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FIRST HUNDRED THOUSAND VOTES. LITERARY
r DIGEST’S DRY-ENFORCEMENT PD „ 2T01 WET ft » - • Ten Million Americans Interrogated on Volstead Act, Strict En forcement, Modification of Act and Repeal of Eighteenth Amendment to Constitution Editor's note:—American Issue does not impugn the motive of the : Literary Digest in taking the poll on the question of enforcing the Eight eenth Article of the Constitution. The Issue does believe however that this poll is unwise. The reasons for this belief are presented in another column of this issue. The following are the results, of the first hundred thousand votes counted as analyzed and tabulated by the Digest in its issue of July 15. PROHIBITION A. Do you favor the continuance and strict enforcement of the Eighteenth Amendment and Volstead Law? Those in favor— 32,445. B. Do you favor a modification of the Volstead Law to permit light wines and beers? Those in favoi—39,665. C. Do you favor a repeal of the Prohibition Amendment? Those in favor—22,547. (Literary Digeet July 15, 1022) A large proportion of the ten million ballots in this huge poll have been dis tributed and the returns are coming in by thousands and ten thousands. Ap proximately 100,000 votes have been Counted and tabulated for the present issue us shown in summary (in almve . table) and in detuil (in table which follows). The most startling fact re vealed by this first tally is that the early voters are against the continuance and enforcement of t1ie present Prohibition law by the proportion of nearly two to one. On the other hand, the voters show themselves in favor of the Prohibition amendment, or, in other words in favor of some sort of Prohibition law by the -oven larger ratio of 72,000 to 22,500. The largest vote given to any of the three Prohibition questions favors the rontinu ancoof the Amendment and is also in favor mollification of the Volstead law may be considered in favor of the present Prohi bition amendment since they did not : avail themselves of their opportunity to vote against it presented under question |“C" on the ballot. The amendment it self therefore is attacked only by a mi nority of fewer tliun one in three of those whose votes have been counted thus far. It is the Volstead law that is chiefly under tire. Circumstances modifying the force of the large "moist” and “dry" vote shown | by the first returns appear on examin ation of the detailed tabulation. It will lie seen that in the driest states, those in the Middle West and South, the re turns have not yet been tabulated in | any volume. The West Nortii Central 'states including Minnesota, Iowa, Mis souri, the Dakotas, Nebraska and Kansas j are practically unregistered, but the DETAILED TABULATION OF THE FIRST RETURNS ON PROHIBITION New England States For For For Enforcement Modification Repeal 1. Maine . 24 17 17 2. New Hampshire . 16 13 3 3. Vermont . 16 6 6 4. Massachusetts . 4,242 4,862 2,805 5. Rhode Island . 7 14 17 , 6. Connecticut . 34 39 20 Total votes . 4,339 4,951 2,868 Middle Atlantic States 1. New York . 6,lt>9 9,315 4.966 2. New Jersey . 29 45 27 3. Pennsylvania . 8,307 9,139 6,573 Total votes .14,505 18,499 11,566 East North Central States 1. Ohio . 829 716 250 2. Indiana . 152 73 33 3. Illinois . 9,312 12,012 6,621 4. Michigan . 125 84 36 5. Wisconsin . 75 69 22 ' Total votes .. 10.493 12,954 6,962 West North Central States V. Minnesota ,.,,,..41.... 89 82 17 2. Iowa . 113 88 23 3. Missouri . 100 67 33 4. North Dakota . 16 17 1 5. South Dakota . 21 9 2 6. Nebraska . 72 44 19 7. Kansas . Ill 34 14 Total votes . 522 _ 341 109 South Atlantic States 1. Delaware . 6 4 3 2. Maryland . 15 27 36 3. District of Columbia - 14 27 8 4. Virginia . 28 27 9 5. West Virginia . 18 20 4 6. North Carolina. 32 14 7 7. South Carolina . 10 11 4 8. Georgia . 24 27 12 9. Florida . 11 4 8 Total votes . 158 161 91 East South Central States 1. Kentucky . 27 25 28 2. Tennessee . 42 17 10 • • 3. Alabama . 23 19 5 4. Mississippi . 13 II 5 Total votes . 105 72 48 West South Central States 1. Arkansas . 15 12 2. Louisiana . 12 13 3 3. Oklahoma . 43 29 7 4. Texas . 116 62 21 Total votes . 186 116 32 Mountain States 1. Montana . 11 16 8 2. Idaho . 9 13 5 3. Wyoming . 2 5 4. Colorado . 31 30 11 5. New Mexico . 5 * 5 1 6. Arizona . 8 3 7. Utah . 8 16 6 8. Nevada . 1 1 1 Total votes . 75 89 32 Pacific States 1. Washington . 830 951 247 2. O recron . 28 22 6 3. California . 1,204 1,509 586 Total votes . 