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The labor world. (Duluth, Minn.) 1896-current, July 18, 1914, Image 2

Image and text provided by Minnesota Historical Society; Saint Paul, MN

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn78000395/1914-07-18/ed-1/seq-2/

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OLDEST BANK AT THE
HEMW)F^EHB LAKES.
the
i,k
v"
WORKERS UNIO
Hops and Malt
I Brewed without fault,
theo. hamm brewing
PAUL
J. W. Anderson,
616 WEST MICHIGAN ST.
Phones: Grand 1800, Melrose 1800.
DEPOSIT YOUR SAYINGS IN
American Exchange National Bank
OF DULOTH, mini.
CAPITAL, 8URPLDS AND PROFITS...... $1,000,000.00
THREE PER CENT
OH SAVINGS ACCOUNTS.
A N E S N
to TWO HARBORS on STEAMER EASTON
EVERY SUNDAY
Steamer Leaves Booths Dock 9:80 A* M»
2:30 P. M. and 7:80 P. M.
Returning Leaves Two Harbors 12 Noon
4:30 P. M. and 9:80 P. M.
lit FIRST GLASS MEALS SERVED
REFRESHMENTS OF AT.T. KINDS
INCORPORATED
—————1879
Ni.
Named shoes are freuently made In Non
Union factories.
I DO NOT BUY ANY
Wk» SHOE
no matter what its name, unless It bears
a plain and readable impression of this
UNION STAMP.
All shoes without the UNION STAMP are always Non
STAMP accept any excuse for absence of the UNION
BOOT and SHOE WORKERS' UNION
246 SUMMER STREET, BOSTON, MASS.
JOHN F. TOBIN, CHA8. L. BATNW 4
President Secretary-Treasure*
Bay an Acre and Live onlt
-AT-
Exeter Farms
Make the right kind of a start with your truck garden and
home. Gain the practical advantages that a man should have
when he starts out to make a prosperous, independent future for
himself. A great many good things could be said about Exeter
Farms, but we want you to see for yourself.
Come Out Sunday aad Select Your Tract
Take Lakeside car to Sixtieth Avenue East, where Exeter
Farms' Bus Line connects. Sundays and holidays continual ser­
vice after 3 A. M. Week days after 6 A. M.
PRICES TO SUIT THE WAGE EARNER. TERMS VERY EAST.
Alliance Real Estate Co.
LONSDALE BUILDING.
EXECUTIVE BOARD OF
WISCONSIN STATE FED­
ERATION OF LABOR
In the clothing trades last year
were reported 10 local unions with
705 members. The present report in­
cludes 14 unions with 1,469 members,
double that of the previous year in
the printing trades too both unions
and membership increased, 17 unions
this year as compared with 15 last
year, and 1,167 members as compared
with 1,035.
Railway unions, which figured
largely in last years report sent iri
few reports this year. Fewer report^
were also received from cigar makers
and musicians, two other well organ*
toed trades.
Milwaukee reports about the same
number of unions and members as
last year that is to say about one
fourth. the number of local unions
and over one-half the membership in
the state. Racine again reports the
largest membership next to Milwau­
kee, although not as many unions re­
porting from Racine this year as last
year. Six per cent of the organized
workers reporting this year are from
Racine. Last year only 4% per cent,
were from this city. Racine also re­
ported more organized women work­
ers than any other city. Superior,
Oshkosh, LaCrosse, Madison and She­
boygan each send more reports this
year and each shows a corresponding­
ly increased proportion of the union
members of the state. Fon du lac
and Green Bay show a slightly de­
creased number of unions and mem­
bers reporting. In general, as the
following table shows the larger cit­
ies reported a greater number of
unions and members this year than
last, while fewer reports were receiv­
ed from the smaller cities."
3..Wages and Earnings
"The weekly rates of pay are sum­
marized in the following table and a
comparison is made with last year:
WwHy
SATURDAY- -THE LABOB WORLD-
MAKES REPORT
Continued from Pace 1.
workers ax® in the brewery trades,
and these show a greater gain in
membership. The local unions re­
porting is the same as last year, but
membership increased from 3,587 to
4,111. After the brewery workers
come the metal trades. These too
show a gain in membership—3,061 in
1913 compared with 2,720 in 1912.
