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Made Known on
THE LABOR WORLD
Duluth, Minn., a
Pabltahed Every Saturday.
Established In 1896 by Sabrle G. Alktn.
Suite 610 Manhattan Building. Duluth. Minn.
Zenith Phone. Grand 65. Duluth Phone. Melrose 1288.
One 5Tear, in advance (1.00
Six Months, In advance .50
Three Months, in advance 25
Single Copies, 2 Cents.
W. E. McEWEN, Publisher.
IXGERSOLli ON LABOR
The history of man is simply the history of slavery,
of injustice and brutality, together with the dead ana
desolute years, slowly and painfully advanced.
Slavery includes all other crimes. It is the joint
product of the kidnapper, the private thief, murderer
and hypocrite. It degrades labor and corrupts leisure.
With th3 idea that labor is the basis of progress
goes the truth that labor must be free. The laborer
must be a free man.
I would like to see this world at last, so that a
man could die and not feel that he had left his wife
and children a prey to the greed, the avarice, or the
cruelties of mankind.
There is something wrong in a government where
'honesty wears a rag, and rascality a robe when, the
loving, the tender, eat a crust, while the infamous sit
Whoever produces anything at weary labor does
not need a revelation from Heaven to teach him that
he has a right to the thing produced.
In most of the nations of our day the idlers and
non-producers are either beggars or aristocrats, paup
ers or princes, and the great middle laboring class sup
ports both. Rags and robes have a liking for each
I other. Beggars and kings are in accord they are
'parasites, living on the same blood, stealing the same
'labor—one by beggary, the other by force.
We must get rid of the idea that a little learning
unfits one for work. There is no real conflict between
Latin and Labor.
You have no idea how many men are spoiled by
what is called education. For the most part colleges
are places where pebbles are polished and diamonds
are dimmed. Every child should be taught that the
useful are the honorable, and that they who live on
the labor of others are the enemies of society.
The object of all education should be to increase
the usefulness of man—usefulness to himself and
Good, honest, faithful work is worship.
Labor is the only prayer that nature answers it
is the only prayer that deserves an answer—good, hon
est, noble work.
THEY WANT THEIR KIND OP ARBITRATION.
What" a howl has gone up from the railroad presi
dents and managers for the "preservation of the prin
ciple of arbitration." We have read this impressive
phraseology so often the past two weeks that it seems
to have been done into records and forwarded to the
anti-administration news shops of the country, to be
reiterated over and over again with graphophone pre
When was arbitration abandoned in the railroad sit
uation? Has not President Wilson acted in the capacity
of an arbitrator? Could there be an arbitrator more
fair, more competent, with greater responsibility, for
•upon the justice of his decision rests "his standing with
the American people, the average of whom are fair
What the railroad officials want is their kind of ar
bitration, the kind that results from favorable boards,
long delay, a horde of attorneys, tons of confusing
statisics, and a continuous run of publicity to fill the
public mind wih distorted information, prepared by
their press bureaus to fool the people and prevent their
employes from getting justice.-
To live on the labor of others, either by force which
enslaves, or by cunning which robs, or by borrowing or
begging, is wholly dishonorable. Every man should
be taught some useful art. His hands should be edu
cated as well as his head. He should be taught to,
deal with things as they are—with life as it is.
There are many kinds of arbitration. Fair arbitra
tion, which President Wilson is demonstrating in the
railroad case, is not to the liking of the railroad presi
dents. They have been reluctant to accept the decision.
They want the kind of arbitration they can control the
kind they had in the past, which has proved so profit
able to them and so detrimental to their employes.
The railroad presidents want the kind of arbitration
that was handed the Chicago street car men in 1912,
when with similar powerful influences at work the
traction interests won the award and the umpire of the
board was later returned to a high elective political
office without opposition. But when the same traction
interests were handed an award in 1915 which gave
their employes a fair measure of justice, they grew
Indignant and said it was not arbitration at till.
