^/Thursday, September 1, 1949
No. 53.—Finishers, East Liverpool, Ohio.
Iona Shroades, 140 West Second St. Meets
.second and fourth Thursday in Room 2,
DIRECTORY OF LOCAL UNIONS
East Liverpool Trades and Labor Coun
cil. Larry Finlay, 709 Sophia St Meet first
and third Wednesday in NBOP Bldg.
No. 4.—Casters, East Liverpool, Ohio.
Bhn F. Arnold, 914 St. Ciair Ave. Meets
V'-ond and fourth Monday in Room S,
No. 5.—Generalware, Evansville, Ind.
Mrs. Marie Z. Lee, 207 S. Bedford Ave.,
Evansville, Ind. Meet second and fourth
Thursday, Carpenters Union Hall, 1085 W.
No. 6.—Chinaware. Wheeling, W. Va.
George W. Friedrich, 208 Jones St. Meets
third Monday in V.F.W. Bldg., Fifteenth
and Eoff Streets.
No. 7.—Sanitary, Tiffin, Ohio. Carl
Fredritz, 47 Wentz St. Tiffin, Ohio. Meets
second and fourth Tuesday of every month.
No. 9.—Kilnmen. East Livrpool, Ohio.
P. K. Calhoon, 1258 Oakwood Ave. Meets
every Friday in Room 3, NBOP Bldg.
No. 10.—Turners and Handlers, East
Liverpool, Ohio. Fred McGillivray, 325
Garfield St. Meets first and third Monday
in Room No. 3 in NBOP Bldg.
No. 12.—Jiggermen, East Liverpool, O.
John Weber, 931 Lisbon St., East Liver
pool, Ohio. Meets every Tuesday in Room
3 in NBOP Bldg.
No. 16.—Saggermakers, East Liverpool,
Ohio. Harry F. McCoombs, 927 Dresden
Ave., East Liverpool, Ohio. Meets first and
third Tuesday in Room 2, NBOP Bldg.
17.—Kilndrawers, East Liverpool,
James Mercer, Box 72, Wellsville,
Ohio. James mercer, oox n, nensvine,
Ohio. Meets first and third Thursday in
4 in NBOP Bldg.
18.—Dippers, East Liverpool,, Ohio.
William Watson, 9 Washington Street,
Newell, W. Va. Meeta first and third Fri
day in Room No. 2 NBOP Bldg.
No. 20.—Generalware, Steubenville, O.
Harry T. Brady, 511 N. 6th Ave. Meets
first and third Thursday in Trades and
Labor Hall. Capitol Bldg., Fourth and
No. 21.—Claymakers, East Liverpool, O.
Ralph D. Holmes, 1208 Penn. Ave., East
Liverpool, Ohio. Meeta last Sunday of
month in Room 2, NBOP Bldg.
No. 22.—Mouldmakers, East Liverpool,
Ohio. Alfred Ferber, 1035 Vine St., East
Liverpool, Ohio. Meets second and fourth
Tuesday in Room 1, NBOP Bldg.
No. 24.—Chinaware, Wellsville, 0. Nor
_man Bratt, 316 Eighteenth St. Meets first
■^id third Wednesday in Odd Fellows Bldg.
^Bfth and Main Streets.
No. 25.—Packers, East Liverpool, Ohio.
I. H. Crawford, 701 Commerce St., Wells
ville, Qhio. Meets Second and
Thursday in Room 1, NBOP Bldg.
No. 26.—Sanitary, Kokomo, Ind.
T. Bohannon, 1815 N. Purdum ovreei,
Kohomo, Ind. Meets first and third Thurs
day in Trade and Labor Council, 512 E.
No. 29—Dishmakers, East Liverpool, 0.
R. A. Heatherington, 236 Carolina Ave.,
Chester, W. Va. Meets first Tuesday in
Room 1, NBOP Bldg.
No. 31.—Generalware, East Palestine,
Ohio. Charles A. Hall, 53 Lincoln Ave.
Meets second and fourth Monday at 7:30
in Odd Fellows Hall.
No. 33.—Chinaware, Bever Falls, Pa.
Chester J. Fisher, 1616 Second Ave. Meets
first an dthird Thursday Ln Old National
Bank Bldg., 10th St., 3rd Ave. New
No. 35.—Chinaware, Trenton, New Jer
sey. Dorothy Bissett, 44 Laurel Place,
Trenton, N. J. Meets second and fourth
Thursday in Polish Veterans Hall, Grand
No. 42.—Generalware, Salem, O. John
E. Ehrhart, 860 S. Lundy Ave Meeta
every other Monday in Memorial Bldg.
