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4 ’u- ~TT a- Opvratlw*.. potter? -Herald OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL BROTHERHOOD OF OPERATIVE POm «ai4 EAST LIVERPOOL TRADES A LABOR COUNCIL BuHMbed •••cr Thursday East Liverpool, Ohio, by the N. B. of O. P., owninc and eperaUac the Best Trades Newspaper and Job Pristine Plant in the State. feteeed St Post Office, East Liverpool, Ohio. April SO, 1002. aa •ecoDd-clasa matter. AcSKSed for mailinc at Special Rates of Postage provided for in Section 1100, Act e^ Ottebsr 18. 1017, authorised August 20, 1018. GENERAlToFFlCE, N. B. of o. P. BUILDING. W. SIXTH ST., HELL PHONE 575 HARRY L. GILL--------------------------------- JDditor and Business Manager One Year to Any Part of the United States or Canada...—.. ------„,..42.00 Praaident——-------------------------Jaman M. Duffy, P. O. B«x 7S2, East Liverpool, Ohio Pint Vi«e PrevMent...E. L. Wheatley, Room 215, Broad Street, National Bank Build* ins, Trenton 8, Neer Jeraay Second Vice President.———.JPrenk Hull, 8111 Pacific Blvd., Huntington Park, CaHf. Third Vice Preaident—Jaroea Slaven, Cannons Milla, East Liverpool, Ohio Wurth Vico Preaident..—.Charles Zimmer, 1045 Ohio Avenue, Trenton 8, New Jeraay Fifth Vice President. Arthur Devlin, 205 Ashmore Ave., Trenton, N. J. Sixth Vice President .Frank Dales, Eaat Liv«i’P«»ol, Ohio Seventh Vice President—.—JT. J. Dmmond, 825 E. Lincoln Way, Minerva, Ohio Eighth Vice President..— Joshua Chadwick, Grant Street, Newell, W. Va. Secretary-Treasurer-----Chaa. F. Jordan, P. O. Box 752, Eaat Liverpool, Ohio GENERAL WARE STANDING COMMITTEE M. J. LYNCH. W. A. BETZ. J. T. HALL JCHAS. F. JORDAN, FREDERICK GLYNN. ERNE8T TORRENCE CHINA WARE STANDING COMMITTEE ................ E. K. KOOS, H. M. WALKER, W. A. BETZ BERT CLARK, DAVID BEVAN, CljLAS. JORDAN DECORATING STANDING COMMITTEE ■anufMtarcm ROBERT DIETZ. Sr.. W. A. BETZ, RAY BROOKES Oawatives JAMES SLAVEN. OSCAR 8WAN, ROSE STEWART Toward Higher Wages With House action on the 75 cents minimum wage bill completed, the issue now rests with the Senate. Desirable as the boost from the prevailing 40-cent minimum wage rate must seem on general principles, the bill passed by the House, 361 to 85, is at best of a questionable character. It takes away coverage from 1,005,000 workers now protected by the Fair Labor Standards Act. Its passage, with the votes of 221 Democrats, 139 Re publicans and one American-Laborite, is perhaps best ex plained by House Labor Committee chairman, John Lesinski, who, after switching his vote ‘from nay to yea, half-heart edly declared: “I changed my mind because I think the best thing we can do is to hope that a good bill will be worked out in con ference with the Senate.” v To understand the Administration pressure behind the intent to raise the hourly minimum to a livable wage, it is necessary to grasp the full meaning qf the steps recently taken by the Secretary of Labor to raise the wage level under the provisions of the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act. This law, enacted in 1936, permits the Secretary of ■Labor to determine the minimum pay in any industry which contracts to furnish supplies and materials to the govern ment. As part of this program the Secretary issued the fol lowing orders within the last 10 months: October 13,1948—Cloth hat and cap industry—increase .from 40 to 87 cents an hour October 18, 1948—Textile industry—from 40 to 87 ^icents November 29, 1948—Uniform and clothing industry— -:£rom 60 to 85 cents April 6, 1949—Woolen and worsted industry—min limum wage set at $1.05 July 12, 1949—Pressed and blown glass and glassware Industry—‘from 42^ cents to 83’/j cents July 26, 1949—Iron and steel industry—from 65 cents 'to $1.23. A request pending before the Secretary seeks to in .jerease the minimum in the aircraft industry from 50 cents Ito $1.15. The effect of these measures is obvious. Not only do Ithey lift the minimum pay of workers employed under gov ‘'ernment contracts, but the new government-decreed wage Incomes in practical effect the minimum wage for the en tire industry. Last but not least, the impact of these wage ‘adjustments is bound to be felt throughout the industrial structure of the country, thus outstripping the changes sought in the 75-cent minimum pay bill. Again? Former President Herbert Hoover is warning us again. This time, Mr. Hixiver has decided that we are on our “last mile” to socialism. There’s a chance, of course, Mr. Hoover could be wrong. As we recall it, this same gentleman has been wrong before. It seems to us that we remember him predicting that “grass would grow in the streets” of our cities if a cer tain man were elected President instead of Mr. Ilooyer. The man Mr. Hoover feared so