The crafty manipulators of finance who control the
steam railroads, traction properties and other public
utilities, and who gather the cream of industry, shout
loudly for the "principle of arbitration," but what they
mean is their own particular kind of arbitration. The
Carter-Fleming brand suited them very well In the
Chicago ^street railway case in 1912, but the Thompson
Hoyne brand in 1915 was not to their liking.
Now the Wilson brand does not suit them.
How strange it sounds to hear the captains of in
dustry plead for the "principle of arbitration." And
how recent was their invariable answer, "there is noth
ing to arbitrate."
The employers' respect for the "principle of arbitra
tion" has been forced by the power of the unions. The
application of this principle has been controlled in
great measure by the employers. As a result a great
many instances are of record where arbitration has
proved impotent to right labor's wrongs. But the prin
ciple of arbitration is not responsible for this it was
the abuse of this principle through wrong application
As the unions grow more powerful they wil force a just
application of the arbitration principle.
This was exactly the case in the railroad contro
versy. The unions were sufficiently strong to force the
situation into clean hands, with President Wilson as ar
bitrator, and a just award is sure to result.
And a just award to labor is certain to cause a
squeal in Wall street, to be re-echoed by every lackey
jdown the line that feeds from the unlimited trough of
SATURDAY- •THE LABOR WOBLD
OUR 'DEMOCRATIC* RAILROADS
The Milwaukee sentinel's contribution to the railroad
campaign against an eight-hour day is an editorial In
dorsement of the claim made by the corporations' pub
licity bureau that the railroads are "democratically
Here is the text, furnished by the railroad press
agents, on which The Sentinel preached:
"Instead of railway stock being held by a compara?
tively few persons in Wall street, as is often claimed,
the bulk of such securities are held by small investors,
outnumbering the members of the train service brother
hoods who are now threatening to tie up the roads by
two to one."
Get your facts on straight in the beginning. Ac
cording to the figures furnished by the railroad pub
licity bureau there are 602,000 owners of railroad stock
and over 400,000 employes who are asking for an eight
hour* day. That is not quite two to one.
But those figures are very deceiving. The number
of stockholders is obtained by adding up the stocklist
of the various roads. A man or corporation that owned
stock in 500 roads would be counted 500 times. A
study of the estate of the late J. P. Morgan shows that
he would be counted almost that many times.
A large percentage of the railroad securities are
owned by the great life insurance companies. They are
not exactly objects of charity, nor examples of "demo
cratic" management. Let they are certainly counted
several thousand times in this list.
Banks are heavy owners of railroad stocks and
bonds. Each of their holdings counts one in that 602,
000, and these total duplications would take off a few
The heaviest of all investors in such securities are
the railroads themselves. The Pennsylvania owns
more stocks and bonds of other railroads than all the
"widows and orphans" who are dependent upon a few
shares for a living put together. In each of these
roads the Pennsylvania counts one toward the 602,000.
If we eliminate all these' duplications and corpora
tions, it is a safe estimate that the number of stock
holders is less than the number of employes asking for
But this is only half the story. Every investigation
of railroad ownership has shown that the controlling
interest is in the possession of a little circle who gen
erally use that power to rob the small stockholders as
well as the shippers and the employes. If you doubt
this look up the history of the New Haven, the Hock
Island, the Alton, or any one of a hundred other roads
that have been similarly looted, bankrupted and "re
organized" from one to a half dozen times.
It would not affect the justice of the demand for
shorter hours if there were 10 times as many owners
as workers. Income from. ownership without working
and income from working without ownership stand on
a different social foundation. Labor is necessary to
the life of society. Private ownership is not only un
necessary, but is a positive obstacle to social efficiency.
WHAT IS ARBITRATION?
