HERE SHALL THE PRESS RIGHTS MAINTAIN, UNAWED BY INFLUENCE AND UNBRIBED BY GAIN.
OCTOBER 1, 1881. VOL. 1.-Na 12^
James A. Garfield, twentieth Presi
dent of the United States, died Septeni-
Elberon, near Long Branch, N. J.,
whither he was removed from Washing
ton oity on the Oth iust., from the
wounds roceived on Saturday, tho 2nd
of July, at the hands of the assassin,
Charles Guiteau. President Garfield
has fallen with his robes of office yet
new upon him, less tliTn seven months
from the day when, amid the salvos of
cannon and the applause of thousands
of his fellow-citizens and tho good
wishes of millions, he took the oath of
office and was formally inducted into
the chief magistracy of the Union. The
weeks of anxious suspense, of hope al
ternating with fear, which have elapsed
since the electric wire flashed to the
ends of the country aud over the civ
ilized world on tho fatal morning the
startling intelligence that the President
of the United States had been ruth
lessly, wantonly shot down in the city
of Washington, and lay prostrate in the
execntive mansion, will hardly lessen
the shock of the terrible reality of his
death. It seemed so unnatural, so cruel,
that people hardly comprehended at
first that it could be true. And when
the particulars of the shooting became
known, and the grave, almost desperate
character of the wounds was understood,
the President was so vigorous, so strong,
so brave, that although hoping almost
against hope,overybody eagerly fastened
upon the least indication that seemed
to augur a favorable result, and clung
to the smallest encouragement. But
that result was not to be, and to-day the
President lies dead at Elberon, and the
American people are face to face with
the bloody, shameful horrible fact that
for the second time in sixteen years the
freely-chosen ruler of a free people has
fallen by the hand of an assassin.
Vice-President Arthur was sworn in
as President of the United States, im
mediately upon receipt of the news of
the death of the President.
THE PRESIDENT S LAST HOUR.
"As he turned his head, in awaking,
I rose and took hold of his hand. 1 was
on the left-hand side of the bed, as he
lay. 1 remarked, 'You have had a nice,
comfortable sleep.' He then said, 'Oh,
Swaini, this terrible pain' — placiug his
right hand on his breast, about over the
region of the heart. I asked him if I
could do anything for him. Ho said,
'Some water.' I went to tho other side
of the room, and poured about an ounce
and a-half of Poland water into a glass,
and gave him to drink. He took the
glass in his hand, I raising hit head as
usual, and he drank the water very
naturally. I then handed the glass to
the coloredman, Daniel, who came in
during the time I was getting the water.
Afterward I took a napkin and wiped
his forehead, as he usually perspired on
awaking. He then said : 'Oh, Swaim,
this terrible pain ; press your hand on
it.' I laid my hand on his chest. He
liw both hands up to the side
t on a line with his head, and
d : 'Oh, Swaim ; can't you
?' and again, 'Oh, Swaim.' I
him looking at me with a star
sssion. I asked him if he was
much pain. Beceiving no
[ repeated the question, with
It. I then concluded that he
ir dying, or was having a severe
ad called to Daniel, who was at
, to tell Dr. Bliss and Mrs. Gar
come in immediately, and
at the small clock hanging
chandelier nearly over the
as bed, and I saw that it was
tes past 10 o'clock. Dr. Bliss
within two or three minutes. I
iel to bring the light, a little
which habitually sat behind a
sar the door. When the light
11 in his face I saw that ho was
When Dr. Bliss came in a mo
ter I said, "Doctor, have you
ulants ; he seems to be dying ?"
hold of his wrist, as if feeling
pul«e, and said, ' Yes, ho is
1 then said to Daniel to run
in the house. At that moment
Bockwell came in, when Dr.
d, 'Let us rub his limbs,' which
very few moments Mrs. Garfield
i and said, 'What does this
and a moment after exclaimed,
am I made to suffer this cruel
At 10:35 l. m. he breathed his
lmly and peacefully. At tho
oment the following persons
isent: Mrs. Garfield and Mollie,
as, Agnew and Boyntou, General
Colonel and Mrs. Bockwell, J.