much was Roosevelt. That goes for social security, farm price supports, min imum wages, slum clearance, rural electrification, and al most every other useful Government endeavor. One thing Mr. Hoover isn’t predicting: that men will be selling apples on street corners again. Lobbies Most of the $4,100,000 injured out for lobbying in the Nation’s capital during the first six months of this year was used to influence Congress against public welfare measures. The big-moneyed pressure groups oppose Taft-Hartley Law repeal, national health insurance, public power, slum clearance and public housing, and every other social welfare measure that is suggested. In almost every instance, a majority in Congress has opposed these measures too—contrary to the public interest and contrary to the wishes of the majority. A majority in this Congress is so confused by now that they don’t seem to know who the people voted for last No vember. They can’t seem to see the difference lietween the issues on which the fieople vote and the issues of which the newspapers approve. Seems Likely Cars Are Here To Stay Record production figures for the month of June have established a 20-year high in the automobile field with a half million passenger cars coming off the production lines. Add to that an estimated 100,000 trucks and you find the automobile industry really rolling in high gear. Detroit looks for the present torrid pace to keep up for the balance of the summer which will add an imposing number of vehicles to the more than two million already off the assem bly, line since January 1 of this year. Dip When Mr. Hoover was President he was scared of any costs are going down—though nobody has been able to pin mative action by our Government to help the people, that one down. Where, how and when living costs have de affirmative action by our Government to help the people He is still scared. According to Mr. Hoover’s theories, we must starve people and run our country into the ground rather than accept ideas that weren’t popular with his grand father. ... i ... Vari* Abe Lincoln And Property The communists and fellow travelers to the contrary, jprivate property and the private individual are necessary to ftrue democracy. V This is what Abraham Lincoln said: “Property is the fruit of labor property is desirable it jis a positive good in the world that some should be rich shows that others may become rich, and hence is just en couragement to industry and enterprise. “Let not him who is houseless pull down the house of another, but let him, work diligently and built one for him self, thus by example, assuring that his own shall be safe tfrom violence when built.” This was the Lincoln who praised Unions, who said «when he heard that Union men were on strike for a 10 hour day that he was proud of the fact that working people had sufficient strength and foresight to strike in order to cor jrect intolerable conditions. A slave may be a good workman, an expert. But he cannot strike. If he does refuse to obey his master he may be whipped, or even imprisoned. 1 To the degree that working people are denied by any power whatsoever, the right to strike, the right to put down their tools and refuse to labor, to that degree they are slaves. The Taft-Hartley Act makes all American Union people jfilaves to some degree. Our federal constitution prohibits slavery, but the courts, having abrogated to themselves the power to “in terpret” the constitution, have ruled that it does not mean what it says. They have created a legal fiction by which they determine that partial slavery is not slavery at all, but some thing else. Courts are peculiar in matters like this because in most instances the judges who comprise them are former corpor ation lawyers. During bheir practicing or competitive car eers, judges usually have put in most of their .time serving and defending corporations against people. They view jus tice as something apart from law and they worship meekly the technical law which goes to great pains to defend the privileges of corporations. Take the matter of picketing. Our U. S. Supreme Court has ruled that the right of a Union to picket is part of the right of free speech, guaranteed by the federal constitution. Union pickets merely inform the public—that is free speech. TBe Job Situation We’re in the midst of a period of great prosperity, so the experts say, and yet the latest figures show more than four million Americans are unemployed. And nine million or more persons are working only part time—many of them not more than 20 hours a week. If you believe what some of the experts say and the business writers concoct, then the situation isn’t serious. It’s nothing more than a “normal readjustment.” But if you could talk with