2,062 2.482 839 Grand Total .32,445 39,665 22,547 of a modification of the Volstead law to permit the use of the less alcoholic drinkables. This formidable showing of the “moists” and “wets” however, is sub ject to several conditions that may en tirely change the complexion of the table before the final count is in. It is the Digest's policy of course to let the weekly summary of votes speak for itself as other facts and opinions are permitted to speak for themselves through these pages. The detailed table and the summarised table arc the real “story” of the showing of the Prohibition poll to date. Only such incontrovertible facts will be pointed out here as will serve to make the progress of the bal loting more clear and interesting. It seems indisputable for instance, that per sons who vote for the repeal of the Pro hibition Amendment would prefer modi-, fication to continuance and enforcement of the present law. Thus groups two and three may be combined in their opposi tion to a completely dry nation. On the Other hand, persons who vote for a1 votes which arc shown in the table seem to indicate that in their attitude toward the liquor question most of them mar be. considered definitely in the dry column. In Kansas for instance the votes run 111 for strict enforcement to 34 for mod ification and 14 for repeal of the amend ment. Thus the Prohibitionists it is seen outnumber the combined “moists” and “wets” by almost three to one, a situa tion that is duplicated in no other state. Since this early vote was tabulated a large number of returns have come in for Kansas and e\en though we may be anticipating next week's report of votes it may lie mentioned that this large vote is striking verification of conditions in dicated by the small vote shown here. Kansas is for Prohibition, several thou sand of her voters indicate by approx imately three to one. It is a signifi cant fact also that this state has tried a dry regime for a number of years and knows better than most others how it woyka. California, it will be noted, is well ! up in the “moi»t” column as numerous I humidity experts might have predicted. ! Illinois where a rreent investigation by I a newspaper association showed that had I loose was more expensive than anywhere | else in the United Staes, rolls up a ma i however, where the majority against Prohibition. In this case as well as in the case of the Middle Atlantic States, however .where the mojority against Prohibition is also large, it must lie pointed out that the city vote which is almost ulways damper than the rural vote no matter what part of the country is considered, is received and counted tirst. Even in nearby states the small) towns and country districts do not send in their ballots so quickly as do the1 larger cities as far away ns Chicago.! Aside from slower mail service which, I may affect some districts it seems to be true that the country dweller gives more thought to the matter before milk | ing up his iniml. Another rause that may render larger tabulations of returns drier than this first one, may lie found in the fact that the women's vote by and large comes in slower than that of the men. It is of course a much de bated question whether women as a ! -.- ~ . ’■ ' —o class are really more dry-minded than the men hut the drys continue to claim the women's vote. This first vote to lie tabulated it may also lie remarked, is gathered largely from the telephone subscribers of the country, lists of whom furnished the chief address-list for mailing flip earli est ballots. Lists from such sources it has been argued, furnish a very repre sentative vote even though they may not include many elements of the floating population, both those who live in hotels and those who live in boarding-houses or apartments without private tele phones. A vote gathered from telephone subscribers tends to be solid and conserv ative rather than radical. Later on re sults of the polling of factories where working men and women will be given a chance to express their preferences will lie shown. The present Digest poll gives the first opportunity ever given to the citizens of the United States to take part in a nation-wide vote on Prohibi tion. The importance of obtaining the widest and most representative registra tion of public opinion is the strongest possible argument for marking and re turning all ballots at once. OFFICIAL RECORDS OF THE STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS TELL STORY OF GOOD EFFECT OF PROHIBITION (Concluded From Page One) the two Prohibition years was 43,333, a decrease of 55 per cent. The aver age arrests for drunkenness in the state for the seven license years were 108,123; the average arrests for drunk enness for the two Prohibition years 48,372, a decrease of 55 per cent. The population of the state in the seven license years was 3,693,100 and in 1920 the population was 3,852,326. Prohibition Boon to Women Prohibition’s beneficial effect on women has been pronounced. There were 5.233 fewer women^arrested for all offenses in Massachusetts in 1921 than in the last pre-war wet year, 1916; 4,218 fewer than in the average wet year. There has been a decrease of two-thirds in the arrcsM of wo men for drunkenness. During the seven wet years there was an annual average of 7,273 women arrested in Massachusetts for drunkenness. In the two drys years the average was only 2.251. This change affects par ticularly the life of the cities for about nine-tenths of the arrested wo men came from the cities and more than half of them from Boston alone. In Boston the average of 8,231 wo men arrested for all causes in the wet years, had dropped to 5,020 in 1921. The average for the two Prohibiton years was 43 per cent below that of the seven wet years. The drunken ness arrests