Brown, C. 0. Bockwell and
NOTES AND OPINIONS,
■am bearing the distinguished
resident and family with the
8 of the cabinet, President Ar
d other distinguished gueßts,
sron at ten o'clock, Wednesday
', and arrived at Washington at
i. The corpse was taken di
;o the rotunda of the Capitol,
will lie in state until removed
land where the remains will be
saving the Capitol, President
was driven directly to the resi
>f Senator Jones, of Nevada,
vest he will be during his stay
city. Mrs. Garfield expressed
cere desire not again to see the
Souse, where she had passed so
lys of sorrow and anxiety; and
. not visit it while in the city,
remain at the residence of Gen
;otal subscription to tho Mrs.
Garfield fund amounts now to $145,000,
which, no doubt, will be largely in
creased since the death of the Presi
Never in the history of nations has
transpired such universal sympathy as
is developed for tho dead President and
his heroic wife. |
Mr. John Walter, M. P., proprietor of
the London Times, who is now on a
visit to the United States, sent to his
journal the following telegram from
Chicago : '■ The mournful aspect of this
city, in which ail the public buildings,
hotels and princ pal stores and private
residences are draped in black, bears
witness to the deep and universal sense
of a national bereavement which perva
des a.l classes. President Garfield was
not merely respected as the Chief Mag
istrate of the great republic; he was
regarded as the impersonation of all
BHi.' best and noblest qualities which
can adorn a private citizen, and his los
is felt to be irreparable."
Washington, Kept., 22.—The remains j
of the late President Garfield lay in
state in the rotunda of the Capitol
building in Washington yesterday and
were viewed by thousands of people.
At 6:30 p. m., by order of Secretary
Blame, the casket was closed, deoom
having set in, and the face be
much discolored. After brief
i service this morning the re
ill leave Washington for Cleve
lio, accompanied by many dis
ed persons. Gen. Arthur was
formally sworn in at the Capitol, the
listice administering the oath of ,
i tho presence of the Cabinet, j
dent Grant and others. The
it then proceeded to deliver a
uiguraTaddress. Subsequently |
;d a proclamation designating I
, the 20th inst., as a day of
ion and prayer. The President
accompany the remains of the
sident to Ohio.
;ular coincidence, and one of
remark, is the presence at
gton of a dead and living Pres
wo ex-Presidents, one ex-Vice
ot, and another ex-President ex-
Such a gathering was never
bullet which was cut from
I's body, at the autopsy, was
ito the hands of Dr. Bliss, who
ately handed it over to the
custody of Private Secretary Brown.
Mr.Brown carefully wrapped up the ball
and sealed the package, and will pre-
I serve it till such times as it may be
i needed in evidence at tho trial of Giu-
I tean. Tho fractured vertebra is now
|in the hands of a scientific gentleman,
who is cleansing and preparing it, after
which it will be placed on exhibition
in the National Medical Museum in this
The floral offerings to the deadPresi.
It are of the most elaborate class,
in point of mourning mementoes
'1 all funeral offerings in history.
en Victoria, has added through
English minister, to the
ips bearing the following iu
ption : " Queen Victoria to the j
memory of the late President Garfield.
An expression of her sorrow and sym
lith Mrs. Garfield and the Ameri
on. September, 22, 1881."
ihAND, 0., Sept. 25.—The re
f President Garfield lay in Mon
3qu«re. It was a bright and
il day, though warm. The park
ned at 9 A.M., and not less than
people passed through during
and gazed upon the catafalque.
t the place was illuminated by
and electric lights, and the
continued to pass through. The
was very reverential, and there
the slightest disorder or un
conduct. Tho number of mili
;anizations now at Cleveland is
ge, and they will form a con
s feature in the funeral proces-
Che funeral ceremonies will be
-oa. m , all the arrangements
omplete. The number of promi
len from every quarter of the
who will be present at the
is very large.
Garlield'g Heroic 6oniposure.
brief religions services at the |
l cottage on Wednesday morn
re conducted by the Bey. Mr.
at the special request of Mrs.