This in spite of the fact that the num­
ber of unions reporting was only 29
in 1913 as compared with 31 in 1912.
No. of No. of per cent of
Weikly wages unions members members
1912 1912 1912
Less than $12.50 30 2143 10.5
$12.50 to $14.99 49 3490 17.1
15.00 to 17.49 53 4016 19.6
17.50 to 19.99 73 5896 23.9
20.00 to 22.49 30 1893 9.3
22.50 to 24.99 15 1517 7.4
25.00 and over 19 1478 7.2
269
No. of
unions
wager
Less than
$12150 to
16.00
17.S0
20433 100.0
No. of per cent of
members members
$12.50
$14.99
17.49
lfc99.
22.49
*4.99
over
1913
13
22
50
to
t6
to
ton
and
1913
577
1913
3.1
2341
3778
4689
426f
.1794
914
12.8
20.7
25.1"
2l3
'9.8
5.2
•/. 61
*41"
22i50'
25,00
.-29
16
222 1825 3 100.0
In it will be seen by comparing the
percentages of members in the vari­
ous groups.^ that increases in the
rates of pay Were secured by those
unions wihich were receiving the
lower rates of pay. Last year only
16.7 percent, of the members receiv­
ed from $20 to $25 per week. This
year 33 per cent were in this group.
A year ago 27.6 per cent were getting
less than $15 per week while this
year the percentage has fallen to 15.9
per cent. The percentage of unions
receiving $25 per week and over in­
creased over last year, but they had
fewer members.
There was a great decrease in the
percentage of unions and members
which were working for less than
$12.50 per week, and a slight de­
crease in the percentage of those get­
ting from $12.50 to $17.50. Most of
these unions and members have evi­
dently moved up into the group re­
ceiving from $17.50 to $22.50, for
there was little" change in the remain­
ing group.
Whether there has been an in­
crease in the annual earnings of
union members during the year we
are unable to say. It would seem as
if there had not. been any, for the
average earnings per member for the
year 1913 as reported is only $483,
while in 1912 the average was $712.
The two figures are not strictly com­
parable, however. In last years re­
port the union officials merely esti­
mated what the average annual earn­
ings of individual members were re­
ported, which is much more reliable.
Averages are always treacherous,
and we get much better results by
finding, what statisticians call the
mode, that is, the wages earned by
most members. Thus about two
thirds of the members earned from
$600 to $900. Almost 16 per cent
earned more than $900 and about 20
per cent less than $»00. The result
on the whole are the same as last
year except that the figures for this
year show a slight increase in the
percentage of union members who
earned $1,000 and more and also an
increase in the percentage of those
earning less than $5*0. These varia­
tions, however, may be due to the
fact that last year we had estimated
averages and not actual earnings as
this year.
The printing trades report the
greatest average annual earnings,
namely, $917. Next to them come
the brewery trades with $769 then
the railroad employees with $751
and after them the building trades
with $749. It is interesting to note
again, as last year, that the trades
which have the highest weekly rates
of pay do not have the greatest an­
nual earnings."
4. Hours of Ivabor
"There were no increases in the
length of the working day but 16
unions with a membership of 2323 re­
ported reductions in the hours of
labor.
The reductions in most cases, mean
a change from nine to an eight hour
day and from an unregulated work
day to one of ten hours.
Those working less than eight
hours per day remain the same as
last year, namely the theatrical em­
ployees. But there is an increase
in the union members who have an
eight hour day. These ha\je evidently
changed from a, nine to
an
eight-hour
day, as is showh. by the/ smaller per­
centage of those working nine hours
this year. The greatest decrease in
hours was secured by those working
more than ten hours per day. Last
year 29 unions with 1953 members
reported a work day of more than ten
hours. This year only. 18 unions with
1271 members are in this class.
Whereas a year ago about 10 percent,
of the -union men reporting were
working more than ten hours per day
this year only 6 per $nt work so
many hours.
There was a slight decrease in the
percentage of unions .Viand members
who work less than fufl time on Sat­
urdays, but this is probably due to
the smaller number
OF'reports.
