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Fl THE IWTIITIIE
Strong National Organization
is Formed to Secure Initia
tive and Referendum.
Issues Strong Address to the
American People by Great
(Special to the Labor World.)
Washington, D. C., Sept. 13, 1906.—
It has been made public today that
certain non-partisan organizations
have united upon questions to can
didates for Congress, United States
Senate, Legislatures and Governor
ships concerning the establishment of
a national direct-vote system for cer
tain public questions, having no less
an ambition In view than the destruc
tion of machine rul«.
The organizations that have entered
into this agreement are the American
Federation of Labor and the National
Federation for People's Rule. The
latjer is composed largely of state
referendum leagues, with vice-presid
ents representing the Grange, Farmers'
Union, Farmers* National Congress,
Immigration Restriction League and
other national non-partisan orguniz'a
An address has been issued by the
National Federation setting fotfth the
questions, followed by a certificate by
the Labor Representation Committee
of the American Federation of Labor
that the questions 'have been endorsed
by the American Federation of Labor
and approved by the undersigned."
And the comittee adds: "The A. F. of
L. compaign has for its purpose im
mediate relief from wrong and in
justice, and the establishment of the
initiative and referendum principle in
the political affairs of our country."
The address by the National Federa
tion for People's Rule is in two parts,
the first erf which only is given out
today and is as follows:
The undersigned, representing farm
ers, business men, wage-earners, and
professional people, invites you to co
operate in a non-partisan way to im
mediately terminate the Rule of the
Few. Machine Rule must be termin
ated. The People's Rule—your own
rule—must be re-established. In the
days of Washington and of Jefferson
our forefathers were the supreme
earthly power in this country, and it
is high time that we of today should
establish our sovereignty.
Machine Rule, which we Invite you
to help terminate, is the rule of the
few through the convention system.
We, the people, vote but do not rule.
The trick is that while the conven
tion system is so manipulated that we
are misrepresented, we have been in
duced to refrain from re-establishing
direct-vote system for public ques
tions. If we realize this we can quick
ly and easily regain .our sovereignty.
Convention System* is Extra- Legal.
The first step is to realize that the
convention system was .gFaduail^
°stablished during the years 1821 to
1832, and that this, was accomplished
without any change in the constitution
of the state or nation and without a
line of' statute law. And today there
is little law on the^ subjec.t except pro
visions for voting at the. primaries,
Each party controls its own conven
tions, and the successful party con
trols the constitutional .government
that is, it controls Congress, the Pres
idency, and the Supreme Court. It is
an unquestioned fact that the real
system of government in this country
is extra-legal. It is entirely outside
the constitution. It is machine rule.
The organization within the dominant
party is the ruling machine.
The Fathers Aimed to Prevent Ma
The framers of the constitution did
their utmost to prevent the establish
ment of machine rule. This is evid
enced by the provision for presidential
electors, and, until 1804, the require
ment that the vice-president of the
United States should be he who re
ceived the second highest vote for
President. Under this system Wash
ington was elected to the head of the
Government without party controversy,
and he invited into his cabinet the
leaders of the opposing factions.
Majority Rule, 1800 Until Rise of Con
But during Washington's term the
people ranged themselves Into oppos
ing parties, and before presidential
electors were chosen in 1796 each party
placed nominees in the field, the can
didates for presidential electorates
being pledged that if elected they
would vote for the nominees of their
party. This led to the constitutional
amendment of 1804 providing that the
Vice-President should be of the same
party as the President Thus the party
system became imbedded In the con
Under this early system the voters
were the supreme power, for one por
tion of the governmental machinery
enabled the voters to instruot repre
sentatives by direct vote. The mere
existence of this power was usually
effective., Few Instructions were givenl
Furthermore, the tissues to. which can
didates were pledged were, framed by
the voters in each district and not by
state and national conventions, which
came in later years. The manner
whereby the voters were authorized
to instruct by direct vote was at town
meetings in the north, and elsewhere
at mass meetirigs. Additional proof
as to the people's sovereignty till the
rise of the convention system is the
Bill of Rights In -the first state con
vention in Massachusetts- and in North
Carolina. The legislature .was express
ly prohibited from interfering with the
people's right to assemble to instruct
representatives. In later years there
were seventeen states In which this
provision was expressly stated, and it
was implied in all the others.