1. When all was in readiness
ickwell said to the minister :
, Young, you have just about
Young bowed in acquiesence,
the same time he took out his
which he continued to hold in
id as he stepped up to the head
of the coffin. Just as he was going to
begin Mrs. Garfield leaned toward
Colonel Bockwell, and either spoke in
a very low whisper to him or indicated '
her ilosire by gesture. The Colonel I
id his hand to bid the minister
and said in a low tone ;
Irs. Garfield wants to look in the
i before the service."
ipaediately the widow, taking her
liter by the hand, arose and de
led the steps without aid. Both
1 hand in hand for what seemed a i
long time and gazed at the face of)
lead man. Miss Mollies fee'ings I
wore beyond her control, but her mother i
was as motionless in attitude and fea
ture as a statue.
"I stood and gazed at her in wonder,"
said the Bey. Mr. Young to a friend
afterward. "It was a marvelous sight
to see that one woman standing there |
looking into that coffin, holding herself |
under such perfect control; but. of
j course, her face was like marble. I
never saw anything like it; for, ex
cept Mrs. Garfield's, there was not a
Washington, Sept, 23.—Religious ser
vices were held over the body of the
late President G.vrfield in the rotunda
,of tho Capitol building at Washington
1 yesterday, the Bey. F. D. Power, of the
I Christian church, and several other
clergymen officiating. The attendance
was large and distinguished, and in
cluded President Arthur, ex Presidents
Grant and Hayes, ex Vice-President
Hamlin, the members of the diplomatic
corps, justices of the United States
Supreme Court, and many senators and
representatives-elect. On the conclu
sion of the service the remains jwero
escorted to the Baltimore and PoWwao
| Depot, where they were placed on board
l the funeral train, which left at about 5
P. M. for Cleveland, where, after appro
priate services, the interment will take
The passage of the tuneral train of
the President through Baltimore was
witnessed by fully 60,000 people yester
day. The state and municipal officers,
the government officials and employes
in this city, the Grand Army of the
Bepublic and representatives of the
army and navy all assembled at Union
Depot, where the train stopped while
engines were changed.
MEDICAL RECORD OF PRESIDENT
The History ol die t'nsc Is one of the Most
Pecnllnr In the Ansals of Hnracry.
July 2-0.20 A. M.—President shot in Haiti
more and Potomac depot, Washington, D. C.
July 7. Hoporul of recovery.
July 23. ltelapso, rigor and chills.
July 24. Operation- discovery of pus sack.
July 26. Incision cnlargod aud removal of
splintcm of bo-o, etc.
Jul) 10. Experimenting with electro-induc
tion balance for discovering location of the
Angußt 2. I'>l,"-emely hopeful.
August 7. Had febrile symptoms.
August 8. Hi'cnid operation. Dischargo ot
pus through lower incision in back.
August 1). 'J'lio President wrote his name.
lugust 10. He signed an extradition paper, i
August 11. Ho wrote a lo'ter to his nothor.
August 14. Nausea, vomitiDg ami physical |
August 18. Inflammation of tho right paro-
August 19. Drainage-tuba inserted nine
inches deoper in wound in back.
August 21. Vomited twice during tho af tor-
August 23. Surgeons lirst acknowledge the
existence of Boptieiemia for ten days.
August 24. Suppuration of the parotid
gland; incision and discharge, of pus; consul
tation of doctors, to which Dr. Agnew was hur
riedly called. ' "*
August 25. Another consultation, at which
it was decided that the President could not be
August 26. Tho President's mind wandered
during the night. The parotid .ud dis
charged through tho'ear.
August 27. Pus more frequent and patient
feebler. Dischargo ot pus from tho parotid
gland through the ear.
August 28. The President ale some milk
toast. Another incision was niado above tho
swollen gland,followed by discharge of healthy
looking pus. The wuuud rather less indolent.
August 20. Another incision near the parotid
gland, followed by a fair discharge of healthy
looking pus in the evening. The parotid swell
ing perceptibly diminishing.
August 30. Another incision on the lower
s'ae uf tho face; glandular swelling diminish
August; 31. Discovery of au opening from
the gland into tho mouth. Swelling diminish
ing . increased relish for food.
September 2. The President appears better
than for some days. He has taken more nour
ishment ; little change iv the wound ; restless
during thi night.
n ■■]' Muber3. Parotid swelling continues to
discharge and diminish in size. Ate a fair
br ftkfkat of milk-toast and some reed birds.