For
when we look to the total number of
hours per week we find that the
greatest change during the year has
been an increase of over 10 percent,
in those who work from 4& to 49
hours per week. These include many
trades which work 8 to 9 hours per
day with half
days
or slightly reduc­
ed hours pn Saturdays.
The brewery \trajjes work very gen­
erally from 4-5 t^'M^-hours P^r week
and -tte p^iitttin^^jfradeS"1 almost en-'
tirely,1 The buildiif#*? ^tradee,-.]jhave a:
majority working^* IfaeSe liours. and
very many work less than 45 hours
per week.
The clothing traces have about half
their members working from 45 vto
49 hours ,per weekjsnd the other half
from 50 to 54, while about half the
metal trades members work from 50
to 54 and the other half from 55 to
60 hours per week."
5. Unemployment
"In order to get an1 idea of the ex­
tent and the causes ^of unemployment,
the unions were asked to report the
number of their idle members on
September 1, 1913 "and to what the
idleness was due. Answers were
received from 243 uniOns with a total
membership of 19,921. Of this num­
ber of members 1,436 were found to
be idle, that is to say 7.2 per cent.
September being one of the busiest
months of the year, as shown in last
years report, this percentage of un­
employment shows ah unusually dull
year. Ordinarily we expect in the
busy months about 2 or 3 per cent
unemployed. The slack months, Dec­
ember and January, in prosperous
years have commonly. only 10 or 12
per cent, unemployed. The hard times
this winter might have been foretold
from the high percentage unemploy­
ed in the busy month of September.
Unemployment was due to lack of
work in over three-fourths of the
cased, while slightly over one-twen­
tieth of the cases was due to strikes.
These percentages' are interesting
as showing the State of affairs on one
day of the year. But it is more im­
portant to know what happens the
year over. In 'a statistical table we
have, the annual earnings of union
members compared" with their pos­
sible earnings fcatfe'd on their rate of
pay if steadily employed. •, This may
be summarized as follows:
Taking' all the*
^members reporting,
namely,. 13,.34 2, they averaged in
earnings $ 6i$ 3 du$jh$ the ,-y
6ai\ Had
they worked st^diiy they ,might have1
earned $#88. %ther\3W)0rcfe -.-thejs
lost $205, or 30 pbr»fcent. of^what they,
actually earned. 'Assuming' thai
three-fourths o£ |his 3os? was due to
lack of work, as shown by the table
of causes, then about $150 or 22 per
cent of what they! oarned was lost be­
cause of unemployment.' Only about
21 per cent, of the members reporting
can be said to Have worked steadily
through the year.
It is interesting'to note that the
higher the possible earnings the
greater is the loss each year. For
example, those whose weekly rate of
pay might enable them to earn $1,000
a year lost 2S.9 per cent of this, while
those who could earn but $600 lost
only 25.9 per cent. This merely illus­
trates in another way that the trades
with the highest rates of pay lose
the most time during the year and
that those with the lower rates of pay
might earn more during the year
than those with the higher rates.
In certain trades,' of course, the
loss in earnings is very much greater
than In others. Thus in the building
trades over .70 per cent of those re­
porting lost more than $200 during
the year, or almost one-third of what
they earned. The mental trades this
year also show a very large loss .in
earnings. This is unusual. On the
other hand, the printing trades seem
to have quite' steady work, for over
40 per cent of the members lost less
than $100 during the year. The brew­
ery and the clothing trades lost some­
what less than the metal trades."
6. Control of Working Conditions.
"The index of a unions control over
the working conditions is the trades
agreement. As it becomes stronger
it has more to say in determining
conditions of employment, and this is
usually accomplished by written
agreements between the employer
and the union.
Following is a summary of .our sta­
tistical table on trade agreements.^
with employers. This is almost 62
per cent, and is exactly the same per­
centage of the unions reporting trade
last year. Of the,17,581 members of
the unions reporting, 12,208 were
working under such agreements.
This is about 70 percent., which is
about the same as last year. The an­
swers regarding the number of em­
ployers covered by the agreements
are not satisfactory, because we can­
not tell what proportion of the whole
number of employers were reported
on. Still of 1838 employers for whom
these union members work, over 58
percent, have agreeinents with them.
