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The herald-advance. (Milbank, S.D.) 1890-1922, January 21, 1898, Image 8

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn00065154/1898-01-21/ed-1/seq-8/

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DAIRY AND POULTRY.
INTERESTING CHAPTERS FOR
OUR RURAL READERS.
Warn Succ#Mfol Farmers Operate Thi»
Drpari ninnt of the Farm—A Few
Hint* »n to ttie Care of Live Stock
and I'ouUry.
Cm of Dairy Vtfiiiili.
AKERS of first
class butter and
cheese and the
best dairy farmers
and milk dealers in
general attach the
greatest import
ance to cleanliness.
They know hat it
is as necessary to
have clean utensils
in the dairy as it
fs to have clean milk, and that the
largest profits are secured only when
cleanliness is secured in every part of
the work. Milk may be produced In
sanitary stable by well-fed and well
cared-for cows and drawn in a clean
ly manner. These conditions contrib
ute much toward superior dairy prod
ucts but the good effects of such care
are wasted unless it be extended to the
utensils. When this fact is fully ap
preciated and proper attention is given
to cleaning and caring for utensils, the
quality of dairy products will be im
proved. A butter-maker whose prod
uct was described as of very superior
flavor, being asked the secret process
by which such fine butter was made,
replied: "I have no secret beyond this:
I am always very particular about
beeping thoroughly clean every vessel
with which the milk and cream come
in contact." This is one of the chief
things that enable one milk dealer to
charge 10 cents a quart while others
sell for 6 cents, or one butter-maker to
get o0 cents per pound for his butter
when others receive but 20 cents.
It is now well known that changes of
milk are dependent upon bacteria, and
the rapidity with which these germs
multiply in milk has been frequently
referred to in publications of this de
partment. Bacteria are especially num
erous in and around a dairy, and they
get into the milk in many ways. The
[difficulty is to keep them out this re
quires the milk to be handled in such
way that no contamination can take
place. Theoretically this is easy, but
practically it is impossible. It is pos
sible, however, to greatly reduce the
.sources of contamination, one of the
most common and inexcusable of
which is improperly cleaned milk ves
sels. Thousands of bacteria may be
concealed in a crevice so small that it
can hardly be seen, and if these get
into the milk they may increase more
than one thousandfold in twenty-four
liours. A little milk left under the rim
or about the "ears" of a tin pail har
bors a much larger number of germs,
and their deleterious effect is corre
spondingly great. Improperly cleaned
•churns contain myriads of bacteria,
which impart a peculiarly disagreeable
flavor to each churning. Cheese-mak
ers are frequently troubled by tainted
milk or floating curds, and a poor qual
ity of cheese results. These conditions
are often accounted for by carelessness
111 cleaning utensils either on the farm
or in the factory. Many city milk deal
ers have had like experiences. Their
trouble is partly due to failure in cool
ing milk sufficiently to retard bacterial
growth, but it is also partly due to not
thoroughly cleaning the pails and cans.
Some milk buyers insert special
clauses in their contracts with farmers
relating to cleanliness. The losses
from the neglect of the matter of clean
ing utensils exceed those caused by the
addition of water or the abstraction of
cream. Dirt in a solid or sedimentary
form can easily be removed from milk,
but its bad effect cannot. Special
strainers, filterers or the separator will
make milk appear clean, but none of
them can take out bacteria or the
taints caused by them. A good water
supply is essential to cleanliness. Clear
spring water or that from a deep well
$s usually the best. Water from cis
terns. shallow wells or streams is
sometimes satisfactory, but if it is lia
ble to be contaminated by surface
drainage it is not safe. It may con
tain innumerable forms of vegetable
life and bacteria, which are capable of
causing peculiar behavior in the dairy.
There is also a chance of some disease
producing germs gaining entrance to
the dairy through impure water.
Hatching Duck* by Incabators.
To those who intend to use incuba
tors for hatching ducklings, I wish to
give a few words of warning, says a
writer in American Stock Keeper.
There are only a few kinds of incu
bators suitable for duck eggs. The
shell of the duck egg is so porous that
any incubator with a current of air
passing through it is certain to use
up the moisture within the egg, so es
sential at the latter part of the hatch.