The New York World, probably the most influen
tial newspaper in the United States, treats the railroad
controversy with a logic that surpasses anything yet
said on the situation. In an editorial last Monday
the World asks the question, "What is Arbitration?"
and comments as follows:
The World agrees with them. But what is arbi
tration? What has been going on In the White HoUse
day after day but arbitration, with the President of
the United States as arbitrator? It is certainly arbi
tration in fact if not in form.
The railroad presidents justly declare that it is es
sential to the right«of« every citizen that he have his
day in court. That Is what they have been having, and
that is what the unions have been having. Each side
has presented its case at great length. The Presi
dent has sat in judgment. After hearing all the argu
ments he has made what seems to us to be a fair and
commonsense proposal, which is:
1. That the eight-hour day be recognized as the
standard of hours and the basis of wages.
2. That a small body of impartial men be appointed
to observe the workings of this eight-hour day in re
spect'to railroad operation.
3. That upon the report of this body aa to the
facts, either side should have the right to reopen the
controversy with a view to readjustments of pay and
4. That the experience of the railroads with an
eight-hour day would inevitably guide the Interstate
Comerce Commission in respect to an increase of freight
rates to meet whatever financial obligations were in
If this is not arbitration, what is it?
The railroads say an eight-hour day is inpracti
cable. The men say it is not. The evidence shows that
an eight-hour day is in effect on certain roads. The
President says, try it out and see whether it is uni
versally practicable or not, and have competent judges
appointed to decide. If that is not arbitration, what is
When it comes to the matter of money, the Presi
dent says in effect that the public believes in an eight
hour day, and must assume its share of the burden.
This is true, and the public can well afford to pay its
share. In forty-eight hours a general railroad strike
would cost the country more than an increase of freight
rates to pay for an eight-hour day would exact in five
The railroad unions went to the White House boast
ing that they would arbitrate nothing. President Wil
son soon clubbed that arrogance out of them. The
railroad managers then took the position that every
thing must be arbitrated—that no concessions what
ever could be made as a preliminary to arbitration.
They cannot maintain that position. The judgment of
the country will not support them in the maintenance
of this controversial vanity.
Presiden Wilson has presented a progamme of ad
justment. He expresses the belief that it is' "thoroughly
practical and entirely fair." Nobody has yet undertaken
to show wherein it is not practicable and wherein it is
not fair. The railroad presidents cannot reject this
plan without assuming the moral responsibility for the
There is no particular sanctity about one form of ar
bitration a!s distinguished from another form of arbi
tration. No court, no arbitration, can say whether or not
an eight-hour day is feasible in railroad auestlon. No
body can possibly know until it has been tried. We can
rem6mber when railroad managers did not think that
air brakes and automatic couplers were feasible on
President Wilson is dealing with a condition, not a
theory. The railroad presidents are dealing with a
theory. President Wilson insists that they shall put
ttieir theory to a practical test. How can they refuse?
On that issue public opinion is bound to sustain
WHERE DOES SALARIED
MAN "GET OFF AT?
In these timet of soaring prices and
advancing wages, where does the
salaried man "get off at?"
That Is a question that is bothering
hundreds of thousands of men and
women in the United States and a
large number right here in Duluth.
•Probably the most volatile commodi
ties are in the clothing and foodstuffs
list, wihich begin to soar at every
bullish, rumor from, the stock ex
change anj the war front. After the
cost of living has gone upward so as
to make conditions almost intolerable
for the laborer, wages are boosted
a little following & threat on the part
of the workmen to strike. In some
cases workmen are given small volun
But how often do men and women
working on salaries demand better re
muneration and working conditions.
Most o" such workers are "too
proud" to organize and for that rea
son stub along as best they can on a
mere pittance. This means privation
on the part of the family and less
comfort in the home.
It was only recently, that the school
teachers of the country began to
realize their foolish attitude on the
question of organization and decided
to affiliate with the American Federa
tion of Labor. Other workers, men
and women, in kindred professions
also have lain aside their false dignity
and are now working shoulder to
shoulder with laborers who have long
since bettered their condition through
organization and who are advancing
Thousands of salaried persons in
Duluth are working for the same
salary now that they were a year ago
despite the fact that their service has
improved and their salary buys less.
