Newspaper Page Text
Tho Weekly Expositor.
J. A. Menzier, Editor and Proprietor. YALE, MICH The foreman of one of tho largest barber shops in New York is author ity for tho statement that more men part tttelr hair In the mlddio now than ever before. Tho deoriso of illiter acy is not necessarily a proof that tho brains of the period aro growing stronger. Not by any means. The aluminum age Is apparently inaugurated. Aluminum bronze of 10 per cent it is claimed, has a breaking strength of 310,000 pounds, as against 80,000 pounds for steel; hence, when tho time comes, which cannot be far distant, for building bridges of alum inum or its alloy, wo shall have a structure about one-third tho present weight anl much stronger. The attempt of Dr. Justin to make a cannon that will successfully carry dynamite shells may as well be abandoned. Two guns have exploded In his experiments, nnd though such precautions wero taken as to prevent any accidents, it is certain that twenty successes would not now justify any one in firing such explosive material as must bo fired in time of battle. The shots fired at Annapolis to test the various kinds of plato for naval armor evidently went booming around the globo, and have already inspired a mammoth movement for the improve ment of Great Britain's war ships. The experiments demonstrated that tho heavy compound armor hitherto deemed Impregnable was practically worthless, and that the nickel steel plates of Franco were the only ones that could successfully shed tho shot of our improved Columblads. Judge Gresuam views with alarm tho increasing corruption among American voters, lie says: 'Tho number of voters in tho market for tho highest bidder has increased at a rate which has excited grave apprehensions In the minds of the peoplo. The prizes in our political contests aro tempting, and tho bidding for votes has increased ut more than a steady pace. Can this bo stopped? Will it continueP If it does popular govern ment and all tho blessings that it ro cures will perish." In the north success is a rare thing In transplanting tho hard wood trees like the oak or tho hickory without a year or two previous pruning, but iu the south all or nearly all the oaks and hard woods aro readily trans planted,; as witness the giant live and water oaks and hickories in tho cities of Savannah, Mobile, New Orleans and Jacksonville, and Tampa, Florida. The rule then should be, spring plant ing for the north and fall and winter planting for tho south, and for the hard wood trees north, root pruning two years previously. It is estimated that fifteen million dollars is invested in the canning of fruits and, Ycjytablej in thjs country, "besides the flirtteF aii'Aua.1 iajej$ed in canning ASH und moats. This busi ness Is in its infancy, and deserves every encouragement that legislation can give it The establishment lof caoylng factories in any locality is the best -thing that Can' be possible .for armors near them. These furnish a market for many thincs he could not otherwise grow to a profit, and by thus diversifying farm industry they inauj It against the losses always resting frQfjl restricting production t ,Q9 Two staples. r-1" r i Tint enactment of a lawi by, -wjilch a liberal increase, of endowftacat is made to the ugricul;tUral coltegos is an evi dence that congress appreciates fully tho importance of technical education for farmers. Farmers ard to bo con sidered a the light of public servants in a great measure. Their industry provides food and clothing f ,-tlio peo ple is fthq most. lrnportu.iJt of all arts' and It Is based' upon scientific knowledge which is1 not afforded by the ordinary means of education. It is an accepted principle of our free and liberal government that tho.educa tion of tbo youug is a public charge and, duly. This was a fundamental principle of the ancient republics, and is unquestionably tho basis of any free and popul.r government in which every citizen is at onco sovereign and a public servant. Invention appears to have begun at the wrong end. Our mowers and reapers aud other devices for gather ing crops have beon perfected, while machinery for potting tho ground in order for tho crops has boon compar atively neglected. Ingenuity, especial ly that of our countrymen, seems to have almost expended its resources in tho invention of harvesters, but there is little more to be harvested per aero now, than thero was before. Our pro duction has not kept paco with the ca pacity to garner it, and regarding agricultural machinery as a whole, wo enjoy but half the advantage' it is capable of bestowing". When as. much shall