While it is necessary to have a little
air, too much is worse than none. An
Incubator that maintains an even de
gree of heat and has arrangements for
plenty of moisture at hatching is the
only kind to rely on. After the incu
bator has run a few days and main
tains an even degree of heat of 100
'degrees at the bottom of the egg tray,
1 put tn the eggs at sundown, as it
takes all night to warm them up. The
next day I kept watch of its work
ing, not forgetting that 100 degrees at
the bottom of the tray is equal to 102
at the top of the eggs. I test the eggs
on the fifth day, and remove all clear
eggs, and also those whose germs have
started and cease to grow. It is well
to make another test on the eleventh
day, and remove all eggs that have be
come addled. On the sixth day you
can see the heart beat and the spread
ing of the veins through the egg. You
will find in some a clot of blood and a
circular vein, nearly the size of the
egg, have been formed. These are of
no account, and should be removed. I
use a cheap tester- -simply a board, a
foot square, placed In front of a lan
tern, a hole opposite the flame, about
one-half the size of the egg. The light
can be increased in power by placing
a reflector at the back of the lantern.
A correct thermometer is of the ut
most importance. No matter how gcod
the incubator, if the thermometer is
poor you will not be successful. Get
the kind made for incubators, which
are so constructed that the glass bulb
does not touch the metal frame. Be
sure that the bulb rests on a fertile
egg, or you will destroy a hatch. The
difference between air in the egg
chamber and the register of an egg
containing a live duck is at the last
stage as much as five degrees. An egg
containing a dead duck is from three
to five degrees colder than one contain
ing a duck almost ready to break the
shell. The best place to put an incu
bator is in the cellar. A separate un
derground cellar is the best, as insur
ance companies object to taking risks
on buildings occupied by incubators. In
operating incubators successfully, an
even temperature is necessary for sev
eral reasons. Letting in cold draughts
of air on an incubator full of eggs is
sure to kill many. I think the true
way in hatching chicks is to keep your
incubator closed, as a chick that can
not liberate himself is of no account.
But a duckling pips 24 to 48 hours be
fore it is ready to come out, and you
are obliged to open the incubator
about eight hours to turn,up the pips,
as the ducklings are apt to smother or
drown In the slime of the egg. In an
incubator full of eggs with live germs,
you will find at the latter stage it is
Impossible to keep down the animal
heat. Do not open the ventilators or
doors to cool down the eggs, for you
will then loose the moisture and make
the shell brittle, and the inside lining
of the egg will become tough. While
spraying the egg is injurious, my ex
perience and that of Mr. Rankin and
others shows that it comes nearest to
the correct plan, as a superfluous heat
is sure to destroy the hatch. Open one
door at a time, use a fine spray, and
close the door immediately. In this
way no chill will strike the eggs. A
sudden change of a few degrees is
enough to kill them.
Rwoet Clover.
C. P. Dadant, writing in the Busy
Bee, says: Melilot, or sweet clover
(Melilotus Alba) is one of the very best
honey plants that grow in America. It
is not a good hay clover, being too
coarse for dray forage, but it is one of
the very best forage plants because it
grows so rank and the stock will
thrive on it early in the season, but it
does not stand steady pasturing. It is
a biennial, growing up one year, bloom
ing the next, and then dying. If it is
protected during the first season's
growth, it will make an extraordinary
growth the second year. We have often
seen it knee-high by May 1, and ow
ing to its precocious growth, it is well
liked in Canada, where the springs are
very backward. It is a very good fer
tilizer, as its roots sink straight into
the soil and reach to the depth of
eighteen inches or more. Its advant
ages to the bee-keeper are very marked,
for it grows in barren soil and in waste
places, where it seems to thrive about
as well as in cultivated land. It has
been considered by many as a noxious
weed, owing to its propagating with
out attention, but the facts are that it
does not annoy, because it is easily
kept down by pasturing, and it cannot
reproduce itself in cultivated fields,
since it takes two years to come to
seed. Sweet clover produces honey of
the very best quality, second to none,
and it has the quality of blooming dur
ing the summer after white clover has
stopped, and at a season when there is
but little other bloom. Drouth does
not seem to injure it, and even where
it is pastured, it continues to throw out
side branches that bloom profusely.
Butter Fat in W7hey.—It has been
claimed by some that there is no more
loss of fat in handling rich milk than
in making up medium or poor mill:.
The results of three years' experiments
at the Ontario agricultural college lead
conclusively to the opinion that the
whey from milk rich in butter-fat con
tains a higher percentage of fat than
does the whey from medium or pooi
milk. Not only is the percentage of
fat in the whey higher, but the loss of
fat originally in the milk is greater per
100 pounds of eurea cheese when made
from the rich milk.
