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DAIRY AND POULTRY.
INTERESTING CHAPTERS FOR OUR RURAL READERS. Warn Succ#Mfol Farmers Operate Thi» Drpari ninnt of the Farm—A Few Hint* »n to ttie Care of Live Stock and I'ouUry. Cm of Dairy Vtfiiiili. AKERS of first class butter and cheese and the best dairy farmers and milk dealers in general attach the greatest import ance to cleanliness. They know hat it is as necessary to have clean utensils in the dairy as it fs to have clean milk, and that the largest profits are secured only when cleanliness is secured in every part of the work. Milk may be produced In sanitary stable by well-fed and well cared-for cows and drawn in a clean ly manner. These conditions contrib ute much toward superior dairy prod ucts but the good effects of such care are wasted unless it be extended to the utensils. When this fact is fully ap preciated and proper attention is given to cleaning and caring for utensils, the quality of dairy products will be im proved. A butter-maker whose prod uct was described as of very superior flavor, being asked the secret process by which such fine butter was made, replied: "I have no secret beyond this: I am always very particular about beeping thoroughly clean every vessel with which the milk and cream come in contact." This is one of the chief things that enable one milk dealer to charge 10 cents a quart while others sell for 6 cents, or one butter-maker to get o0 cents per pound for his butter when others receive but 20 cents. It is now well known that changes of milk are dependent upon bacteria, and the rapidity with which these germs multiply in milk has been frequently referred to in publications of this de partment. Bacteria are especially num erous in and around a dairy, and they get into the milk in many ways. The [difficulty is to keep them out this re quires the milk to be handled in such way that no contamination can take place. Theoretically this is easy, but practically it is impossible. It is pos sible, however, to greatly reduce the .sources of contamination, one of the most common and inexcusable of which is improperly cleaned milk ves sels. Thousands of bacteria may be concealed in a crevice so small that it can hardly be seen, and if these get into the milk they may increase more than one thousandfold in twenty-four liours. A little milk left under the rim or about the "ears" of a tin pail har bors a much larger number of germs, and their deleterious effect is corre spondingly great. Improperly cleaned •churns contain myriads of bacteria, which impart a peculiarly disagreeable flavor to each churning. Cheese-mak ers are frequently troubled by tainted milk or floating curds, and a poor qual ity of cheese results. These conditions are often accounted for by carelessness 111 cleaning utensils either on the farm or in the factory. Many city milk deal ers have had like experiences. Their trouble is partly due to failure in cool ing milk sufficiently to retard bacterial growth, but it is also partly due to not thoroughly cleaning the pails and cans. Some milk buyers insert special clauses in their contracts with farmers relating to cleanliness. The losses from the neglect of the matter of clean ing utensils exceed those caused by the addition of water or the abstraction of cream. Dirt in a solid or sedimentary form can easily be removed from milk, but its bad effect cannot. Special strainers, filterers or the separator will make milk appear clean, but none of them can take out bacteria or the taints caused by them. A good water supply is essential to cleanliness. Clear spring water or that from a deep well $s usually the best. Water from cis terns. shallow wells or streams is sometimes satisfactory, but if it is lia ble to be contaminated by surface drainage it is not safe. It may con tain innumerable forms of vegetable life and bacteria, which are capable of causing peculiar behavior in the dairy. There is also a chance of some disease producing germs gaining entrance to the dairy through impure water. Hatching Duck* by Incabators. To those who intend to use incuba tors for hatching ducklings, I wish to give a few words of warning, says a writer in American Stock Keeper. There are only a few kinds of incu bators suitable for duck eggs. The shell of the duck egg is so porous that any incubator with a current of air passing through it is certain to use up the moisture within the egg, so es sential at the latter part of the hatch. While it is necessary to have a little air, too much is worse than none. An Incubator that maintains an even de gree of heat and has arrangements for plenty of moisture at hatching is the only kind to rely on. After the incu bator has run a few days and main tains an even degree of heat of 100 'degrees at the bottom of the egg tray, 1 put tn the eggs at sundown, as it takes all night to warm them up. The next day I kept watch of its work ing, not forgetting that 100 degrees at the bottom