liavo been clono' for' tlflagc, as has been done for reaping, tho equili brium will bo restored, and thon. and not till then, will agriculture gain tho full reward for tho labor her Invent ors havo expended upon the machlo. cry already at her command HARBISON'S: MESSAGE h P I.. i i JX THE PRESIDENT'S SUGGESTIONS TO THE 51st CONGRESS, The McKinley Bill and tho Federal Election 13111 Favored. Statistics nnd llevlcws of Commerce lor tho Past Year. Washington, D.C., Doc. 1. Tho second annual session of tho LI congress was bo gun at noon. Immediately oftor the call to order, a oommlttoo was appointed to notify the president that congress was ready for business. The president's incssago was sent in response, and laid beforo both houses. After tho introduction of new congressmen iuto office, tho message, of which the following is a summary, was read. FOnEIOX PAIRS. Tho president opens his message by con gratulating tho departments on the honesty and oflicicucy with which they have con ducted tho public business, disbursing $400, -000,000. Ho refers to tho South American and international marine conferences, to tho republic of Brazil, and says ho has called Mr. Mizuer, minister to San Salva dor, from his post for his misconduct in tho Barrundia affair. The Nicaragua canal is progressing satisfactorily. The treaty of Samoa is beginning to produ salutary effects. It is hoped that a reciprocity ar rangement may bo made with Sp;iin in re gard to Cuban commerce. .Other foreign topics of less interest are discussed. RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES. Receipts from all sources for flsoal year, ending Juno 30, 1890, ?403,9t)3t0S0.55; total expenditures. $358,618,584.52; sur plus, $108,344,490.03. For current fiscal year partly estimated receipts, $400,000, 000; expenditures, $354,000,000; surplus, $52,000,000: loss from customs last four months, 25,000,000. For year ending June, 1392, rocoipts, $3.3.000,000; ex penditures $357,852,209.42; surplus, $15,- 147,790. &S. SILVER LAW, The act ''directing tho purchaso of sil ver bullion aud tho issue of treasury notes thereon," approved July 14, 1890, has beon administered by the secretary of tho treas ury with an earnost purpose to get into circulation at tho earliest possiblo dates the full monthly amounts of treasury notes contemplated by Its provisions, nnd at tho same timo to glvo to tho market for silver bullion such support as tho law contem plates. Tho recent depreciation in tho prlco of sliver has been observod with re gret. Tho rapid rise In tno price wnicn anticipated and followed the passage of the act was inCuonccd In some degree by speculation, and tho recent reaction is in part the result of tho samo cause and ra part of recent monetary disturbances. Tho new ships aro making satisfactory progress, uur.ng mo winter mere win havo been In all 13 new efticlcnt vessels addod to the navy. They havo improved tho spirit of tho officers und men. "Cou- lidenco and prido in the ship among tho crew are equivalent to a secondary bat tery." Tno examination and adjudication of pension claims havo been more rapid than ever beforo. "Tho liberal enlargement of tho law should suggest a moro careful scrutiny and of bills for special relief." "Tho ouly safe thing is to so deal witn tho territory of Utah that thoso who be lieve polygamy to bo rightful should not mako it lawful." THE MCKINLEY DILI, Tho general ..tariff act has only partially gone Into operation, some ot its important provisions being limited to taae enect at dates yet in the futuro. Tho general pro visions of th? law Uayo, boga jn. farce less than tiO days. Its permanent effects upon l trade and prices still largely stand in con jecture. It is curious to note that tbn ir?5irrt in tho nricos of articles wholls 1 unuffccVcd by TiO tariff act was by 5anv hastily ascribed to that act, ,'tico was not taken of thq fact ttiat tho general ten dency of the, markets Was upwurd from influences Wholly tif&fc from tho recent tariff legislritjm. Tho.cnlargemcnt of Our currency fcy tho, silver bill undoubtedly gave ar4 upward tendeucy to trado and had a ra,Vtrtd effect on prices; but this natural UDt 'desired effect of tho silver legislation v3 by many erroneously attributed to tho tariff act. Thero is neither wisdom nor Justico in tho suggestion that tho subject of tariff revision shall bo opened beforo this law has had a fair trial. It is quito truo that every tariff schedule is subject to objec tions. No 'bill was -over framod, I sup pose, that in all of its rates and classifica tions had tho full approval even of a party caucus. Each legislation