Peach Pits.—Peach stones ought
either to be planted soon after the
peach is eaten or they should be kept
in a moist place. It is commonly said
that the shell hardens by exposure to
the air, or that the germinating power
of the seed is impaired. The real trou-
Sugar Beet an Food for Live Stock.
Indiana Experiment Station: Num
erous letters have been sent the In
diana experiment station this fall, re
questing information concerning the
sugar beet as a food for farm live
stock, and its feeding value. This in
quiry is no doubt mainly caused by the
greatly increased interest in sugar beet
culture by farmers at the present time,
and this bulletin is intended to, in
a measure, answer the inquiry. The
beet contains considerable less nutri
ment than our standard coarse fodders,
100 pounds of beets containing some
thing over a pound of digestible muscle
making food, while red clover contains
about six and one-half pounds, and
Timothy hay nearly three pounds. The
value of beets as a food, however,
largely lies in their influence on the
digestive organs at a time of year when
stock is usually fed only dry food. The
almost universal report from practical
feeders and experimenters is, that
roots are valuable as winter food for
stock, and sugar beets take a leading
place among the roots in this respect.
They contain more nutriment than
mangels, carrots, rutabagas and com
mon turnips. Their sugary nature
makes them especially palatable. For
sheep or milch cows no better roots
can be fed. They keep the bowels open
and tend to prevent impaction with cat
tle and sheep and give a gloss to the
coat and condition to the skin not se
cured by dry feed. One can hardly
measure the money value of roots by
their chemical composition. For many
years they have had a high valuation
in the esteem of British stockmen and
are extensively grown in Europe for
winter feeding. In the United States,
valuations have been placed on beets
at about $2 to $2.50 a ton for stock
food, but the matter of price varies
slightly*according to circumstances. In
feeding experiments conducted in the
United States with sugar beets, these
roots have been fed in connection with
other foods. At this station, beets have
invariably been fed to advantage, and
we have used sugar beets for years for
cattle and sheep. At the Ohio station,
where corn silage and field beets have
been compared in feeding dairy cattle,
the beets have caused the best gains in
weight of cows, size of milk flow and
production of butter fat. The sugar
beet has no quality injurious to the
milk, when fed dairy cattle, while tur
nips, unless fed with considerable care,
will give an objectionable flavor to it.
The beets can be fed to best advantage
after slicing or running through a root
cutter, and fifty pounds per head for
average cattle with other foods is an
ample quantity. Now that beet sugar
factories are being erected in this
country, there will be considerable
refuse beet pulp, which is regarded as
a valuable food. At the Lehi, Utah,
factory a feeding company has con
tracted for all tne pulp for a term of
years, and feeds in sheds near the fac
tory. It is said that the cattle eat from
100 to 125 pounds of pulp per day, be
sides about fifteen pounds of hay.
Analyses by the California experiment
station show beet pulp to contain
nearly as much protein as corn silage,
and somewhat less of the other food
ingredients, and the feeding value is
estimated at $2.02 per ton, while corn
silage is placed at $3.22 per ton. Beet
pulp is entirely suited to the silo, and
in the vicinity of beet factories, it is
kept ensiled. In the future growth of
the beet sugar industry in America,
the residue of pulp will be regarded as
an important addition to the feeding
rations of the live stock of the neigh
borhood. Other roots can be grown
more cheaply than sugar beets, but
where the latter are grown, they may
be fed to stock to great advantage.
C. S. Plumb. Director.
How Much Salt.
People's tastes differ widely. Some
believe that salt brings out the flavor
of the butter, and so they want plenty
of it. Others want the rich, creamy
flavor of the butter and do not like to
have it buried in salt. There is, how
ever, an increasing tendency toward
milder flavors, and with a vast ma
jority of the consumers who get their
supplies from the New York markets,
lighter salted butter is preferable. Of
course our exporters object to heavy
salting. In England, as well as in the
best dairying sections on the conti
nent, 3 per cent of salt is considered
ample. Some of the recent shipments
of fresh creamery from the Canadian
provinces have carried only 2 to 3 per
cent of salt, and they pleased the Eng
lish buyers. No rule can be followed
absolutely. The rentention of salt de
pends a good deal upon the working
and washing of the butter, but I can
hardly believe that more than three
quarters of an ounce of salt to the
pound of butter will ever be required.
Consult the merchant who is selling
your goods and follow his advice in
this respect. Give him what his trade
requires. The old idea that butter must
be salted heavily to keep well, espec
ially in the summer, loses its force un
der the present perfect system of re
frigeration.—W. C. Taber.