the four million without jobs and the nine or more million with part-time jobs you’d hear an entirely different story. We’ll go along with the viewpoint of those whose source of income has disappeared through no fault of their own. The situation is serious and it demands our attention. Some of our leading economists say employment will in crease somewhat between now and .fall as inventories are built up, which is probably true. But there have been no real changes in the factors which brought about the present situation. It began de veloping when prices and profits started increasing faster than wages. Consumer purchasing power has now reached a dan gerously low point and one of two things must occur if we’re to avoid real trouble. Prices must be reduced sharply or wages must be increased. But, you say, prices have been coming down, haven’t they? Yes, they have. Between 1989 and last August they increased about 70%. Since last August they decreased about 3%. Some of our major industries are in excellent position to hike wages and bolster consumer purchasing power. Unfortunately, they at present are taking the same shortsighted position they did when they started shoving us into the present mess. And the unions know that much more than the immedi ate future of their own members is involved in current wage drives. That’s why they’re prepared to fight for what they believe to be right and desirable. But Dividends Increase Labor Unions well know that resistance to wage in crease has been increasing sharply in the last few months. There is an organized press propaganda to prevent wage rises. Some employers have, even refused to negotiate work ing conditions. The yelp in the papers has been to the effect that living Business Week, the magazine devoted to industry, re ports that dividends paid by aircraft manufacturers have in creased 189.7 per cent over 1948. Automotive dividends are up 42.6 per cent. Railroad and R. R. equipment industries are up 12.9 pct., steel and iron dividends have jumped 23.6 pct., and tobacco stockholders have 12 pct. more than in 1948. The total of 118 stock issues show an average gain of 11.2 per cent. Car Dealers Pull In Horns Stick Out Necks THE POTTERS HERALD, EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO 3m n MR n a v ^appropriation for armaments.” “What makes it doubly peculiar is The banner worn or carried by the picket informs the pub- ithat, between war cries when for the moment the military is not ask lie that nirkotod nlnno is “unfair” nr that it dnpq nnt for a few more blIllons for national defense or to arm Europe, nc tnat rne piCKetea place IS uniail or mat 11 uoes not pr(.sident Truman or one of his lieutenants is sure to be proclaiming employ Union members, or that a strike IS in progress. ‘good old Joe’ Stalin isn’t really as ferocious as he sounds.” clined remains a mystery to all who must toil for their liv- Several years ago, on my way back from the West Coast, I stop ing1. Certainly the grocery stores and meat markets haven’t ped off in Colorado. One never-to-be-forgotten day I drove out to heard anything about lower prices. Beef and pork prices have gone up in recent weeks. D1V id ends of big manufacturing firms have gone up peaks girdling the town. The clear blue sky, the snow crowned yioun steadily 1949 over 1948, atid 1948 was a very fat profit 1 year. roflts, they say, are down a little, but dividends—ah! they, in turn, condemn us for not realizing how fair our own pathways Must be the big fellows want to keep wages down—*cut are. Intolerance breads on both sides of the mountain, whether it be the incomes of the working people—so that the non-toiling a physical barrier or a mountain built of our own prejudice and ignor stockholders will be happy. ance Economists say bfc business can reduce prices and still raise wages without interfering with sane profits and divid- But those who have the courage to approach them, to face their dif ends. The facts seem to prove it. Acuities, learn that there is always n way through. People are getting nicer all the time. Butchers, grocers and even landlords have learned to be pleasant again, and now you can add the car salesman to the long list of dealers who are taking the condensed Dale Carnegie course in charm. Underlying reason is that competition is once again a force in the auto business, and even money says that you can walk into a showroom and get a new vehicle on short order. No under-the-table and no extras, either. Just put your cash on U)e line, or offer a good car as a trade-in, and you’ve got a deal. Detroit’s fabulous assembly line is the gica! dressings and other cotton 'textiles, "such nonwoven fabrics, answer, with more than two million cars already delivered un,les5 made with animal fibers such as well, traditionally have con thiR jind AnofHpi* iwn million "fov niYviiwiinn tsined Rn adfwsivc binding The new lelt is neither woven nor tms year ana anotner two million scneauiea toi i es, competition IS back, and the dealers are not letting sales by an “elaborate entangleing process which eliminates weaving and prospects get away. spinning” simulating fiber structure in animal wool and leather. 