is always and nocessarily the product of compro mise as to details, and tho present law is no exception. But in its genera Scope nnd effect I think it will Justfy tho support of thoso who bclicvo that American lobulation should conscrvo and defend American trado and tho wages of Amer ican workmen. ) Tho misinformation as to tho terms of tho art, which has been So widely dissctn hatod ot homo and abroad, will bo correct ed by experience, nnd tho evil auguries as to fts results confounded by the market ro ports, tho savings banks, international trade balances and tho general prosperity cf our people. Already wo begin to hoar from abroad nnd from our custom-houses that tho prohibitory effect upon Importa tions imputed to tho act is uot Justified. Tho imports at tho port of Now York for tho first thrco weeks of November wero nearly eight per cent greater than in tho same period in 1889. and 20 per cent great er than in tho sarre period of 18HS. And so far from being an act to limit exports, I confidently belicvo that under it wo shall seeuro a larger and moro profitablo partici pation in foreign trade than wo havo ever enjoyed and that wo shall recover a propor tion participation iu tho ocean-carrying trade of tho world. Wbilo it has not been thought best to renew formally tho suggestion ot an in ternational conference looking to an agree ment touching tho full uso of sliver for coinage at a uniform ratio, caro has been taken to observe closely any chango in tho nituatlon abroad, and no favorable oppor tunity will bo lost to promote a result which it is confidently believed would con fer very largo benefits upon tbo commerce of tho world. faiim rnonrcT?, Tdio report of the wvTCtnry of agriculture deserves special attention in view of tho fact that tho year has liocn marked In a very unusual degree by agitation and or ganization among tho farmers looking to an increase in tho profits of their business. A very substantial improvement in tho mar ket prices of tho lending farm products dur'nj tho year Is noticed. Tho boat sugar industry has already passed the experi mental stage and is a commercial success. Tjhe area over whlgtt thesujax boot can be successfully cultivated is very large, and another field crop of great value is offered to the choice of the farmer. CIVIL BEUVIGK REFORM. The law relating to tho civil service has, so far as I can loam, been executed by those having tho power of appointment in the classified service with fidelity and im partiality, and tho service has been in creasingly Batisfactorv. Tho report of the commission shows a large amount of good was done during tho year with, very limited appropriations. IMPROVEMENT IX TRADE. The general trado and industrial condition throughout tbo country during tho yoar have shown a marked improvement. For 1888 tho merchandiso balances ef foreign trade had boon largely in our favor, but during that year and the year following they turned against us. It is very gratify ing to know that tho last fiscal your again shows a balance in our favor of over $0S, 000,000. Tho bank of clearings, which furnishes business transacted for the first tea months of tho year 1S90, show.as com pared with the samo months of 1889, an increaso for the wholo country of 8.4 per cent., while tho Increase outside of New York wan over 13 per cent. During the month of October tho clearings of tho wholo country 6howod an increaso of 3. 1 per cent over October, 18S9, whilo outsldo of New York tho increase was 11 per cent Tho figure show that tho Increaso in tho volumo of business was very general throughout tho country. That this larger business was being couducted upon a safo and profitablo basis is shown by the fact that thero were 300 less failures reported in October, 1890, than in tho samo month of tho preceding year, with liabilities diminished by about 3,000,000. Tho valuo of our exports of domestic merchandiso during tho last year was over $115,000,000 greater than tho pro- ceding yoar, aud was only exceeded onco in our history. About $100,000,000 of this excess was in agricultural products. Tho production of pig Iron always a good gaugo of general prosperity is shown by a recent census bullotin to havo boon 153 per cent greater in 1890 than In 1880, and tho production of steel 290 per cent greater. Mining in coal has had no limitation except that resulting from deficient trans portation. Tho general testimony is that labor is everywhere fully employed, and tho reports for the last year show a smaller number of employes affoctod by strikes and lockouts than in auy year sinoo 1884. SEVERAL .iEOOMMENDATIONS. Ho