of the tray is equal to 102 at the top of the eggs. I test the eggs on the fifth day, and remove all clear eggs, and also those whose germs have started and cease to grow. It is well to make another test on the eleventh day, and remove all eggs that have be come addled. On the sixth day you can see the heart beat and the spread ing of the veins through the egg. You will find in some a clot of blood and a circular vein, nearly the size of the egg, have been formed. These are of no account, and should be removed. I use a cheap tester- -simply a board, a foot square, placed In front of a lan tern, a hole opposite the flame, about one-half the size of the egg. The light can be increased in power by placing a reflector at the back of the lantern. A correct thermometer is of the ut most importance. No matter how gcod the incubator, if the thermometer is poor you will not be successful. Get the kind made for incubators, which are so constructed that the glass bulb does not touch the metal frame. Be sure that the bulb rests on a fertile egg, or you will destroy a hatch. The difference between air in the egg chamber and the register of an egg containing a live duck is at the last stage as much as five degrees. An egg containing a dead duck is from three to five degrees colder than one contain ing a duck almost ready to break the shell. The best place to put an incu bator is in the cellar. A separate un derground cellar is the best, as insur ance companies object to taking risks on buildings occupied by incubators. In operating incubators successfully, an even temperature is necessary for sev eral reasons. Letting in cold draughts of air on an incubator full of eggs is sure to kill many. I think the true way in hatching chicks is to keep your incubator closed, as a chick that can not liberate himself is of no account. But a duckling pips 24 to 48 hours be fore it is ready to come out, and you are obliged to open the incubator about eight hours to turn,up the pips, as the ducklings are apt to smother or drown In the slime of the egg. In an incubator full of eggs with live germs, you will find at the latter stage it is Impossible to keep down the animal heat. Do not open the ventilators or doors to cool down the eggs, for you will then loose the moisture and make the shell brittle, and the inside lining of the egg will become tough. While spraying the egg is injurious, my ex perience and that of Mr. Rankin and others shows that it comes nearest to the correct plan, as a superfluous heat is sure to destroy the hatch. Open one door at a time, use a fine spray, and close the door immediately. In this way no chill will strike the eggs. A sudden change of a few degrees is enough to kill them. Rwoet Clover. C. P. Dadant, writing in the Busy Bee, says: Melilot, or sweet clover (Melilotus Alba) is one of the very best honey plants that grow in America. It is not a good hay clover, being too coarse for dray forage, but it is one of the very best forage plants because it grows so rank and the stock will thrive on it early in the season, but it does not stand steady pasturing. It is a biennial, growing up one year, bloom ing the next, and then dying. If it is protected during the first season's growth, it will make an extraordinary growth the second year. We have often seen it knee-high by May 1, and ow ing to its precocious growth, it is well liked in Canada, where the springs are very backward. It is a very good fer tilizer, as its roots sink straight into the soil and reach to the depth of eighteen inches or more. Its advant ages to the bee-keeper are very marked, for it grows in barren soil and in waste places, where it seems to thrive about as well as in cultivated land. It has been considered by many as a noxious weed, owing to its propagating with out attention, but the facts are that it does not annoy, because it is easily kept down by pasturing, and it cannot reproduce itself in cultivated fields, since it takes two years to come to seed. Sweet clover produces honey of the very best quality, second to none, and it has the quality of blooming dur ing the summer after white clover has stopped, and at a season when there is but little other bloom. Drouth does not seem to injure it, and even where it is pastured, it continues to throw out side branches that bloom profusely. Butter Fat in W7hey.—It has been claimed by some that there is no more loss of fat in handling rich milk than in making up medium or poor mill:. The results of three years' experiments at the Ontario agricultural college lead conclusively to the opinion that the whey from milk rich in butter-fat con tains a higher percentage of fat than does the whey from medium or pooi milk. Not only is the percentage of fat in the whey higher, but the loss of fat originally in the milk is greater per 100 pounds of eurea cheese when made from the rich milk. Peach Pits.