fell from an average of 4,743 in the wet years to 1,494 ip.,the Prohibition years. Woman Population of Workhouse Decreases One-Half A decrease of practically one-half in the number of commitments to the state reformatory for women iff the two Prohibition years carries a stage farther the story not only of the passing of alcoholic women from the penal institutions but also of other women offenders. In 1921 there were but six women committed for drunk enness to the state reformatory for women, about five per cent of the total commitments as compared with the yearly average of 20 per cent in the seven wet years. Fewer Men in Workhouse The average commitments of men to the state reformatory for the seven wet years was 361, for the two dry years 235, a decrease of 34 per cent. The average commitments of men to the state reformatory for drunken ness in the seven wet years was 19, in the two dry years 1, a decrease of 94 per cent. Commitments to the state farm for vagrancy also de creased 60 per cent and commitments to the state farm for drunkenness also decreased 86 per cent during these periods. State Prison Population Reduced 27 Per Cent The average population of the state prison for the seven wet years was 692, for the two dry years 504, a de crease of 27 per cent. The average prison population of county jails for the seven wet years was 2,857, for the two dry years, 1,265, a decrease of 56 per cent. Children Have Better Chance in Life The children are having a better chance tinder Prohibition. Arrests of minors for all causes fell off slightly in Boston, about 1 per cent, in the two dry years from the wet years’ average, but the average of arrests of minors for drunkenness decreased 34 per cent. Arrests in Boston of chil dren under ten years of age have dropped almost one-half (45 per cent) in the Prohibition years. Arrests of children ten years of age but under fifteen fell off 21 per cent. In 1921 the total number of arrests of chil dren under fifteen years of age was the smallest in ten years. Compared with the wet years' average this rep resents a saving of about 600 children of this tender age who should be in the heme rather than within the arm of the law. Fewest Neglected Children of Decade In 1921 Arrests of the groups known as the neglectid, wayward and dcliquent children accounted for in Boston pol ice reports are decreasing in numbers, i The neglected and wayward reached in 1921 their lowest point in a decade. The number of delinquent children was the lowest since 1912. There were 539 fewer delinquent children on the police records of 1921 than the aver age for the seven wet years. Drunkenness appears to be vanish ing as a present factor in dependency and neglect of children placed in the care of the City Division of Child Welfare. The average of children neglected as shown in police records of Boston for the seven wet years was 206; for the two dry years 88, a decrease of 57 per cent. Of delin quent children for the seven wet years there were 2,903; for the two dry years 2,388, a decrease of 17 per cent. Drunkenness As Cause of Neglect Disappearing The table presenting the change in parental drunkenness is worth study ing. It shows that during the wet years there were on the average 18 drunken fathers to every 100 depend ent children coming before the au thorities of Boston. In the two dry years there was barely one drunken father to 100 children. In 1921 when hard times evidently brought an ex ceptional number of dependent chil dren, drunkenness was recorded of but two fathers of 282 children, less than one per cent. There was no drunkenness of mothers of dependent children in either 1920 or 1921. In the wet years three of each 100 chil dren had drunken mothers. There wore,no dependent children in 1919, 1920 or 1921 with both parents in temperate. In the wet years two of each 100 children had drunken father and mo ther. Among the neglected children admitted to the Boston Division of Child Welfare the disappearance of the drunkenness factor is still more marked. There was no drunkenness in fathers in 1920 or in 1921. In the wet years on the average one child in every four had a drunken father. There were no drunken mothers in 1920, only one in 1921. No cases were reported in 1921 in which both par ents were intemperate. In the wet 1 years one child in every seven had ! tw’o drunken parents. In Massachu- I setts the average number of neglected children annually before the lower courts in the seven wet years was 1 1,005 and was showing a nearly con stant tendency to increase. In 1921 there were but 724 cases. Less Work For Family Welfare Society The carefully kept records of the Boston Family Welfare Society (for merly the Associated Charities) re veal some impressive facts. The fac tors in family problems are studied and recorded in each case. The per centage of cases in which intemper ance was a factor fell off about nine tenths between 1917 and the two Pro hibition years 1920 and 1921. In 1917 intemperance appeared as a factor in about one family in every four (27 per cent,) in 1921-1922 in about one family in every 25 (4.1 per cent.) The Family Welfare Society cared for 4, 154 families in the year ending April 30, 1922, which included an entire year of serious unemployment and a winter when continued business de pression had made more demands than for several years. But in a pre vious year of unemployment, 1915, the Society cared for 4,847 families. Alcoholism Deaths Decreased 62 Per Cent Prohibition has resulted in remark able decrease in deaths from alcohol ism. The table showing deaths from alcoholism and certain related causes in Boston shows an average of 134 for six wet years. 