly machinery stand' out in the weather. It would be just as sensible to throw a few bushels oi coru or oats into the mud every month or to occassionally go out and shoot -a pig, just to save the trouble of feeding it. Treat your hired man as a man, and not as a slave, and you will find it will pay. Ill nature and gruffness are not in dications of wisdom or superiority, and no employe who has sense enough to be useful ever understands them as such. See if there is not some crop you can raise and sell to better advantage than 1 the common ones. By doing this you re duce the surplus production by so much and at the same time are making more money for yourself. Fertilize your fields a little with brains. AGRICULTURAL NOTES- Grapevines planted in the chicken runs and trained to the fence afford shade to poultry and also fruit to the farmer in autumn. The vines should be trained high up.—American Agriculturist. 1 1 li I