In the evening ho vomited. Tho surgeons de
•amtlnod to remove the President from Wash-
Ingt'.n. to escapo the malarial fever, which
threatened death. Long Branch decided on as
more .■■nivenient for the surgoons.
September 4. Tho President vomited about
1 o'clock A. M., but slept well tho most of the
night. During tho day no roturns of the ..i
--tability of the stomach. Improvement .ho
par.... i eland, and contour of the faco re
stored. More fatigue after dressing of the
September 5. The hottest day and r>.. • of
a very hot summer.
September 6. Successful removal of the
President over the Pennsylvania railroad to
?eptomber 7. Drs. Keyburn, Barnes and
Woodward, retired from tiie.corpsof officiating
surgeons. The patient partakes of solid food
again, and feels better.
September 8. The President's condition en
Soptember 10. The President partakes ot
solid food, consisting of two reed birds and a
piece of tuast. S c etury Windoni calls upon the
September 11. A bad day for the President.
Evidences found of au abeess in the right
September 12. Tho President is moro oom,
foriable aud talks with Postmaster-Qeneral
James upon business matters.
September 13. The President taken out of
bed and resting for half an hour iv a reclining
September 11. Unmistakablo improvement
■liown in the President's case. He again rests
on a reclining chair.
Soptember 15. Tho physicians for the first
time acknowledge in their bulletins that the
Presidont is suffering from blood poisoning.
September 16. The President worse.
September 17. Grave apprehensions arous
ed- The President is siezed with a severe
Heptembor 18. A little improvement in tho
president's condition during the day, but
in the evening he is seized with another chill.
September 19. The President is attacked by
a chill at the morning examination, aud dis
jilays a vigor in combating it that astonishes
the • itors. He calls for a looking-glass and
J'-- • <■.« his wasted features. Is more comfor
table in the afternoon, and his conditio! »
tnougui. a trifle more comfortable, but at 10
o clock begins to sink rapidly.and diesatlo..«.
An eye to business : Gus De Smith
went into a cigar store on Austin
avenue and purchased a cigar for a
nickel. On lighting it he took occa
sion to put about half a box of matches
in his vest pocket. "Look here,"
said the tobacconist, "next time you
just bring your matches along and I'll
EFOR THE (JUKIOUS.
tinue to grow for five years.
that the Ernlperor Zeno was
st known i.v i wero made of
■ly days books
..as only print£U on one side
and the blank sides pasteil together.
London was first governed by port
reeves, changed into bailiffs by Richard
1., and into mayors by John.
Queen Elizabeth wore her prayer
hox»fc hanging from her girdle by a
The Druids used to teach that the
fertility of the fields depended upon
I the riches they themselves possessed.
Stanzas were' first introduced from
the Italian into French poetry about
1580—thence transferred into the Eng
In 1584 "cages and stocks," for the
punishment of offenders, were ordered
to be set up in every ward of the city of
Hippocrates, born at Cos, 460 B. 0.,
| was the first person to apply himself to
tof physic as the sole business
Emperor Charles V. who in
le title of "your majesty,"
s having been previously ad
i " your grace."
I the Confessor was the first
of England who used a sea
larters. This is the origin of
1 seal of England,
ke that has the highest eleva
iny in the world is Green Lake
do. Its surface is 10,252 foot
j level of tho sea. The water
ir as crystal, and large rock
masses and a petrified forest are dis
tinctly visible at tho bottom. The
branches of the trees are of dazzling
whiteness, as though cut in marble.
I Salmon-trout swim among them. The |
lake is two hundred feet deep.
Many a smoker wonders what the
letters "T. D.," on a clay pipe mean
and some ono has found that they stand
"im Timothy Dexter. "My Lord Tim
othy," the eccentric Newburyport man
who endowed a clay-pipe factory, wrote
a hook with a few pages of punctuation
marks in the back, and insited on view
ing a mock burial of himself, at which
he whipped his wife because she did
not weep enough.