1 NEWS and VIEWS 1 By ALEXANDER S. LIPSETT (An ILNS Feature) n n mib iiw hciiB"Hr»»n«* Congratulations to the Colorado Labor Advocate, Denver, Col., on its recent editorial “Let’s Have It Straight.” Here is a thoughtful and well considered piece of writing that differs refreshingly from the tepid stuff dished out by the .press on issues of American foreign policy. It seems right peculiar, the paper ably edited by Al Magnuson states, “how the Administration and State and Defense departments are able to whip up a new war scare every time they want another Why these sudden switches?, the editorial pointedly asks. “No .matter how spiritedly it may be denied, it’s hard to escape the suspi cion that the new arms-for-Europe program is the rat in the grain bin.” “The pieces fit well for mere coincidence. The President wants a ’billion and a half dollars to arm Europe against Russia there’s got to be some excuse for appropriating that kind of money. So, of course, We discover new evidence that Russia is getting ready to attack. A couple of weeks ago, when we were still flushed with our ‘victory’ over the Kremlin at Paris, Stalin was a pretty good boy, as Commun ists go.” The entire affair might still be written off as a coincidence, the Jjibor Advocate concludes, “if the whole shoddy pattern had not been followed before.” “New military program—new war scare mission accomplished—the Kremlin is ‘backing down.’ “Maybe the Russians are about to put a match to the cold war And maybe they are not. It is a pretty safe bet, though, Jhat they’re hot changing their minds as often as our President and State Depart ment appear to be.” 4 Neglect of urgently needed public teonztruction make necessary a national $100 billion program of public works over the next 16 years, Jess Larson, recently appointed head of the General Services Admin istration, successor to the Federal Works Agency, asserts in the cur rent issue of the agency’s periodical. Though public works during the nrst half of 1949, “in a slow response to tremendous needs,” have in creased by 37 percent over the corresponding figures of 1948, short ages in hospital construction, highways and school building are pro nounced and immediate. .In appealing for “a large and adequate shelf of plans, fully blue printed and available for immediate contract letting,” Mr. Lar.son reasons that “the wise use of public works can help maintain the con struction industry on an even keel and thus prove a valuable aid to the economy as a whole.” There can be little quarrel with this line of reasoning, which is further underscored by the demand of the American Road Builders’ Association for a large volume of highway construction as a weapon against growing unemployment and “a stabilizer of the nation’s econ omy.” According to Jennings Randolph, treasurer of the Association and former West Virginia Congressman, 60 billion dollars would be re quired to modernize our highways and bring them in line with today’s increasing demands. Highway construction, he says offers a safer and smoother method of checking unemployment and, at the same time providing needed public works. “Even if we did not face today’s unemployment problem, the need for the largest program in the nation’s road-building history is mani fest. With some 12,000,(ICO motor vehicles added to our traffic since the war’s end an an increase of 30,000,000 population since 1930, we need more space, which under the American concept of the automobile as a necessity, means traveling space.” The Mountains Of The Heart By RUTH TAYLOR Several years ngo, on my way back from the West Coast, I stop visit the newspaper editors in some of the smaller towns. In a little one-street-town nestling in the heart of the mountains, I stood with the editor at the front door of his office, looking up at the uie euuor av me in»m uvr oi ms oince, looKing up at me greaigreat tains, whose rugged sides were purply green in the late afternoon sun, were a vision of beauty. I said, enviously, “How fortunate are you who live here!” My editor friend looked at me with a soul-weary smile and said:, ‘♦1 know what you mean—but our hearts are always striving to cross the mountains.” Each heart has its own mountain to cross. No matter where we live, we feel that happiness lies on the other side of the range, that, had our ways