DEMANDS ARE SMALL
"While the increase that will be
granted to the employes of the rail
ways will hr.ve some little effect on
the net earnings of the road, it will
be insignificant compared with the
immense business that all of the
transportation companies are handl
ing," say Renskorf, Lyon and com
pany, New York.
"It was recently announced that
131 railways of this country had in
12 months ending .Tune 1, 1916,
earned $200,000,000 more than in the
previous year. For the month of
June the net eafnings of these roads
were 20 per cent greater than in the
same month a year ago. These are
fifcures which wfll give an idea of the
great prosperity of this country, and
the effect it is having on the differ
"Net earnings are more than double
the dividends that are being paid by
the principal railways of the United
States,' and with this showing there
is every reason to expect extra dis
tribution to stockholders in the fu
"Although industrial prosperity at
the present time is greater than this
country has ever seen, the amicable
settlement of the labor trouble be
tween the railroads and their em
ployes will mean its continuation. The
railroads are now short of equipment,
and we look for an Increased buying
demand from this quarter as soon as
an adjustment wlfh labor is con
cluded. The roads will be in the
market for large quantities of cars,
steel rails, and all other kinds of
equipment necessary to transport the
enormous amount of tonnage that is
taxing their carrying capacity now.
"The industrial corporations have
been using the money they had
earned in the past to increase the ca
pacity and efficiency of their plants
and to build up a large cash surplus
to enable them to be in. a position to
accept all profitable contracts. They
have placed themselves in the envi
able position of being, able to finance
their own undertakings, whereas in
previous years they were compelled
to borrow these funds from banks.
By the conservative and constructive
policy they have pursued, they are
able to use the surplus they had ac
cumulated to better advantage, and
thereby have derived greater profits
for their stockholders than they
would, had they distributed it in divi
I LABOR GIVES DIGNITY
AND PURPOSE TO LIFE
Perversions of Justice Ignore the
fact that labor power is inseparable
from the body and personality of the
worker—that it is part of his very
being. Labor in the speech of com
merce and economic theory would
not infrequently imply an inanimate
something to be bought and sold ex
actly as an article of trade or com
merce. Labor is the great, creative,
productive force of the universe. It
is that which gives dignity, nobility
and purpose to human life.
HEAI/THY CHILDREN NEEDED.
MILWAUKEE, Aug. 31.—"Infant
mortality is the 'yard stick' for mea
suring the height of social welfare
and the breadth of human effi
ciency," said Dr. Emll T. Lobedan,
health official, in an address in this
FOR Nl5XT MONDAY
WASHINGTON, Sept. WThtM
A. F. ot L. official* will deliver
Labor day addresses tills year at
the following pieces
President Gompers, Lewlston,
Vice Prlsldeat Duncan, Westerly,
Vice President O'Comell, 'Cleve
Vlco President Daffy, probably at
Vice President Green. Mnrpfcya
Secretary Morrison, Sunday eve
ning, Erie, Pa., under avsttlees of
trade anion movement| Monday,
Treasurer Lennon, Kokomo, Ind.
-SEPTEMBER Z, 191B.
A pound package of Louis
ine Writing Paper, special
for to- Ol
Elvelopes to match,
Girls' and Misses'
Values to $3.00. ..