In a lecture at the London Zoologil
cal Garden by St. George Mivart, some
curious things were told of the chame
leon. His eyes move with complete
independence of each other ; one may
be directed upward and forward, while
the other may gaze downward and back
ward. Its tongue is a wonderful organ,
six or seven inches long, with a cup
like depression at the tip. Its limb
movements are very slow and deliberate ;
thos9 of its eyes and tongue, on the
contrary, are remarkably rapid.
The chameleon lives largely upon
flies, and at first sight it would seem
impossible that so apparently torpid and
sluggish an animal should be able to
reach and seize creatures active and
possessing the power of flight. At the
warm season, when the chameleon's ap
petite is keen, it may often be observed
when a fly has been introduced into its
cage to* move about with comparative
celerity, attentively watching the fly's |
movements, now with one and now with I
the other eye. Sooner or later the fly
' settles for a few seconds somewhere
within half a foot's distance of the cha
meleon's head. Then the chameleon's
mouth may be observed to open and the i
apex of the tongue to protrude. In an
instant it has shut again and the fly has
disappeared. In fact the chameleon
has spit out, as it were, its enormously
extensible tongue upon tho insect,
secured it by the viscid secretion with
which the tongue is coated, and again
withdrawn that organ together with tho
prey, but tho whole has been effected
with such amazing rapidity that the
observer's eye cannot follow the move
ments of the reptile's tongue. It is
projected and withdrawn without the
slightest noise, but in the twinkling of |
an eye. It is this tongue which is, as
it were, the center of the chameleon's
organization, and this tongue-movement
is tho very essence of its existence.
' Without it the animal's life would be im
possible, while the very slowness and
deliberation of its other movements are
I a gain, since they enable the chameleon
to advance upon its prey within shooting
distance without alarming it.
Forty-nine firms of Philadelphia will
exhibit specimens of machinery and
manufactured goods at tho Atlanta Cot-
One of the old-time editore of
Michigan was boasting the other day
that he had never been sued for libel,
or attacked in his sanctum, but he could
call many narrow escapes. Twenty-five
years ago he was running a red hot
paper on the line of the Michigan Cen
tral railroad. A man named Carson,
who was running for some county office,
was given a bad racket, and the editor
received a note that if he had anything
more to say he might expect to receive
a good pounding. He had a still more
i bitter attaok the next week, and the
paper was hardly mailed before in
walked Carson, the candidate, accom
! panied by a brother and two cousins.
The four were strapping big fellows,
and each was armed with a horsewhip.
The two compositors and the "devil"
got out with all speed. He realized
the situation at once, and began :
"Walk in, gentlemen ; I presume you
have come to horsewhip me ?"
"We have," they answered.
"Very well. Have you thoroughly
considered the matter ?"
"It doesn't need any consideration," |
replied Carson. "You have lied about
me, and I'm going to lick you within an
inch of your life !"
"Just so, my friend, but first hear
what I have to say. Did you ever hear
of the press being stopped because the
editor was cowhided ?"
"Well, you never did. Lick me aB
you choose and my paper comes out
week after week just the same. The
power of tho press is next to the lever
which moves the universe. It makes
or brakes parties, builds up or tears
down, plants or destroys. Aggravate
tho editor and the press becomes a
to wouud and kill. Wallop mo
if you will, but next week I'll come out
more bitter than ever."
There is an embarrassing silence right!
hero, aud the face of each horse-whip
per had an anxious look.
"It will go out to the world—to
America, Canada, England, Prance
aye ! clear to Jerusalem, that tho Carson
family of this conntry livo on roots and
johnny-cake ; that they stole a dog from
a blind man ; that theymurdored a ped
dler for a pairof two-shilling suspen
ders ; that thewomen are club-footed
and the men work their ears when they
sing; that the ."
"What is the regular subscription
price to the Herald ?" interrupted
"Only twelve shillings a year.
"Put us four down."
"Very well—six dollars —that's cor
reot. Bun in and see me—all of you, i
and if any of you want to see any of my
Detroit exchanges I shall be only too
glad to serve you.— Free Press.
Amount of Paper Used.
If the amount of paper consumed by
a nation has any bearing upon the
question of enlightenment and civi
lization, England and the United States
take the lead of the world. England
produces annually 180,000 tons, and
uses about five kilogrammes (about
eleven pounds) for each unit of its
population. The United States pro
duces 207,000 tons and consumes five
kilogrammes per head. Germany pro
duces 203,000 tons and consumes 4.76
kilogrammes; and' France produces
132,000 and consumes 3.63 kilogrammes.