concurs in.. the secretary of war's recommendation for coast defenses, and the encouragement of tho state militia. Tno act of violence committed against obnoxious postmasters havo been prose cuted, or tho postoffices abolishod. One hundred fraudulent naturalization papers havo been canceled by tho attorney general. He commends legislation for a moro full and judicial inquiry before grant ing them. Tho management and efficiency of tho postofllco has been greatly improved; the malls havo been largely freed from lottery matter. FOREIGN TRADE. From tho thno of my induction into office tho duty of using every power and in'Juenco given by law to tho executivo department for tho development of larger markets for our products, especially our farm products, has beon kept constantly In mind, and no effort hus boon or will bo spared to promote that end. Wo aro un der no disadvantage In any foreign market, except that we pay our workmen better wages than are paid elsewhere better abstractly, better relatively to the cost of tho necessaries of lifo. I do not doubt that a very largely increased foreign trado is accessible to us without bartering for either our homo market for such products of tho farm and shop as our own people can supply or tbo wagc3 of our working people. RECII'ROCITT. manv of tho products of wood and Iron, and in moats and breadstuffs, wo havo adantages that only need better facilities of intercourse and transportation to secure for tho.n largo foreign markets. The, reciprocity clau.90 of tho new tariff act wisely and effectfvely ojvis tho way to se cure a largo reciprocal trade in exchango for tho free admission to our ports of cer tain products. Tho right of independent nations to special reciprocal trado conces sions is well established, and docs not im pair either tho comity duo to other powers of what is known as tho "favored nation clauso," so cencrally found in commercial treaties. What is given to ono for an ado quato agroed consideration cannot bo claimed by another freely. Tho state of tho revenues was such that we could dis ponso with any import duties on coffee, too, hides and tho lower grades of su,?ar and molasses. That tho largo advantago re sulting to tho countries producing and ex porting theso articles by placing them on tho free list entitles us to expect a fair ro turn in tho way of customs concessions up on actlclcs exported by us to them was so obvious that to have gratuitously abandon ed this opportunity to enlarge our trado would have been an uupardouablo error. There are but two methods of maintain ing control of this question open to con gress. To place all of tlieso articles upon tho dutiable list subject to such treaty agroemouts as could be Becured, or to plaeo them all presently upon tho f reo list, but subject to tho relrapositioa of specifiod dutios of tho countries from which wo re ceived thorn should they refuso to give us suitable reciprocal benefits. This latter method, I think, possesses great advant ages. It expresses la advance tho consent of congress to reciprocity arrangements nffocting these products, which must other wise have b.'on delayed and unascertained until each treaty was ratified by tho sen ate and the necessary legislation cnaetod by conirrans. Experience has showu that somo treaties looking to roeiprocal trado h ivo failed to seeuro a two-thirds vote In tho senate for ratification, and others hav ing passed that st.igo havo for years awaited tho t unc urreneo of tho houso and senate in such modifications of our revenue laws as wero necessary to givo c!Toct to their provision. Wo now have tho con currence of botii houses in advance in a distinct and definite offer of froo entry to our ports of specific articles. Tho exe cutive is not required to deal Iu ronjecturo us to what congress will accept Indeed, this reciprocity provision Is moro than an offer. Our part f the bargain is complete; delivery h:is been made; and when tho countries from which wo rccclvo sugar, coffee, tea and hides havo placed on their free lists such of our products as shall bo agroed upon, as an equivalent for our con cession, a proclamation of that fact com pletes tho transaction; and in tue mean tlmo our own people have froo sugar, tea, coffee and hides. CONGKEffS KU9T WORK. In addition to tho important bills ttat I became laws beforo tho adjournment of the last, sess'on, some otr.er bills of the highest huportauci -were well a.lvanccd toward a final vol o and now stand unon the calendars of tho two houses in favored positions. To somo of these measures which seem to mo most important I now oneuy call your