Brewery workers report the great­
est control over working conditions.
All the unions ha^« written agree­
ments and practically all the employ­
ers are covered. Other trades with a
large measure of union control over
working conditions are the building
trades, cigar making and printing.
The relative control over working
conditions in the various cities should
be shown by the number of trade
agreements signed, but the reports
are so few as to be of little value in
making comparisons. Thus we have
reports on this question from only
141 unions in the state with a mem­
bership of about 12,000. Besides, we
have no figures whatever as to the
number of unorganised employees in
various trades.
For trades which have reported,
however, the reports as to number of
agreements in the various cities are
JULY
Milwaukee
Lacrosse ..
Superior ..
Sheboygan
Fon du lac
Madison ..
Oshkosh ..
Racine, ...
Ashland ..
ia mi
valuable, and thty are here lufflriw
ized
Cities
No., of with without
unions -*«re&
iceortutf
m«nt»
menu
21
,....15 8 7
14 7 7
!*.'..*!l2 10 2
.....11 9 2
,....10 7 3
......10 4 6
5 S
8 4 4
Totals lft. 86 55
The number of employers with
whom these agreements w6re made
in each city cannot be tabulated, be­
cause those who reported evidently
did not have accurate information on
this point."
7. The Cost of Living.
"Again, as last year, the rents paid
by union members were inquired in­
to, in order to get an idea of the re­
lative cost of living in different cit­
ies of the state. Last year, however,
the figures were merely the estimates
of the persons who reported as to the
average paid for rent by the members
ojf eacji. union. This year we have
the actual amounts paid by 9,316
members who reported. .While the
number is not large, the facts' that we
have the rents actually paid, rather
than estimates, makes this "years. fi­
gures more reliable.
The answers in regards to rents
•have been tabulated according., to the
earnings of the members, For., ob­
viously, it is not safe to average all
the rents as the members who earn
more will naturally pay more for rent.
This is born out by the reports re­
ceived. Those whose wages amount
to:
Over $1000 a year most commonly
paid $16 per month.
$90.0 to $1,000 a year most com­
monly paid $15 per month.
$800 to $900 a yeas most' commonly
paid $14 per month.
$700 to $800 a year most commonly
paid $12 per month.
Less than $700 a year most com­
monly paid $10 per month
It must be understood .that these
figures represent only what most
members of each group paid. A good
many in each group paid more than
the amounts here given ahd a good
many in each group paid *nore than,
the amounts here given apd a good
many others paid less. The table is
the best presentation of average con­
ditions. It is interesting to note that
the estimates given in the reports
last year correspond quite closely to
these figures.
The statistical table presents all
the answers received on rents by
cities. In the following sum­
mary the results for all those cities
from which moire than 200 replies
were received, are given. The com­
parison is fair between the cities be­
cause we took into consideration in
each city the fact that those capable
of earning more wages usuallyt pay
more rent.
:be
These amounts paid in rent should!
considered in connection with the
earnings of the metnoers. UAgain, as
last year, rents in* Madison are found
to. be higher than in any other-, city
in the state.. While we have, not!
ehough reports tabulate £hfc
W
Next week's editimi of The Labor
World will contain a complete report
of the Wisconsin State Federation of
Labor Convention.
Greysolon Cigars are mild.
BRIEF LABOR NOTES
FROM ALL NATIONS
The lesson learned from the great
strike In New Zealand and on the
Austrailian continent has given new
impetus to the attempts which are
being made to establish ah interstate
federation of labor. Several confer­
ences, at which almost all great
unions were represented, expressed
themselves In favor some such
plan, especially as the present state
of affairs is continually leading to
-collisions, small and important
groups often taking action which in­
volves the whole movement. A sim­
ilar project was set in motion during
the past year by the trades councils
of the capitals of the various states,
and it is only to be hoped that both
plans might be combined-in. order to
establish a consolidated Austrailian
Federation of Labor.
In Belgium a great legal action
against 58 "strike leaders" of the
seamen began on June 23rd, in ,Ant-
werp, in connection with alleged at
tacks upon personal liberty..