—Peach stones ought either to be planted soon after the peach is eaten or they should be kept in a moist place. It is commonly said that the shell hardens by exposure to the air, or that the germinating power of the seed is impaired. The real trou- Sugar Beet an Food for Live Stock. Indiana Experiment Station: Num erous letters have been sent the In diana experiment station this fall, re questing information concerning the sugar beet as a food for farm live stock, and its feeding value. This in quiry is no doubt mainly caused by the greatly increased interest in sugar beet culture by farmers at the present time, and this bulletin is intended to, in a measure, answer the inquiry. The beet contains considerable less nutri ment than our standard coarse fodders, 100 pounds of beets containing some thing over a pound of digestible muscle making food, while red clover contains about six and one-half pounds, and Timothy hay nearly three pounds. The value of beets as a food, however, largely lies in their influence on the digestive organs at a time of year when stock is usually fed only dry food. The almost universal report from practical feeders and experimenters is, that roots are valuable as winter food for stock, and sugar beets take a leading place among the roots in this respect. They contain more nutriment than mangels, carrots, rutabagas and com mon turnips. Their sugary nature makes them especially palatable. For sheep or milch cows no better roots can be fed. They keep the bowels open and tend to prevent impaction with cat tle and sheep and give a gloss to the coat and condition to the skin not se cured by dry feed. One can hardly measure the money value of roots by their chemical composition. For many years they have had a high valuation in the esteem of British stockmen and are extensively grown in Europe for winter feeding. In the United States, valuations have been placed on beets at about $2 to $2.50 a ton for stock food, but the matter of price varies slightly*according to circumstances. In feeding experiments conducted in the United States with sugar beets, these roots have been fed in connection with other foods. At this station, beets have invariably been fed to advantage, and we have used sugar beets for years for cattle and sheep. At the Ohio station, where corn silage and field beets have been compared in feeding dairy cattle, the beets have caused the best gains in weight of cows, size of milk flow and production of butter fat. The sugar beet has no quality injurious to the milk, when fed dairy cattle, while tur nips, unless fed with considerable care, will give an objectionable flavor to it. The beets can be fed to best advantage after slicing or running through a root cutter, and fifty pounds per head for average cattle with other foods is an ample quantity. Now that beet sugar factories are being erected in this country, there will be considerable refuse beet pulp, which is regarded as a valuable food. At the Lehi, Utah, factory a feeding company has con tracted for all tne pulp for a term of years, and feeds in sheds near the fac tory. It is said that the cattle eat from 100 to 125 pounds of pulp per day, be sides about fifteen pounds of hay. Analyses by the California experiment station show beet pulp to contain nearly as much protein as corn silage, and somewhat less of the other food ingredients, and the feeding value is estimated at $2.02 per ton, while corn silage is placed at $3.22 per ton. Beet pulp is entirely suited to the silo, and in the vicinity of beet factories, it is kept ensiled. In the future growth of the beet sugar industry in America, the residue of pulp will be regarded as an important addition to the feeding rations of the live stock of the neigh borhood. Other roots can be grown more cheaply than sugar beets, but where the latter are grown, they may be fed to stock to great advantage. C. S. Plumb. Director. How Much Salt. People's tastes differ widely. Some believe that salt brings out the flavor of the butter, and so they want plenty of it. Others want the rich, creamy flavor of the butter and do not like to have it buried in salt. There is, how ever, an increasing tendency toward milder flavors, and with a vast ma jority of the consumers who get their supplies from the New York markets, lighter salted butter is preferable. Of course our exporters object to heavy salting. In England, as well as in the best dairying sections on the conti nent, 3 per cent of salt is considered ample. Some of the recent shipments of fresh creamery from the Canadian provinces have carried only 2 to 3 per cent of salt, and they pleased the Eng lish buyers. No rule can be followed absolutely. The rentention of salt de pends a good deal upon the working and washing of the butter, but I can hardly believe that more than three quarters of an ounce of salt to the pound of butter will ever be required. Consult the merchant who is selling your goods and follow his advice in this respect. Give him what his trade requires. The old idea that butter must be salted heavily to keep well, espec ially in the summer, loses its force un der the present perfect system of re frigeration.