Under the party system at the start
the basis of the Government, then, was
majority rule, as ha?l "been the case
from1 the Declaration of Independence
except when the autofcratic Federalists
were in power, who r&fdsed to obey in
structions. In his Inaugural address
Jefferson declared allegience to the
majority rule doctrine, and so success
ful wafe the Jeffersohian party that the
opposition party disintegrated apd
died nationally in 1817/"
From 18.17 until after 1824 there was
but one national party—the Republi
can party. All organized opposition to
the People's Rule had been overcome.
In 1820, President Monroe was re
elected without opposition. But four
years later, when a new choice for
President had to be made, there were
four candidates in the field with no
nominating system except the Con
gressional Caucus, which broke down.
The result was that in November the
vote for Presidential electors was so
evenly divided between the four can
didates for the Presidency that when
the electors voted -in February none of
the candidates received a majority of
their votes, which *,threw the election
into the House of Representatives.
Adams was elected, though Jackson
was more popular, with the people.
Defeat of Direct Vote System, 1824-26.
Before and after the: campaign, Ben
ton, Duffie and others ^worked in Con
gress to secure a constitutional amend
ment for a system of direct nomina
tions and direct election of President
The next Presidential campaign,
1828, Jackson was nominated by the
Leigslature of his State, Tennessee,
and by mass meetings' throughout the
country. Adams rkn for re-election
without a formal'nomination. Jackson
Rise ofCeiWintion System.
In the meahtin?e the convention
system had gi-afttelly arisen. In Penn
sylvania in 18r2"l?1! delegates diriectly
elected by the"Yb"l$ority party assem
blediri a state jeen^vention to nominate
state officers, thus casting aside the:
legislative caucus-—King Caucus, it
was derisively termed. So successful
was the new system that the minority
party in New Yorjk state used it four
yearst iater,. and .soon afterwards the
system spread into all the close states.
In 1830, a national convention was
held by a third party. The party held
another national convention in 1832,
as also did the Democratic and Whig
Thus the convention system had its
rise. Its use for nomination of can
didates for state, and' national officers
was a j|reat improvement over the
legislative and congressional caucus.
The delegates to the estate and national
conventions were fresh from the peo
ple and they obeyed /instructions.
Debasement of Convention System.
But the convention system was
quickly debased. Each convention
promised the voters what its condi
dates would do for them if elected,
and the voters in each party ceased
to instruct by direct vote, relying upon
the state and national conventions to
demand the needed legislation. In
other- words, the voters relinquished
the right to instruct and thereby the
successful party machine became a
ruler. It might be a, good ruler, but
it was a ruler nevertheless.
The result was that seekers after
legislation endeavored to control the
conventions of one or both parties, and
the seekers after special privileges
succeeded, for they outdid all the
others in contributing Campaign funds
and employing lawyers and politicians.
One Of the methods used by the art
ful campaign managers was to debase
.the convention system. They changed
,the system by providing that delegates
to state and national vonventions
should no longer be elected direct by
the voters but by delegates, and these
delegates were also elected by dele
gates, in order that tljie people's will
might more easily b§, thwarted. In
1844 the national convention system
had become so bad that Calhoun with
drew from the race-for the Presidential
nomination in the Democratic party
and issued ah address to the country
in which he exposed the deck of
stacked cards and in conclusion, said:
"I hold It Impossible, to form a
scheme more perfectly calculated to
annihilate the control of the people
over the presidential election, and vest
it in those who make politics a trade,
and who live or expect to live on the
government. (Thirty Years' View, Vol.
2, p. 596.)