The consumption of paper in other (
countries is in the following order ; I
Switzerland, Belgium, Hol'-nd, Aus
tria, Italy, Sweden, Por* . 6 ul. Switzer
land uses 4.54 kilogrammes per head
and Portugal 1.80 kilogrammes, Austria
produces 97,200 tons; Italy 50,600;
Bussia 32,400 ; Spain 30,600. Turkey,
j Greece and Boumania produce none.
Asia, Africa, Australia, South America
and Canada combined produce less than
12,000 tons, and import 20,000.
A Iteautirui Science.
Astronomy is a beautiful science. We
are told that if a railway was run from
the earth to the nearest fixed star, and
the fare was one penny for every hun
dred miles, and if you were to take a
mass of gold to tho ticket office equ a
to the national debt—or $3,800,000,
--000—it would not be sufficient to pay
for a ticket to the nearest fixed star
aforesaid. If this be tho case, it matters
very little to us whether such a railroad
is ever constructed. It would be mighty
discouraging to go to the ticket office
with a mass of gold equal to $3,800,000,
--000 and be informed that the fare was
$5,678,032,000. If the ticket agent
wouldn't trust till we got back we'd be
compelled to forego the trip.—Norris
The sceptre of Charlemagne was
seven feet Ion?
Iv people commit suicide
Flesh up and save your
is entitle I: "My D.i r
is Shine Like Gold."
in the hair,
the extra gas supplied by
ts, Professor King's bal
float in the ambient air.
ig monarch of Abyssinia
noses of those who take
lips of those who smoke.
ley, the eminent English
sayß that "the true site,
1 of the mind is the whole
uld be a healthy city. One
jerssajs: "We have only
>ctors to the 100 patients
woman is the proud owner
(1 over one hundred years,
ards never wear out in
in Lubbock's opinion that
rough kind of way, sensi
-, and that their favorite
Electric Light Company
order for ei.-ht hundred
for lighting tho great hall
louse in Paris.
\t in the intestines of flies
icts are blood-vessels, the
jhes whereof are 200,000
a a hair in siz'j.
ced officially by the health
i New Orleans that there
i a single case of yellow
lity this year,
toria converses on books
j in the Italian language,
bjects in French, criticises
lish, and reads in German,
elphia North American says
bor of commercial travelers
f of the merchants of that
present time not less than
eter walked live miles for
of killing his wife, at York-
Finding her with some
m he was too polite to dis
mitted suicide instead,
twenty thousand acres of
man, woman and child of
lians. The herds are large,
is good, the Indians are
are becoming rich.
t boat on the great lakes is
I Cleveland, Ohio. It is to
302J feet in length, 39 feet
jeam, and '25 feet depth of
) have a capacity of 3,200
ley used to say that unto
he had never really lived,
a, his wife, was a very plain
in he married her ; but she
ultivated and pleasant —a
le world in the very b6Bt
taper and Book Ravine.
librarian of the Kilkenny
oty, made books his idols,
self every luxury and not a
ies in order to add to his
the well-furnished library
was custodian being insulli
isfy his literary cravings,
i the upper part of the
raises, but admitted no one
i rooms' for any purpose
>.i his sudden death, in
:ivacy was perforce invaded.
i, or what passed for such,
to contain nothing in the
iure save an old sofa, which
urn for a bed, upon which
of old blankets, his sole
ring. Piles of books were
promiscuously in every
So in his sitting-room, there
' space to move for dust
imes, of which the owner
itly made very little use,
ke many another collector,
having acquired them. A
sntric living 4n a French
3wn was not open to that
le dwelt alone in a secluded
tting no one but a char
prepared his meals, and. a
who brought him thirty or
Is at a time. One day even
not obtain admission, and
were called upon to inter
d entering the solitary bed
) house—a room as squalid
could be—the recluse was
on the bed, which could
shed by passing through a
sides of which were oom
ousands of nowspapers and
se perusal had heen the sole
I occupation of his wasted
ten' Journal ,
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