—W. C. Taber. Carbonaceous Food.—If inclined to run down in flesh because giving much milk, cows should be given carbonace ous food, like corn meal, to keep them in condition. Of course, they will then eat less coarse food, and the cost will be increased: but cows like a variety of food, and will digest more it thejr have it.—Ex. FARM AND GARDEN. MATTERS OF INTEREST TO AGRICULTURALIST. Some Up-to-Date Hints About Cultiva tion of the Soil and Yields Thereof— Horticulture, Viticulture and Flori culture. Do Soils Really Lunch Kir? HOUGH the opin ions -of farmers have undergone material change on this point during the past decade s^iSv' '-H. -•".'-.V/ there is still much misconception as to the conditions un der which this loss may occur and the degree to which it may be prevented. The? porous charac ter of most soils is doubtless chiefly responsible for the fact that within :lie memory of farmers still in active busi ness the belief was general that a very material loss of soluble plant food was inevitable from most soils whenever the supply furnished was much in excess of the immediate needs of the crop to be grown thereon. If soils really leach, the lost or leached material of course escapes in the water draining through the soil. Care ful and systematic study of drainage waters, both by the use of the lysi meter and the tile drain during the past few years shows first that the actual loss of nutriment in drainage waters is far less frequent than was supposed, and second the character of the waters gives definite knowledge of the kind of nutriment carried away by them and the conditions under which the loss takes place. That the danger of loss is greatly exagger ated is well demonstrated by my own personal experience. For two entire growing seasons a fertile sandy loam showed absolutely no loss of plant food at a depth of three feet, that is, not a trace of either phosphoric acid, ni trogen or potash reached three feet deep in the percolating waters. As most plants send their roots to great er depths than this it Is evident that there was not only no loss from the soil, but that all the nutriment ap plied, or within three feet of the sur face, was accessible. The important question now is: Under what conditions does leaching occur and how can loss from this source be prevented? It is now accepted that nitrogen is the only one of the three food essentials which is susceptible to leaching to such an extent as to render its loss of mate ria^ consequence, and this loss is ex clusively of nitric acid. This, however, is the last and final form of nitrogen and the only one actually taken up by the crop. All other forms or sources of nitrogen must be decomposed and nitric acid be formed before assimi lation can begin. These other forms including all fertilizing forms or sources of nitrogen except the ni trates, of which nitrate of soda Is the only one of commercial importance to the farmer, are under no normal soil condition acceptable to the leaching property. It therefore follows that those forms of manures or fertilizers may be used in any quantity and at any time desired without danger of loss from leaching. In using stable manure the important practical fact is that the manure once incorporated with the soil becomes fixed beyond the possibility of loss, since nitric acid formation is so slow as to never ex ceed the power of a crop to utilize. Nitrates, on the other hand, being susceptible to leaching, should be ap plied only to meet the immediate de mands of the growing crop lest los3 from leaching follow. The finer the soil particles in any given case the greater the absorbing power and the less is the probability of loss. This fact explains the absorptive power of much soils, rather than.as is commonly supposed, the presence of a high humus content in such soils. As already inti mated phosphoric acid and potash are not capable of leaching through agri cultural soils under normal conditions, ble is that the germ shrinks in the shell, so that when it swells with moisture during the winter and spring the seed cannot burst the hard cover ing in which it is enclosed.