attention. BCOSIDIE", I desire to repeat with added urgency tho recommendations contained in my last annual message in relation to tho devclopo mcnt of American steamship Hues. The reciprocity clauso of tho tariff bill win bo largely limited and its benefits retarded and diminished if provision Is not contem porancously mado to cncoun.go tho estab lishment of first-class steam communica tion between our ports nnd tho ports of sucn nations as may meet our overtures for enlarged commercial exchanges. A subsidy for the Australian lino is especially recommended. Tho bill for an international bank, for the relief of tho supremo court and for tho raising of tho salaries of district court Judges, for the adjustment of tho Spanish and Mexican land grants, for a national bankrupt law, for a uniform safety brake and coupler on all railroads to savo the lives of 2,000 aud tho limbs of 20,000 young men killed or wounded annually, for tho water supply of arid regions, for tho uso of tho telegraph In connection with tho postofflco department should all. bo passed this cominj session. FREE AND HONEST ELECTION'S. If any intelligent nnd loyal company of American citizens wero required to cata logue tho essential human conditions of national life, I do not doubt that, with ab solute unanimity they would begin with "froo and honest elections." And it is gratifying to know that generally thero is a growing aud non-partisan demand for better election laws. But against this sign of hope and progress must bo sot the de pressing and undeniablo fact that election laws and methods are sometimes cunningly contrived to secure minority control, while violence completes tho shortcomings of fraud. In my last annual message I suggested that the development of tho existing law providing a federal supervision of con gressional elections offered an effective method of reforming theso abuses. Tho need of such a law has manifested itself in many parts of tho country, nnd its whole- somo restraints and penalties will bo useful to alL Tho constitutionality of such legis lation has been affirmed by the supreme court Its probable effectiveness is evi denced by tho character of tho opposition mado to it It has been denounce.! as if it wero a new exercise of federal power and an invasion of tho rights of tho states. Nothing could bo further from tho truth. Congress has already fixed tho timo for tho election of members of congress. It has declared that votes for members of con gress must be by written or printed ballot; it has provided for tho appointment by the circuit courts in certain oases, and upon the petition of a certain number of citizens, of election supervisors and mado it their duty to superviso the registration of voters conducted by thoetato officers; to challenge persons offering to register; to personally inspect and scrutinlzo tho registry list, Tmu to affix their names to tho lists for tho pur poso of Identification and tho prevention of frauds; to attend at elections and remain with tho boxes until tho votes aro all cast and counted; to attach to tho registry lists and election1 returns any statement touching the accuracy and fairness of tho registry and election, and to take and transmit to tho clerk of tho houso of representatives any evidence of fraudulent practices which may bo presented to them. Tho samo law provides for the appointment of deputy United States marshals to attend at the polls, support tho supervisors in the dis charge ot thoir duties, and to arrest per sons violating tho election laws. The pro visions of this familiar lot of revised statutes havo been put into exercise by both the great political parties, and in tho north as well cs iq tbo, south, by the filing Vth the court of the petitions require! Dy law, It U hot, therefore, a question whether ! wo shall havo a federal election law, foi wo now havo ono, and have had for nearly 20 ycar3, but whether wo shaft have im cffectlvo law. Tho present law stops ust short of effectiveness, for It surrenders tc tho local authoritic.3 all control over the certification which establishes tho prima 1 facie right to a scat in thQ houso of repre sentatives. This dofect should bo cured. Equality of representatives and tho party of electors must bo maintained or every thing that is valuablo in our system of government Is lost Tho qualifications of an elector must be sought iu tho law, not in tho opinions, prejudices or fears of any class, however towcrfuL Tho path of the elector to tho ballot box must bo free from tho ambusb of fear und tho enticements ol fraud; tho ccuut bo truo and open thul none shall gainsay it