been laid in other places, wa could have done so much, we could have gone so far! We condemn those who live on the other side of our mountain for not making the most of their great opportunities. We forget that The trails of understanding are not easy. No trail that leads Upward is without its stumbling stones. It requires the footsteps of many to make a road. But the reward of effort is great. When one tenches the summit and sees both sides of the mountain—then is the way made clear. Then is the hour of understanding. Then has the heart truly crossed the mountains. WHAT NEXT? Development of a felt made entirely of cotton has been announced by Kendell Mills, Walpole, Mass., “after nearly 90 years of experi ments.” The invention “is expected to bring radical changes in the textile field,” according to the company, long a manufacturer of sur- production. strengthened with adhesives, the company said, it is held together T.-ivik-ade by LES FINNEGAN Thursday, August 25, 1949 If you don’t think the nation is perched on the brink of disaster you weren’t reading the newspaper headlines last week. First, that great depression engineer, Herbert Hoover, solemnly warned that the U. S. is now “on the last mile down the back road to collectivism.” The next day the chairman of the American Management Ass’n told the President’s steel fact-finding panel that if the steelworkers win their wage demands it will plunge the nation into a depression. Top ping them all was the charge by the president of Inland Steel that President Truman’s creation of the fact-finding board in itself was an “industrial revolution.” For profound economic thinking, however, none of these statements matched the reasoning of the Minnesota father of Miss America. Reading that his daughter, touring in Europe, was campaigning against “falsies” he announced positively, “She never said it. It was some Red over there.” The summer doldrums hit corporation executives all over the country with a number of heat-happy results. In Chicago an official of General Motors addressed a women’s club luncheon. Proudly he an nounced that General Motors was now coining profits faster than at any time during history—at the rate of $76,000 an hour or $1300 a minute! Following which he left his audience stunned with a violent argument against raising the 40c-an-hour federal minimum wage! & & & The summer heat also developed a rash of cute management tricks designed to harrass organized labor. The ironically-named National Union Radio Corp, was slapped down for a scheme whereby it would fire at the end of each year the two of its workers with the greatest number of absences. An a San Francisco mattress manufacturer put a time-clock arrangement on the doors of the women employees’ wash room so a gong would sound after two and a half minutes. Two months ago the NAM and the U. S. Chamber of Commerce shrieked like a stuck duck when the AFL and CIO announced they were starting their fund-raising campaigns to elect liberal Congress men. Last week it was disclosed that business groups admitted spend ing almost $2,000,000 in just six months on lobbies to influence Con-^t gress. The big business viewpoint is that it’s unfair for labor to try to elect pro-labor Congressmen but it’s okay for business to spend millions trying to make them anti-labor once they’ve been elected. Congresswoman Helen Gahagan Douglas’s experience may have been embarrassing but it was productive. During debate on the min imum wage bill she pleaded eloquently against a proposed exemption of a large group of telephone operators. Concluding, she declared warmly, “Unless you adopt this amendment 10,000 women will be uncovered!” After two solid minutes of laughter her amendment 1 passed 153 to 108. Mrs. Douglas’ embarrassment could never, however, equal that of the South Carolina Congressman who took’the floor one day for an emotional arm-waving speech on behalf of restoring the prohibition law. Stopping for a moment to wipe his perspiring brow he yanked a handkerchief out of his hip pocket—and with it a pint bottle of bourbon that went clattering to the floor. In Danville, Ill., a Sears Roebuck monkey escaped from its cage in the store and, after a long hunt, was found the next day—in the Montgomery-Ward store! Even then they couldn’t be sure it looked so much like one of Sewell Avery’s “loyal employees.” Washington Labor Report JUDGE GIVES MARYLAND LESSON ON LIBERTY By BRADFORD V. CARTER •. LPA Columnist Washington (LPA)—The Maryland legislature was given a cork ing good lession in civil liberties the other day when Circuit Judge Joseph Sherbow of the Supreme Bench of Baltimore City declared that the state’s anti-subversive law was “unconstitutional and invalid.” The legislature had it