Carbonaceous Food.—If inclined to
run down in flesh because giving much
milk, cows should be given carbonace
ous food, like corn meal, to keep them
in condition. Of course, they will then
eat less coarse food, and the cost will
be increased: but cows like a variety of
food, and will digest more it thejr have
it.—Ex.
FARM AND GARDEN.
MATTERS OF INTEREST TO
AGRICULTURALIST.
Some Up-to-Date Hints About Cultiva
tion of the Soil and Yields Thereof—
Horticulture, Viticulture and Flori
culture.
Do Soils Really Lunch
Kir? HOUGH the opin
ions -of farmers
have undergone
material change on
this point during
the past decade
s^iSv' '-H. -•".'-.V/ there is still much
misconception as to
the conditions un
der which this loss
may occur and the
degree to which it
may be prevented. The? porous charac
ter of most soils is doubtless chiefly
responsible for the fact that within :lie
memory of farmers still in active busi
ness the belief was general that a
very material loss of soluble plant
food was inevitable from most soils
whenever the supply furnished was
much in excess of the immediate needs
of the crop to be grown thereon. If
soils really leach, the lost or leached
material of course escapes in the
water draining through the soil. Care
ful and systematic study of drainage
waters, both by the use of the lysi
meter and the tile drain during the
past few years shows first that the
actual loss of nutriment in drainage
waters is far less frequent than was
supposed, and second the character of
the waters gives definite knowledge
of the kind of nutriment carried away
by them and the conditions under
which the loss takes place. That
the danger of loss is greatly exagger
ated is well demonstrated by my own
personal experience. For two entire
growing seasons a fertile sandy loam
showed absolutely no loss of plant food
at a depth of three feet, that is, not
a trace of either phosphoric acid, ni
trogen or potash reached three feet
deep in the percolating waters. As
most plants send their roots to great
er depths than this it Is evident that
there was not only no loss from the
soil, but that all the nutriment ap
plied, or within three feet of the sur
face, was accessible. The important
question now is: Under what conditions
does leaching occur and how can loss
from this source be prevented? It is
now accepted that nitrogen is the only
one of the three food essentials which
is susceptible to leaching to such an
extent as to render its loss of mate
ria^ consequence, and this loss is ex
clusively of nitric acid. This, however,
is the last and final form of nitrogen
and the only one actually taken up
by the crop. All other forms or sources
of nitrogen must be decomposed and
nitric acid be formed before assimi
lation can begin. These other forms
including all fertilizing forms or
sources of nitrogen except the ni
trates, of which nitrate of soda Is the
only one of commercial importance to
the farmer, are under no normal soil
condition acceptable to the leaching
property. It therefore follows that
those forms of manures or fertilizers
may be used in any quantity and at
any time desired without danger of
loss from leaching. In using stable
manure the important practical fact is
that the manure once incorporated
with the soil becomes fixed beyond the
possibility of loss, since nitric acid
formation is so slow as to never ex
ceed the power of a crop to utilize.
Nitrates, on the other hand, being
susceptible to leaching, should be ap
plied only to meet the immediate de
mands of the growing crop lest los3
from leaching follow. The finer the
soil particles in any given case the
greater the absorbing power and the
less is the probability of loss. This
fact explains the absorptive power of
much soils, rather than.as is commonly
supposed, the presence of a high humus
content in such soils. As already inti
mated phosphoric acid and potash are
not capable of leaching through agri
cultural soils under normal conditions,
ble is that the germ shrinks in the
shell, so that when it swells with
moisture during the winter and spring
the seed cannot burst the hard cover
ing in which it is enclosed.—Ex.
This fact is due to the absorptive pow
er of soils for these substances and
their compounds. The important fact
in this connection is that the soil con
stituent exerting strongest force in
this direction is the silica, which com
poses so large a part of all soils. These
soils high in content of silica, of which
sand is typical, are usually of coarse
texture and are those usually consid
ered as especially susceptible to leach
ing. It appears, however, that leach
ing of two of the three essentials of
plant food is actually prevented by the
presence of silica or sand. A very im
portant practical result of these facts
is that potash salts can be applied so
early as to overcome any possible evil
effect from the presence of chlorine on
certain crops and yet no possible loss
from leaching follow.
H. E. Stockbridge.
The Jonquil.
The species and varieties of Narcis
sus Jonquilla, are popularly known as
Jonquils and possess many points
of similarity with the small flowered
section of that very extensive
says Vick's Magazine. Altho *4
do not present a great variety
ors, yet they are highly prized
Why You Should Keep uetls.