Such a law tdiouid bo absolutely non-partisan and Impartial. It should glvo tho advantago to honesty nnd tho control tb majorities. Surely there is nothing sectional about this creed, auQ if it shall happen that tho penalties of laws ' intended to enforce theso rights fail here and not thero, it is not because tho law is sectional, but bocauso, happily, crime if local and not universal. Nor should it bl that every law, whether relating to eloo ; tlons or any other subject, whothci enacted by the stato or tho nation, has force Ik hind It; tho courts, tho marshal oi constable, tho posso commitus. tho prison, ai'O all and always behind tho law. ArPROl'RLVTIONS. Tho preparation of the general appropria tion bills should bo conducted with the greatest caro and the closest scrutiny ol expenditures. Appropriations should bt adequato to tho needs of tho public service, but they should bo absolutely frco from prodigality. I venture again to remind you that th brief timo remaining for tho consideration 1 of the Important legislation now awaitrau your attention oTcrs no margin for waste. If tho present duty is discharged with dili gence, fidelity nnd courage, tho work of the LI. congress may Ik) confidently submitted to the cousidcrato Judgment of tho people. Young married women have a peculiar charm for unmarried younsf men, and a young man's first lovi Is almost uniformly devoted to a woman c'der than himself. There Is nothing I the history of tho race to prove that anything has ever beon preserved or to virtue by a STStom of essential falsehood, or policy of arbitrary constraint Thero Is a very general Impression among men whoo affections are not engaged that tho bust women aro - mar ried, and that thoso who aro loft do not amount to much. A young woman who Isafrlod of com promising her position by recognizing men out of her set, or out of a certain lino of gentonlo occupations shows by how frail a tenure sho holds her own respectability. -J. U. Holland. THE TOjPOLOOAMPO COLONY. Latfit Import fronwtliat Inmnwhtt DU . ppointlDfg Kffurt at CoiamunUin. '. Some six years ajo Mr. A. K. Owens wrote a book out of which prew a co operative movement to found a colony and city at Topolobampoon tho Pari no coast, in tho provlnoeof Sinaloa. Mex ico. . Mr. Napoleon Iloajrlaud, who has just returned from a visit to Topo lobampo, has this to say about the col ony as it; is at present: During tho entire time that the col ony lias been on the ground, now nearly four years, it lias had no homo or permauent abiding place of its own. Strictly speaking, like history of tho Credit Fonder Company's attempt is neither for nor against the successful working of "integral co-operation,1' the original and basic principles of the company. Mr. Owen has himself de clared that no part of his plan has yet been tried. Director Wilbur, chairman of the resident board of directors, telbi me that the.original plan of co-operation "had neither been tested nor marred." The colony has been an ex emplification, not of integral or entire co-operation, but of a uiild or partial form of communism. Tor instance, they havo had equal wages for equal numbers of hours' work. Tne ox driver and tho skilled ca hi net-maker receive equal pay for a day's work. The pay consists iu labor checks or company credits, and are on the basis of $3, or thrco "units of account," for eight hours1 work. Theso are ex changeable only through tho company for tho labor or tho' labor products commended by tho company. The colony is not In debt, but it has very little money. At present there are only about 130 people iu the col ouy. This includes women, children and, invalids. There aro perhaps thirty or forty able-bodied productive workers. In such a small community it is impossible for it to become self supporting without exchanging prod ucts with the outside world. Conse quently, for the purchase of such com modities as are not produced by the colony, tho labor cheeks are worthless, for tho colony has produced very little to sell to outside markets. It has been estimated that from $100,000 to $300.