coming, and it’s a pity the same lesson hasn’t been pounded into the heads of legislators in the rest of those4* spates which have passed vicious “anti-subversive measures.” It’s 'g-j pity it hasn’t been pounded into the heads of a few members of Con gress. Perhaps other judges in other courts will have the pleasure eventually. Anti-subversive laws are aimed, of course, at the Communists. But they end up as weapons to be used against liberal thought and action which a certain kind of diehard likes to confuse with Commun ism at every opportunity. The burden of Judge Sherbow’s decision was that free people cannot fight the Communists effectively by using the kind of measures the Commies themselves glory in using when ever they achieve power, although he didn’t put it quite that way. Specifically, he said that you can’t legislate though control. The Maryland law, called the Ober Law after Baltimore attorney Frank Ober who headed the commission which drafted it, carried the following provisions. It gave a loose definition of subversive activi ties. It made membership in a subversive organization punishable by up to five years in prison and up to $5,000 in fines. It made partici pation in subversive activities punishable by up to 20 years in prison and up to $20,000 in fines. It provided for a special assistant attorney general to hantfie subversive activities. It required a loyalty oath of all state employes except laborers and of all candidates for public office. And it denied public funds to private institutions which failed to file with the state a. description of their procedure spotting sub versives on their faculties. Six professors from Johns Hopkins Uni versity, Morgan State College and George Washington University along with a psychiatrist, a salesman, a physician in general practice and a sculptor challenged the Ober statute by asking Judge Sherbow for an injunction preventing state officials from enforcing it. They also asked the judge to declare unconstitutional a second law passed three weeks later putting the Ober law into effect retroactively. The state attorney-general came back with pious demurrers which the bench overruled. Judge Sherbow made no bones of what he thought. He said that the Ober law violated basic freedoms guaranteed by the first and fourteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, the Mary land constitution and the Maryland Declaration of rights. “Law,” he declared, “deals with overt acts, not thoughts. It may punish for action, not thinking.” 1 He also said: “The Supreme Court has made it clear that laws may punish acts and conduct which clearly, seriously and imminently threatei substantive evils. They may not intrude into the realm of ideas religious and political beliefs and opinions.” The Ober Law was passed on March 31 and was slated to go into effect on June 1. The second law was passed on April 22, but it made the Ober Law retroactively effective from April 1. Therefore, a per son could be prosecuted for violating the Ober Law during a 21-day period when the statute was not supposed to be in effect at all. A man could be punished for a crime which was not a crime when com mitted, a principle which the judge found pretty sickening. The “vague and ambiguous terms” of the Ober Law were a viola tion of the basic legal principle of “due process,” Judge Sherbow said. To prove his point, he cited 19 questions which the law left hanging in the air. Maryland legislators ought to be squirming. The judge pointed out that under the terms of the Ober law a man might be a completely innocent member of a union which was in some part Communist dominated, and which might be called subver sive. Would the man be liable to five years in prison? So loosely worded was the statute that he might well be. “In Maryland no man may be convicted of a crime except on the evidence,” the judge said, pointing out that under the Ober law a man could be effectively convicted by being deprived of a state job because there were “reasonable grounds” to believe him subversive. Judge Sherbow made clear that “reasonable grounds” were not evidence. Of course, the Maryland attorney general immediately announced that he would appeal the decision as far as the Supreme Court of the United States. If he does he may well find himself taking an advanced course in civil-liberties. Judge Sherbow’s decision should be studied carefully by a whole lot of people. Certainly it should be studied by those who are always so anxious to pass laws against the Communists that they are willing to jeopardize the liberty of anybody who disagrees with them. The trouble is that such people would be more apt to attack the judge himself than to look into the dark comers of their own minds and con sciences.