1913-1918, as com pared with 50 lor two dry years 1920 21, a decrease of 62 per cent. (Note: There is clearly a discrepancy be tween the deaths for alcoholism re ported by the city and by the state for 1912. As it has been impossible to discover which figures are correct, they are included in the table as printed in the official reports. Nine teen-twelve is omitted from the com parison tables.) There was a decrease of 80 per cent in deaths from alcoholism of women; a decrease of 32 per cent from acci dents; a decrease of 19 per cent in suicides. Decreased Number of Accidental Homicides Persons killed per 1,000 motor vehicles registered was 1.43 in 1921, the lowest number in the decade. The deaths from alcoholism and certain related causes in the state of Massa chusetts shows a decrease of 65 per cent in the two dry years over the preceding six wet years; a decrease of 13 per cent in accidental homicides and of 11 per cent in suicides. There has been a decrease in alcoholic ad missions to hospitals. There were only 23 cases of delirium tremens among the Boston city hospital ad missions in 1921, the smallest number in six years. Alcoholic Insanity Decreases There is a steady decrease in alco holic insanity as shown by admissions to the Massachusetts public institu tions for insane. The average first admissions in these institutions for the seven wet years was 3,287, for the two dry years 2,962, a decrease of 10 per cent. The average admissions of alcoholic psychoses cases for the seven wet years 340; the two dry years, 106; a decrease of 62 per cent. Savings Banks Report Increase in Deposits Industrial prosperity was practic ally at its height when Prohibition became effective July 1, 1919. Hence the effect of Prohibition on savings accounts and poverty is doubly diffi cult to determine. The present paper makes no attempt to determine it but simply presents facts as revealed by public records. The last six months of 1920 and the year 1921 were a period of industrial depression which was at its worst in Massachusetts from December, 1920, to the end of March, 1921. The estimated percent age of unemployed in the winter 1920 21, was nearly double that of the winter 1914-15. The cost of living in Massachusetts in March, 1921, was represented by an “index number” of 166.4 as compared with 101 in the same month of 1915. Despite lavish spending on the part of many through the prosperous period, thrift or Prohibition, probably both, swelled savings in savings banks, co operative banks and school savings banks in Massachusetts. Notwith standing unemployment and the high cost of living the State Bank Com missioner was able to report October 31, 1921, that in the year ending on that date although the number of de posits accounts decreased in the 196 savings banks of the state, the total deposits had increased during the year by $30,724,172.67, a gain over the preceding year of 2.5 per cent. The average of each deposit increased from $465.26 to $478. During the seven wet years 1912-1918, the aver age annual gain in individual deposits was 1.46 per cent. In the two Prohi bition years, one of them a hard times year, the average annual gain was 4.2 per cent. Pauperism Disappearing The average of poor persons sup ported or relieved by all cities and towns during the seven wet years was 87,627; during the two dry years 71,853, a decrease of 18 per cent. The average for the dry years includes the number relieved during April, May, June, of 1919 before Prohibition became effective. The number cared for in Boston city relief institutions and given outside aid for the year ending March 31, 1921, was 10,976, the lowest number since 1913. The average for the seven wet years had been 14,533. The population of the Boston almshouse decreased 25 per cent during the two dry years over the preceding eight wet years. Dr. Eliott Summarizes Whole Matter The words of Dr. Chafles W. El iott, president emeritus of Harvard University, will summarize the whole matter. "Evidence has accumulated on every hand that Prohibition has pro moted public health, public happiness and industrial efficiency. This evi dence comes from manufacturers, physicians, nurses of all sorts, school, factory, hospital and district, and from social workers of many races and re ligions, laboring daily in a great va riety of fields. This testimony also demonstrates beyond a doubt that Prohibition is actually sapping the terrible force of disease, poverty, crime and vice. These results are obtained in spite of the imperfect en forcement in some communities of the Eighteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution. . . . Let Massachusetts at once take her whole share in putting into execution these prohibitory measures which are sure to promote public health, public hap piness and industrial efficiency throughout the country and to elim inate the chief causes of poverty, crime and misery among our people.” The clause of the Severson law of Wis consin prohibiting burs was held to be reasonable in an opinion handed down by the Supreme Court on July 18 assert ing that the bar afforded a temptation to put a kick into drinks by providing a hiding place for intoxicant*. NEW METHOD DISTRIBUTING • ALTER WINE DISCUSSED Plan Commission of Clergymen o£ Churches to Have Charge of Wine-making MIDDLE MEN ELIMINATED Att’y Gen’l Daugherty Gives Opinion in Response to Pro test of Churches A Washington Associated Press dispatch of July 16 says that Internal Revenue Commissioner Blair in ac cordance with an opinion by Attor ney-General Daugherty is considering new regulations governing the manu facture and distribution of wine for sacramental purposes. Under the new regulations rabbis, ministers and priests duly appointed by the heads of f the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of their churches, may supervise the manufac ture and distribution of altar wines in their specified territories. Mr. Daugherty held that the Na tional Prohibition act indicated an in tention on the part of Congress to place in the hands of the church it self a power whereby it will never be forced to use inferior products for sacramental purposes nor ever be left without means of supplying its needs for sacramental wines. The Attorney General said: “The intention of Congress is clear to abolish the business of the middle man or retail distributor in sacra mental wines, but the intent is equally apparent to permit the church if it agreed to assume the responsibility, through its duly authorized rabbi, minister or priest, full power to su pervise the manufacture of altar wines, and it is my opinion that the specific grant of the greater privilege of the supervision of manufacture carries with it the lesser privilege of supervision of distribution.” It is said that various religious bodies have claimed that the elimina- , tion of the sacramental wine dealers from business shut off all legitimate channels for obtaining wines for sac ramental purposes and forced the churches to use spirits of uncertain standard. Mr. Daugherty’s opinion was given in response to a demand from these protesting churches. NIJLLIFICATiGNiSTS ARE BUSY Under Leadership cf Association Against the Prohibition Amend ment; Brewers and Their Friends in Campaign to Elect Congress A dispatch from New York Citj is to the effect that the wets through the state-wide propaganda of the New York state division of the As sociaton Against the Prohibition Amendment—the brewers’ aid so ciety—expects to enroll 500,000 voters as members before the New York state elections. The Michigan branch of this same wet organization advises that it will content itself with trying to defeat dry candidates for Congress and elect wet ones and will not ask for a state wide vote on beer and wine this fall, but that it is quite likely that they will ask for such a vote in the spring election of 1923. 'Wet leaders are mailing questionnaires to all of the congressional candidates in Michigan , asking as to their stand on beer and wine. The Colorado branch of the Asso ciation expects to have 5,000 mem bers by election day. However they admit they have 4,000 of these 5,000 to get. In Missouri the wet organization has already begun a speaking cam paign and it is also making a canvass for membership and is preparing to question candidates for Congress as to their position on beer and wine. The Minnesota branch is planning to organize at least 100 local branches and hold a number of public meet ings throughout the state in an effort to bring sufficient pressure on mem bers of Congress to have them vote to legalize beer and wine. The acting head of the New York branch re cently announced that the national organization would concentrate its efforts in Congressman Volstead’s district in Minnesota in hopes of re tiring him. Of course the Minnesota branch will be particularly active in * Mr. Volstead’s district. WINE AND-BEER PETITIONS CIRCULATING IN OHIO Beer petitions are now in circula tion generally in all parts of Ohio. The circulation of the petitions is be ing managed by the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment with state headquarters in Cleveland. This brewery organization succeeds the Home Rule Association which managed former wet campaigns and for the most part new men are at the helm. The wet workers are go ing at the job quietly. They merely say the petitions are in circulation and that they anticipate little trouble in securing enough signers. Their aim is to secure 230,000 signatures. This number is slightly in excess of one tenth of the total vote cast in the general election of 1920. This pro portion is necessary to initiate an amendment to the state constitution as fixed by law.