Neat little Wash Dresses for
school wear, in gingham, reps and
percales. Values to $8, while they
New Blue Serge Middy Blouses for
schqol wear red silk laces, white
piping on collar,
LABOR UNIONS ARE
AGENCY FOR GOOD
Of all the agencies for good and the
betterment of the human race there is
none that gives greater returns, indi
vidually and collectively, than the
labor movement. It works silently,
persistently and unceasingly for the
good of the people both in and out of
Its authority breeds and instills
temperance in all things, educates its
members to the knowledge of things
good and wise. Its influence, like oil
poured on water, spreads to every
thing within Its reach, and it works
24 hours per day for the uplift of the
human family. It 'gives hope where
despair was rampant it gives freedom
where slavery prevailed. Its potential
force knows no limit. It bears the
burdens and gives a breathing space
where strangulation held sway. It is
a champion of justice arid protects
aagainst wrong. In short, it is the
greatest missionary institution under
the sun. Who would deny it? No one
can with any degree of ruccess.
WHISKERS TO BLOOM
BARBERS WILL STRIKE
NEW YORK CITY, Aug. 31.—
From the battery to Fifteenth street,
including the Wall street section,
whiskers will bloom in. honor of the
barbers' union, which will call a
strike In shops in that district. Sec
tions of the Bronx will be included in
the whiskered area and 20,000 bar
bers will be on strike, according to
union leaders. The barbers are de
manding fewer hours and- a minimum
wage of $13 a week. Human hair
workers carried out their plans and
went on strike to the number of
RIGHTS OF OTHERS
MUST BE RESPECTED
The world is full of those who wish
to reform other people according to
their own ideas.
Singularly enough those who wish
to remake other people do not relish
the idea of having other people re
Each person seems to have an idea
that he wants to be boss of his own
affairs and of those o2 others as well.
We will make* distinct progress if
we will have it distinctly understood
that each individual or group has its
own rights that others are bound to
In respecting the rights of others
we will find the fullest enjoyment of
our own rights and liberties.
The Carpenters' International union
comprises 850 locals with a combined
membership of 197,900.
The Molders* International union
has a membership of 50,000 in 957
The United Mine Workers of Am
erica has a total membership of 273,
209 in 2,618 local unions.
Railway Postal Clerks' Interna
tional union has a membership of
Laundry Workers' International
union had a membership of 4,300 at
Painters and Decorators* Interna
tional union comprises 957 locals,
with a total membership of 81,579.
The strike of 4,300 packing house
employes in East St. Louis resulted
In a victory for the workers.
Miners in the Wilkesbarre coal dis
trict have refused to work with- non
A child born after the death of its
father by Industrial accident Is en
titled to compensation In Pennsyl
Eleven hundred striking street
sweepers and teamsters have been
discharged in Pittsburgh because
they demanded better working condl
RICHMOND GIRLS STRIKE.
RICHMOND. Va.. Sept l.—Oirls em
ployed by the Southern Manufacturing
company are on Strike. Tlece work
rates make It impossible for them, to
September 5th is the date—only three more days to prepare for the beginning of school. (We will
be closed Monday, Labor Day.) Is that girl or miss fully equipped? If not, this "Get Ready for
School Sale" is your opportunity to fill her wants at most economical savings. Come early today.
Misses' Separate Skirts of blue
mixed materials box plaited very
neat to wear with AC
Dated at Duluth, Minn.. August 30th.
By the Court,
*^H^\r^fc' A „v^7'v^"r i* 'y"$V ^"VVT *1 *"rv"
Order for Hearing on Petition for
STATE OF MINNESOTA. COUNTY OF
In the Matter of the -Estate of W. B.
THE PETITION OF Hattle May
Hartley having been filed In this Court,
representing, among other things, that
W. B. Hartley, then being a resident
of the County of^St. Louis, State of
Minnesota, died intestate, in the County
of St. Louis, State of Minnesota. on the
19th day of August. 1916, leaving" estate
in the County.- of StC Louis. State of
Minnesota, and .that -Mid petitioner is
the widow of said decedent and pray
ing that letters of administration of
the estate of said -decedent be. granted
to said Hattle Miy H&rtley.