A Western paper says:
1. Because you ought by theiri
to convert a great deal of the i
of the farm into money, in the s
of eggs and chickens for market,
2. Because with intelligent man
ment they ought to be all-year-rev
producers, excepting, perhaps, a
two months, during moulting seas
3. Because poultry will yield j
quicker return for his capital inv
than any of the other departmew
agriculture.
4. Because the manure from
poultry house will make a vatu
compost for use in either vegetable
den or orchard. The birds them
if allowed to run in the orchard
destroy many injurious insects.
5. Because while cereals and i
can only be successfully grown in
tain sections, poultry can be raisei
table use or to lay eggs, in all
of the country.
C. Because poultry raising is aa
ploy ment iu which the farmer's
and daughter can engage and leave
free to attend to other department
7. Because it will bring the bes
turns, in the shape of new laid eg
during the winter season -when
farmer has most time on his ham
8. Because to start poultry rai
on the farm requires little or not
tal. Under any circumstances,
The farmers of Maine have cirr
vented the beef trust, says Iowa
Register. They have organized
fresh pork and fresh beef clubs in
state, each club composed of tent
bers. Instead of buying their
meats from the trust and paying:
ute to it they provide themselves1
such seasonable delicacies. The
farmers belonging to a club arrange
a succession of butcheries. That i
hog is killed every so many days
ing the winter season and tie fi
pork is divided into ten pans, e
family getting one part. This does
include the hams and other portion
the animal which are salted or picl
for future use. The arrangen
amounts to a co-operative meat si
The farmers lose nothing and they
fresh pork all the time. The M
idea may spread to other states.
something of an outrage that our 1
should be sent to Chicago to be bu
e e a n e n s e n a k o e e i
It follows as the night does the
that the consumer must pay for
freight both ways, or else the
grower pays it, and there is beside
expense of handling the hog and
meat in Chicago. Various ways
been suggested to get rid of sucl.
industrial loss and folly, but theM
way seems to be a solution as faras
farmers themselves are concerned
John Powers, Whiteside County,'
nois.—The prize corn exhibited by:
was of the variety known as Iowa
ver Mine. The ground, which was ry
stubble, was well manured in the
Census
:rat
ric
I A
M.
ail
fo
charming, golden, fragrant
which are freely produced Th
perfectly hardy, and may be
fully grown by any one in eitk "q
flower border, green hou.se
Hi an
em
1
neti
'ort
0r
1
garden. And as the bulbs can
cured at a very moderate pri(lp f'
well deserve all that can be
their praise. The bulbs ran be
ed any time from September ton
ber, although it is best to p]ant^"
as early as possible. In pottin
three or four bulbs, according
rt'l
fifS
f.
)f I
n tl
tl
t0,
size, be placed in a four inch p0t
If large masses are wanted, larger',
or pans, and more bulbs can be
In potting let the pots or pans be!
erly drained, and use a cornP0st
sisting of two-thirds turfy ]oain
third well decayed manure and a
sprinkling of bone dust. Mix
and use the compost rough. ia
ting fill the pots or pans to »i
three inches of the top, then
the bulbs, keeping them a few
apart, and then fill to within haf'
inch of the top. Water thorough,
place in a cool, dark cellar to
root, watering when necessary.
11
ii ro
nli
thr
ee n
pd
Mle.
rvi
at
ft)!
|ti ei
not It
i nod
,.sd
1
[old!
First
Utiles
t}u'
•nwisi,
Lotmfe N
1
proper management, poultry cat
made, with little cost, a valuble adji.
to the farm.
Co-operative H»x !iii:i"j.
!J,
|j
plowed five Inches deep in the sp" uu
harrowed three times before and t!/•**
times after planting, and culth i'
with garden plow and hoe. All
unproductive stalks were removed. T
corn was picked between the 20th a
25th of September. The actual
urement of the ground was 32 sQ'a"
feet less than an acre. (This waj
corn that won the first premium t
largest yield, the yield being 106 b^1
els and 30 pounds.—Ed. F. K.)
aid
Mutton or Beef.—The best Amerifs|
sheep are quoted higher in Lomlo!
than the same grade of beef. It
no more to raise a pound of mutcoi|
than of beef, using the best stock si
each case, and sheep may be kept anil
fed to advantage on the smaller
farms. Surely there is encouraged'
in growing them.—Ex.
figures recently
published at,
Washington show that average longe
vity has made a perceptible ftdvan1*
even In the last ten years.
Make war on weeds while tw
ground is unfrozen.

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