—Ex. This fact is due to the absorptive pow er of soils for these substances and their compounds. The important fact in this connection is that the soil con stituent exerting strongest force in this direction is the silica, which com poses so large a part of all soils. These soils high in content of silica, of which sand is typical, are usually of coarse texture and are those usually consid ered as especially susceptible to leach ing. It appears, however, that leach ing of two of the three essentials of plant food is actually prevented by the presence of silica or sand. A very im portant practical result of these facts is that potash salts can be applied so early as to overcome any possible evil effect from the presence of chlorine on certain crops and yet no possible loss from leaching follow. H. E. Stockbridge. The Jonquil. The species and varieties of Narcis sus Jonquilla, are popularly known as Jonquils and possess many points of similarity with the small flowered section of that very extensive says Vick's Magazine. Altho *4 do not present a great variety ors, yet they are highly prized Why You Should Keep uetls. A Western paper says: 1. Because you ought by theiri to convert a great deal of the i of the farm into money, in the s of eggs and chickens for market, 2. Because with intelligent man ment they ought to be all-year-rev producers, excepting, perhaps, a two months, during moulting seas 3. Because poultry will yield j quicker return for his capital inv than any of the other departmew agriculture. 4. Because the manure from poultry house will make a vatu compost for use in either vegetable den or orchard. The birds them if allowed to run in the orchard destroy many injurious insects. 5. Because while cereals and i can only be successfully grown in tain sections, poultry can be raisei table use or to lay eggs, in all of the country. C. Because poultry raising is aa ploy ment iu which the farmer's and daughter can engage and leave free to attend to other department 7. Because it will bring the bes turns, in the shape of new laid eg during the winter season -when farmer has most time on his ham 8. Because to start poultry rai on the farm requires little or not tal. Under any circumstances, The farmers of Maine have cirr vented the beef trust, says Iowa Register. They have organized fresh pork and fresh beef clubs in state, each club composed of tent bers. Instead of buying their meats from the trust and paying: ute to it they provide themselves1 such seasonable delicacies. The farmers belonging to a club arrange a succession of butcheries. That i hog is killed every so many days ing the winter season and tie fi pork is divided into ten pans, e family getting one part. This does include the hams and other portion the animal which are salted or picl for future use. The arrangen amounts to a co-operative meat si The farmers lose nothing and they fresh pork all the time. The M idea may spread to other states. something of an outrage that our 1 should be sent to Chicago to be bu e e a n e n s e n a k o e e i It follows as the night does the that the consumer must pay for freight both ways, or else the grower pays it, and there is beside expense of handling the hog and meat in Chicago. Various ways been suggested to get rid of sucl. industrial loss and folly, but theM way seems to be a solution as faras farmers themselves are concerned John Powers, Whiteside County,' nois.—The prize corn exhibited by: was of the variety known as Iowa ver Mine. The ground, which was ry stubble, was well manured in the Census :rat ric I A M. ail fo charming, golden, fragrant which are freely produced Th perfectly hardy, and may be fully grown by any one in eitk "q flower border, green hou.se Hi an em 1 neti 'ort 0r 1 garden. And as the bulbs can cured at a very moderate pri(lp f' well deserve all that can be their praise. The bulbs ran be ed any time from September ton ber, although it is best to p]ant^" as early as possible. In pottin three or four bulbs, according rt'l fifS f. )f I n tl tl t0, size, be placed in a four inch p0t If large masses are wanted, larger', or pans, and more bulbs can be In potting let the pots or pans be! erly drained, and use a cornP0st sisting of two-thirds turfy ]oain third well decayed manure and a sprinkling of bone dust. Mix and use the compost rough. ia ting fill the pots or pans to »i three inches of the top, then the bulbs, keeping them a few apart, and then fill to within haf' inch of the top. Water thorough, place in a cool, dark cellar to root, watering when necessary. 11 ii ro nli thr ee n pd Mle. rvi at ft)! |ti ei not It i nod ,.sd 1 [old! First Utiles t}u' •nwisi, Lotmfe N 1 proper management, poultry cat made, with little cost, a valuble adji. to the farm. Co-operative H»x !iii:i"j. !J, |j plowed five Inches deep in the sp" uu harrowed three times before and t!/•** times after planting, and culth i' with garden plow and hoe. All unproductive stalks were removed. T corn was picked between the 20th a 25th of September. The actual urement of the ground was 32 sQ'a" feet less than an acre. (This waj corn that won the first premium t largest yield, the yield being 106 b^1 els and 30 pounds.—Ed. F. K.) aid Mutton or Beef.—The best Amerifs| sheep are quoted higher in Lomlo! than the same grade of beef. It no more to raise a pound of mutcoi| than of beef, using the best stock si each case, and sheep may be kept anil fed to advantage on the smaller farms. Surely there is encouraged' in growing them.—Ex. figures recently published at, Washington show that average longe vity has made a perceptible ftdvan1* even In the last ten years. Make war on weeds while tw ground is unfrozen.