IT IS ORDERED,.That said petition
.be heard before-this -Cotirti at the Pro
bate Court Rooms In the Court House
in Duluth, in said County, on Monday,
the 25th day of September, 1916, at. ten
o'clock A. M., and all persons interested
in said hearing and in said matter are
hereby cited and required at said time
and place to show cause, if any there
be, why said petition should not be
ORDERED FURTHER. That this or
der be served by publication in Thie
Labor World according, to law, and
that a copy of this order be served on
the County Treasurer of St. Louis
County not less than ten days'prior to
said day of hearing.
S. W. GILPIN.
H. W. LANNERS, Attorney.
L. W„ Sept. 2-9-16-1916.
A. R. MORTON,
Clerk of Probate.
(Seal, Probate Court, St. Louis County,
Order to Examine Final Account.
STATE OF MINNESOTA, COUNTY OF
In the Matter of the Estate of Al
bertina L. Johnson, Decedent.
THE PETITION OF Peter A. 6jose
IIus, as representative of the above
named decedent, together with his
final account of administration of
said estate, having been filed la this
court, representing, among other
things that he haB fully administered
said estate, and praying that said final
account of said administration be ex
amined, adjusted and allowed by the
Court, and that the Court make and
©nter its final decree of distribution of
the residue of the estate of said de
cedent to the persons entitled there
to, and for the discharge of the rep
resentative and the sureties on his
IT IS ORDERED, That said petition
pe heard, ani said final Account exam
ined, adjusted. and if correct, allowed
by the Court, at the Probate Court
Rooms in the Court House, In the
City of Duluth in said County, on Mon
day the 25th day of September, 1916,
at ten clock A. M., and ail persons
Interested in said hearing and in said
matter are hereby cited and required
ax said time and place to show cause,
'f any there be, why said petition
should not be granted.
ORDERED FURTHER. That this or
by publication in The
Labor World, according to law.
Minn., August 31,
By the Court.
JS. W. OILPIN,
Judge of Probate.
A. R. MORTON.
/o 9leJ[k of Probate.
(Seal, Probate Court, St. Louis County,
GEO. SJOSELTUS, Esq.. Atty.
L. W„ Sept. 2-9-16-1916.
Saturday, Sept. 2,
is the last dag of our
Great Sale of Man
are a direct saving on
every purchase you make
here. Start saving them
for School Sale
C] Girls'and Misses'
Values to $7.50.
Splendid little Dresses for school
wear, in all the newest up-to-date
models. Values to $7.50, at one
All of our remaining stock of this
season's pretty nobby effects. Just
right for the beginning of (1 A
school. Values to $29.50. V*"
Order to Examine Final Aeeonnt.
STATE OF MINNESOTA. COUNTY OF
St. Louis, ss. In Probate Court.
In the Matter of the Estate of Tony
The Petition of Attllio Castigllano
as representative of the above named
decedent, together with his final ac
count of administration of said estate,
having been filed in this court, repre
senting, among other things, that he
has fully administered said estate and
praying* that said final account of
said administration be examined, aa-i|
justed and allowed by the Court, and
that the Court make and -enter Its final 1
decree of distribution of the residue
of the estate of said decedent to the
persons entitled thereto, and for the1
discharge of the representative and
.the sureties on his bond.
It Is Ordered. That said petition be
heard, and said final account exam
i.ned, adjusted, and if correct, allowed
by the Court, at the Probate Court.!
Rooms in the Court House, in the City
of Duluth in said County, on Monday,
the 26th day of September, 1916. at ten
o'clock A. M„ and all persons inter
ested in said hearing and In said mat
ter are hereby cited, and required at
said time and place to show cause, if
any there %e, why said petition should
not be granted.
Ordered Further, That this order be
,• **T* Si
served by publication in The Labor
World according to law.
Dated at Duluth, Minn., August 29th,
By the Court,
S. W. GILPIN.
Judge of Probate.
Attest! A. R. MORTON,
Clerk of Probate.
(Seal Probate Ct. St. Louis Co. Minn.) 1
L. W. Sept, 2, 9. 16, 1916
for Men and Young
Men at the