In 1853 Benton wrote:
"Mr. Calhoun considered the conven
tion system, degenerated to the point
it was in 1844, to have been a hundred
times more objectionable than the Con
gressional Caucus which had beeh
repudiated by the people.' Measured
by the same scale they are a thousand
times worse at present (1863), having
succeeded to every objection that was
made, against the Congressional
CaUcus, and superadded a multitude of
others going directly to scandalous
corruption, open Intrigue, -direct bar
gain and sale, and fragrant disregard
of the popular wlil." (Thirty Years'
View, rVol,. 2, p. 5»7.K/~
machlne rule system has continued t$|
grow, more and-more- autocratic. |.
But, bad as machine^ rule iva|t' and'
is, It could not be discarded until-there
had been developed a better .system.
Such a system has been' jSrought:
forth and It displacing machine-rule,
Smoke Puradora Cigar, Clear Havana
Union Label and Home Made.
STUDENTS ON CHILD LA&OR.
Will Assist in Suppressing it By Hold'
ing Lectures and^fc*ublishing
A society of young students have
undertaken to form a society on the
East Side of New York to assist in,
the suppression of child labor, by
holding lectures, publishing statistics
One of the leaders in this new or
ganization is a son of one of the for
mer successful leaders in the United
Garment Works of America,. Meyer
Schoenfeld. Below.. Is an address on
the subject delivered by one .of the
"The vast amount of spirited aglta
the numerous outcries, denoun
cing and flaying "child labor" appear
simply as a mockery to the movement.
During the Civil M^ar an emancipation'
proclamation issued .by the -chief,
executive of the United States—-long
may his memory live—released from
bondage the children as ^rell as the:
adults of the black race.
Time and time alone places us
about forty years after American slav
ery ceased to exist, for which many
bled. But, present to us another pro
clamation, give us another Lincoln. Oh,
that some power would alight in our
midst that would, .where it so necessi
tates, send Into our hearts of men feel
ings humane, sympathetic and just,
thus unveiling the blank side Of their,
hearts to nature.
"'Where would I be?' This is thp
poet's invitation to those mortals who
are eager to grasp and ponder. Invite
the stricken child to an opportunity
of a soliliquy and immediately a di
vine dream—only a dream, mark you
—like that of the poet's Utopian fu
ture, illusive expectations will present
themselves in emblazoned and golden
views and enter the youthful, childish
forms, then elevating them to. a pin
nacle lofty in air, whirling them into
the depths, up to the heights of that
beautiful, paradisical but seemingly
impossible stage of coveted felicity.
'Indeed it is all but a dream. Is
life only a dream? Bad enough if it
is. But how deep and slumberous
must that dream be if in it we cahf
dream a dream?
Since 1885 there has been an in«-j!
crease of 50 per cent in our population
and an increase of 100 per cent, in
child labor. Yet all of us term this a?
time of 'prosperity.' Prosperity but
how? Would we gradually glide back
to those dark days of despoliation arid!
servitude? Perhaps,-unawares. Wouldf
we act the part of slave holders in a
land of freedom? Yet on a small
scale that is what many are doing.
"How long can this last? Rome—•
was she not shattered thus- t6 the
wind? Compare her present to her
-past!. People gasfe, &S If St'Upid 'flr'sjt*
pity, then sympathize, and- still- do
"This is what we call the attainment
of very lofty and twentieth century
"Civilization? Bah! We need agi
tation. The time is ripe", it is mature
at last it has come. We must strike,
and that hard. If you would labor for
your own sake, for the coming genera
tion, for every one, for the honor due
to the martyr abolitionist, for the
honor of the past abolitionists, for the
sake of common decency, respect and^
humanity, organize a society with
anti-humiliating^ shameful, modern
"This organization will tend to in
ject the necessary facts Into the very
brains of the people who are wronged
unawares. Then eventually a forcible
petition—if not one, then consecutive
ones, unhesitatingly, not letting up,
will be presented to the public ser
vants, and shall abolish, demolish, wipe
out of existence, exterminate by the
root, the /inferno, the influx of that
pestilence, child labor.
"Robbed of their happy days, the
opportunity of blossoming into wo
manhood and manhood, such as this
country is desirous of obtaining, if this
child labor Is not done away with,
the United States will not think of
any such absurdity, demanding a good
citizenship, for it will be unobtain
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Union Label and Home Made.