- 000 worth ot labor 'credits" have alroidy been issued. Nevertheless. I am told that their value, oueo verv low, is now on the increase. Tho credits" havo always paid for food ut , the company's store, at tho public res- ! tauraut. cr at the private tables. They na-.e aiways ueen receivable ror wash bills, aud have paid educational and school expenses. They are 4,legal tender for printing, subscription to The colony newspaper, and photographs la limited quantities. They pay for mak ing or mending clothes, boots aud shoes, for jewelry work, for a physi cian's caro and medicine, for music for social oecasious. aud in fact for unv services that one member can do for another, from tho making of a loaf of bread to the building of a house. Tho peoplo havo no houso rent to pay. J'hey own their own houses. They pay for them in their owu labor, where they do not build themselves; then, too, they havo no taxes to pay. Too company, by special concession, is not taxed for a period of teu years, but after that time the individual member . has no tax to pay, for the company pays the taxes. Tho social life of the colony has been its chief beauty ami charm. The morals of tho community have been quite superior. The peoplo did not advertise themselves as "saints." They declared on tho other hand that they meant to get along without priests and churches. The leaders do not mean by tin's that thev iutcud. o get aloug without paying any nlTentiou to reTig- ioa. Lawyers and secret societies aro also tabooed They hire their, doctor by the year. Ho is at least expense when people aro the healthiest. It is not to his pecuniary interest that any one should be sick. It is to his finan cial interest that all the colonists should keep well. Thero has been no police, no jail, no calaboose, no ex chango of blows, no theft or robbery, no seductions, no wife beating, no drunkenness to speak of. Drinking intoxicating beverage, smoking or chewing tobacco, cnedty to nimals. profanity and indecent lauguago are unpopular, among the men as well as among the women; hence one sees as little of any of these vices ns he would lind at a well-regulated Sunday school picuic. The lifo in the colony resem bles nothing so much as a long-drawn picnic where excesses have been avoided, but where the ice cream and cake have all been consumed. The grounds whore the houses stand at La Logia, with their thickets and bowers of fragrant flowering vines, hushes and trees und wiuding jmths und open spaces, seem not unlike a park ruu wild. Folly one-half or two-thirds of the peoplo" on tho ground came during tbo lirst year. They came to stay. Very few would reluru to remain if their expeuses to tho states wero free to them. They like tho climate, tho country nnd tho life, though they have suffered many privation. Tim com ing year will decid tho fate of the col on', whether "it I to bo or not to be." During that time thero is every reason to hope th.it a permanent organization will bo rtfeeled. on a solid basis, tho organization now in force beiug but a temporary makeshift, with hut little authority and littlo to support it. ulouc-JJanocnU. Tlie Discovery of Gold. One of the anomalies of the gold dis covery was its slowness in reaching Antcricaus in California. It was mid summer before the news was L'onerallv Irroditod in California nnd "Oregon. ' Then, when people became convinced that tho reports wero true and that fortunes could be mado in a few months in the Sacramento valley, there was a rush such ns was never beforo kuown in history. Of course the Cali fornia settlers had tho great advantage 'of proximity to tho new El Dorado. .Next, perhaps, canio those in Hono lulu. Tho Oregoniansobtained their ' news by wav of tho Sandwich Islands 'and Fort Vancouver. Those hardy pioneers had Just emerged from a long itnigglo with hungwr, the wilderness j aud the Indians. Thcj wero poor, and 1 they saw in the future only a vista of ,wary work with small pro'lits, as the bad no market for their produce. Suddenly the scattered settlement! were electrified by the news of thQ gold discovery. Those who look part in the'msh declare that not less than two-thirds of all those capable of bear ing arms swarmed over the Siskiyou mountains and came down to the gold fields of the Sacramento. Iu the meat time the news had spread to tho east to Australia, and to South America, From all quarters came voting men as eager for adventure as for gold. Not one in a thousand had any practical knowledge of mining or anv plan o remaining in the country after a fort uuo had been made. Eighty thousand is a conservative estimate of the num ber of gold huuters who flocked to California in the first twelve months that followed Marshall's discovert'. . George Jlumlin Fitch, in The CaUury, AN INVENTIVE NEGRO. nil Talent Dlnplnyml in tti RnUdlng of Steamboat in Liberia Some amusing descriptions have been written about tho home-made steamboat that plies on tho St. Paul's lliver, Liberia, but little has been said of tho mechanical genius who knocked the boat together out of material that was never intended for a steamboat. lii.s name is Irons, and ho used to bo a slave