From Canada cctmes"the news that
the Empress of Ireland which recent­
ly sank carrying close to ltfOO souls
to their graves was manned by a crew
organized throughout. Th« trades
unions concerned hayfe decided not
only to grant the usual benefit to
those left behind but also to provide
for the widows and orphans.
In Holland the 7th annual congress
of the Dutch Trades Union Federa­
tion will take place in Amsterdam on
Juljr 20-22. The following questions
will be taken under consideration in­
surance against unemployment, in­
validity and old age pensions etc. On
April 1, there were 'reported 87,
734 members in 1084 sections as
against 79,327 in October 1912. The
greatest unions are the diamond
workers with 9,917 members, the
municipal workers with 6,991, the
cigar makers with 6,211 and the car­
penters With 5,930 and the metal
workers with 5,799.
Greysolon Cigars 3 for.25c, 10c and
2 for 25c.
Great $15 Choice Suit Sale at
The Big Duluth.
See That This Label la e» Vo«r
Printing.
It la a Guarantee of Fair Condition*.
Allied Printing Trades Council,
Duluta, Minn.
Plant*
4 0
the ^"pon^ do /have d& ribt shottj
hig^St ^g^ipwi^
-in- thef state.--v In other. .• pities neither]
earning nor rente differ', enough toj
make comparisons aighiftcent. Mil-i
waukee, Racing, Fond ,dH lac, and!
Green Bay seem to be ftfbout' on a par
in amounts paid fot rent, averaging
about $15 per month, Kenosha is
nekt with $14, then Superior averag­
ing about $13 a month, and the other
cities about $10 or $ll-is usually paid.
TRY
OUR
1
"BLUE SKY LAW
Duluth brokers worked hard at the last session
legislature to have passed an adequate and jlust "ri
Laws." We ask the co-operation and help of the new
and the investing public, in supporting an adequate
coming legislature so that responsible and establish
vestment and Brokerage Houses and the investing rJ1
be protected from the
motors.
'fly-by-night" stock jobbers
CALGARY OIL STOCKS!
We have been beseeched to handle
have made a careful investigation into the merits of th
oil fields, having a personal correspondent on the ground
are convinced that while undoubtedly some Wells J]]'
brought in the investors should beware, as the marU'
flooded with wildcat promotions. Investigate thom?J
before you buy.
AMERICAN SECURITY CO
Authorized Capital, $50,000.00.
C0AL, PIG IRON, COKE, ILLUMINATING GAS.1
SUNDRY BY-PRODUCTS
DULUTH, MINN.
CAirrAI* fUBFLUS AJ«b PROFITS
VOSl«iair,nM|«at, WALTigR J, JOHSSOX. Asrt.1
WW XL XttOIT,
MSlD Use WXXXLAM WSLMVAesfci
V-Urajfac Pincnff ismmrnD ov batdtgh avd vera:
"NOTHING BETTER"
DULUTH BREWING & MALTING COt
Duluth, Minnesota
Bray Good Smoker appreciates a Cool, Fragrant Cigar that b*
enjoy up to the last puff. That is why the
E O A
i® popular with particular people.
It 1* Delicious, Lturarioos and Dainty. It is made upon
by skilled workman from the best grade of Havana Leal.
ASK YOTJR DEALER.
EICLfSIVEH
DULUTH CIGAR COMPANY
110 W. MICHIGAN 8T. New Fhone 018 Old Phone
C. A. Luster, PriTTTirnirolT^one, Vlee-Pm. J. R. McCWeit
CLYDE IRON WORKS
FOUNDERS and MACHINISTS
Op*, 30ik AT,
&
W, Michigan gt, Delutfc, Mi»n,
SHOE REPAIRING
SHOE
PAIR CO.
•Ion
mnLiTTH
lunauoR
Advuee
1» Prleee
and
Calgary Oil Stock
Established!
NMTltfUwil
Duluth,
MR]
jw
Bl
Manufacturer ®f
Steam Log W**
Steam Sklddera,
Logging Twlii
Hydraulic
Mixing MaehlaeiT*
PHONE) Zenith, IT
SMOKE:
PURAD0KA *nd
GEO. TAYLOR
Zenith Cigar
KB* WEST DOMESTIC
Made by
MATT ETTINGER. W
94 East First 0tr«*

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