Mr. Union Man:—Notify your cloth
ier that the Bell 'Phone* is Unfair.
EMERY SAYS OIL
TRUST IS A ROJ5BER
The fiercest kind of a political "bat
tle Is in progress in Pennsylvania
among the old-line politicians. Lewis
Emery, Jr., nominee of the Demo
cratic and Lincoln Republican patties
for the governorship, who is an inde
pendent oil operator himself and for
a quarter, of a century has been fight
ing the Standard Oil monopoly, says
that John D. Rockefeller controls cor
porations which have a total capitali
zation of $5,200,000,000. He itemized
the various Rockefeller interests with
their capitalizations as follows: In
surance companies, $1,400,000,000
railroads, $2,500,000,000 industrial,
$1,800,000,000 traction and transpor
tation, $160,000,000 gas, electrid light
and power, $111,000,000 mining com
panies, $195,000,00 bank and trust
companies, $18,000,000 telegraph and
telephone, $180,000,000 navigation,
$41,000,000 safe deposits, $1,600,000.
Facts* and figures like these have
not. been .printed by the labor' press
for some time, but they were usually
dir-missed as the vaporings of wild
eyed agitators. Now since such emi
nently respectable gentlemen as Mr.
Emery are "peaching" on the 'robber
class, probably the voters will hit up
and take notice and aslc: "Shall the
people own the trusts or shall the
trusts own. the people!" Hit 'em
ijtrl IJnion Man —Notify your Shoe
Dealer ttat tta, BeU 'Pbo&e ia JJateiiv
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WE TREAT MEN ONLY AND CURB
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We charge nothing for private counsel
give to each patient a LEGAL
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you cannot call at our office writ*
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OMsnltatlom Fit* and Conflde»tlah
Office Hours—6 i, m. to 8 p. nfe
Sudani 10 a. a. to 1 p. m.
No. 1 Wqst Superior Street.
Osrner ot Lake Avenue, Duluth. Mimt,
Every Stttcl By
Br|inr new ELECTRO-MEDICAL TREAT
MEiIrr, ^whlch combines all of the curative
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CONTAGIOUS BLOOD POISON,
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SMALL, WEAK ORGANS,
and all associate diseases and weaknesses of
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faring, mental distress, gloomy forebodings
and feelings of Impending danger.
Don't You Want to Get
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I have a iiquor cure. I discovered it after years of suffer
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$25.00 FOR THE CURE.
GALL FOR THE WINER BRAND
UNION MADE OVERALLS.
The Longest ESctablMicd,
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Newspape* lUiwito Will
1125 W. Michigan St.
OUR LOYAL SHIRT
XOOKS NEATER LASTS LONGER FITS BETTER
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VMatflMBt oC airDiseases Peculiar to.
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BY THE WAY
Jbtiltlr Phone 1226. I
"The logical effect of the agitation
of such labor-haters as Kirby and
Mafr&hall, lfeuteriaiits of Parry, is seen
in Dayton, Ohio, where an enterpris
ing union-smashing and cheap labor
lgyirig manufacturing concern, accord
ing to the Dayton Daily News, has
imported a low class of foreigners and
is keeping them herded like cattle in
a, huge pen, called "The Stockade."
They must purchase all their supplies
in a store inside the inclosure and are
prohibited from renting rooms oujtside.
The ^National Cash Register Co. in
the same city, also kept a gang of
slrike-breakQrs "bull-penned" for
w€jek£ when the printer! started their i,,
eigj&t-bopr: movement. .These are the
conditionis that the howling hypocrites
andf^noney maniacs of the open shop
consider to be ideal fpr their "free And
Independent" wage-slaves, who, lack'
the gujfrhood to organize uuHre&ist
Are you aware the fact thpt the
Cigars are tha bsst lOo smokes on
the market? Wall they are. Try
them. For sal* by all dealers.
OF THB PEOFLS
TOR THE PEOPLB
BY THE PEOPLE