iu South Carolina. A while ngo he mado up his miud that it waa high timo thero was a steamboat plv ingonthoSt. Paul's lliver between Monrovia aud the iirst rapids. He se cured the cngino of an abandoned sugar-cauo crusher aud went to work to build his steamer. He took a canoo fifty feet Jong and ripped it from stem to stem with a saw. He placed tho halves uine feet apart, ribbed and planked them, and before loug the hull was ready for tho machinery. Hardly any two pieces of the machinery wero ever together before. Ho had to make a score of things before he could in duce that cngino to turu a paddle wheel. Ho picked up bits of iron shafting aud so on hero and there, and with tho aid of a blacksmith shop knocked them into shape so that they would work smoothly together. Ho mado a pair of paddle-wheels, built a deck house, secured an old steam whistle, lilted up a rudder - wheel, launched his creation, aud was ready for business. This man was onco an illiterate slave on a cotton plantation, but iuventive talent was born in him. His side-wheel steamer is not conspicuous for speed or beaut)-, but sho is serviceable, and is noteworthy as the iirst steamboat ever built in Africa, and probably the first that was ever built out of picked-up material. One of Liberia's disadvan tages is the fact that tho former slaves, who compose her citizens, aro most of them poor, uot on I)' in purse but also in intellectual equipments. But she has her men of mark like Dr. lilydeu, who would be respected anywhere for their attainments and ability; and she ha reasou to be proud of such a man as Irons, who was kuown for his re markable inventive aud mechanical talent long beforo ho built Liberia's Iirst Eteamboot. N. J', tiun. A Itemarkable Career. In tho new number of the Indian Antiquary Captain R. C. Temple, the editor, in the course of an article oa the coins of the modern Punjab chiefs, refers to this remarkable career of one of these chiefs, George Thomas, once the rajah of Ilansi. who started lifo as a sailor. Thomas originally went to India in, a man-of-war in 1781-2 and served various chiefs in southern India. , and by 1787 had found his way into the far northwest to the court of the Begum Samrti at Sardhana. whoso service he entered. This ho quitted in 1792 f-.r that of Apa Khanda llao, a Maratha chief, with whom he quarreled in 1795. He was now a personage of importance in possession of a jagir granted by his late chief, and was ablo to help Ilegrum Samrti when in dis tress. Upon Apa Khanda Itao's sui cide, in 1797. Thomas seems to havo been on uniformly bad terms with his successors, and spent most of his lime in defending his jagir from their at tacks. In 17IW, taking advantago of the troubles of the times, he appear. to have given up the land. he held from the Marntha., and to have seized the district round Ilis.ir aud Aansl. known ns Hariana. The latter town he made his capital and established himself as rajah thereof. His territory comprised 253 villages and'paid a revenue of about 3.000.000 rupees. Again, according to his biographer, quoting his own words, "Here, says Mr. Thomas (with that energy and spirited animation which distinguished him throughout his ex traordinary life). I established a mint ami coined my own rupees, which I made current in my nrmy and country, etc." After establishing him self at llansi, tho rest of Thomas's life, like that of the neighboring chiefs, was ouo of perpetual war, in his case ngainst the Marat has and the Sikhs, as represented chiellly by the chiefs of Palinla, Nahhn and Sind. In his case, also, it ended in a general combination against him, his flight into British ter ritory, and Ids death at Berhamporo in 1802." Ho built a fort due east of mid not far from Delhi, which he named alter himself Ocorgegnrh but which is now kuown as Jahazgarh, just as he is known ns Jahaz (ship) Sahib, apparently iu rccollectin of his origin. A Lenson In Language. 0!t, yum. yum.' cried Miss Annex, as Mis Harvard, her chum, laid a bag of Seckel pairs before her. Carefully laying aside her tolu and tossing her Plato into a corner she seized oim of the ftuit and began munching. Ami why, dear," she said, with tho usual Ya'ukco recklessness of pronunciation, why do you suppose they'call theso delightful pears Sickel pears!" "Oh, vo'u dear littlo goose T tx clamied Miss Harvard. "What makes von nsk such a silly question, stupid? It's because they gather 'em with n a what-yoti-call-um sickle, my dear, of course. Yum, yum." (Jhicago Times. Parls's water supply Is proportion ately moro than one-third less tbaa any Ameilcau city of uolth. 1""