No. 44.—Clay Workers, Sebring, Ohio.
Chester Brunt, 595 W. Oregon Ave. Meeta
every other Monday night in K. of P.
No. 45.—Sanitary, Trenton, N. J. L. E.
Ansell, 31 Alden Ave., Trenton 8, N. J.
Meeta every Friday at N. Clinton and
49.—Mixed, Trenton, N. J. Donald
w. v. Neill, 147 Mommouth St. Trenton 9,
N. J. Meeta first and third Tuesday in
Castlemini Hall, cornor Grant and N.
No. 50.—Sanitary, Camden, New Jersey.
VeSpe D. Phillips, Box 174, Camden, N.
J. .meets first and third Friday in 13th
Ward fcClub Bldg., 1324 Mechanic St.
No. al.—Generalware, Canonsburg, Pa.
Calvin Bixby, Box 211, Strabane, Pa.
Meets every other Monday in Slovalk Hall,
59.—Kilnmen, Dippers and Sagger-
^^nakers, Sebring, Ohio. Charles Newton,
143 E. Ely St, Alliance, Ohio. Meeta every
other Monday in K. of P. Hall.
No. 66.—Generalware, Crooksville, Ohio.
C. O. Abrams, 131 McKeever St., Crooks
ville, Ohio. Meets every other Tuesday.
No. 70.—Generalware, Minerva, Ohio.
Abe Edwards, 301 N. Main St. Meets
second and fourth Thursday in Odd Fel
No. 72.—Sanitary, Evansville, Ind. Mar
tin E. Schilling, 1315 Henning Avenue,
Evansville, Ind. Meets second and fourth
Thursday in C. L. U. Hall, Fulton Ave.
No. 75.—Generalware, Coshocton, Ohio.
Arthur D. Howe, Roscoe, Ohio. Meeta sec
ond and fourth Thursday in Central
Trades and Labor Hall, Main St.
No. 76.—Chinaware, Buffalo, New York.
Dorothy Donovan, 26 Houston St. Meeta
first and third Friday at Sparefield’s Hall,
Seneca and Weyand Streets.
No. 77.—Sanitary, Mannington, W. Va.
Walter E. Shutler, Route 2, Box 178,
Mannington, W. Va. Meeta first and third
Friday at 7:30 p. m. in Legion Hall.
No. 78.—Sanitary, St. John, P. Q., Can
ada. Alfred Croisetere, 12A 9e Avenue,
Iberville, P. Q. Canada.
No. 86.—Warehousemen, East Liverpool,
Ohio. Harold Palmer, Route 2, East Liv
erpool, Ohio. Meets every Monday in
No. 87.—Sanitary Mixed, Trenton, N. J.
Anthony Stia. 409 Whitaker Ave., Tren
ton 10, N. J.
No. 89.—Sanitary, Richmond, Calif. O.
L.McGinnis, 2364 Brooks Ave. Meeta first
and third Monday at 257 Fifth Street.
No. 94.—Warehousewomen, East Liver
pool, Ohio. Mildred Johnson, Box 868,
East Liverpool, Ohio. Meeta every other
Friday in Room 1, NBOP Bldg.
No. 96.—Sanitary. Works, Perth Am
boy, N. J. Steve Serenko, 178 First Ave.,
Fords, N. J. Meets third Monday of every
month at Lukach Tavern on Fayette St.
Perth Amboy, N. J.
No. 98.—Chinaware, Grafton West Va.
Martha H. Flannagan, Box 272, Grafton,
W. Va. Meeta second and fourth Tuesday
in the V. F. W. Hall.
No. 99.—Chinaware, Clarksburg, W. Va.
David Bevan, 64 Coleman Ave. Meeta soc
^Mll and fourth Monday.
^^MNo. 102.—Sanitary, Ford City, Pa.
^^PStrry O. Laughner, Box 161, Manorville,
Meets second and fourth Tuesday in
Sokol Hall at 7:80 p. m.
No. 103.—Generalware, Erwin, Tenn. M.
B. Laws. Rt. 8, Box 216, Erwin, Tenn.
Meeta second and fourth Tuesday at
Clinchfield Y. M. C. A. Hall, N. Main St.
No. 104.—Chinaware—Falls Creek, Pa.
Edward Watson, 16 Wilson Ave. DuBois,
Pa. Meets second and fourth Monday in
Odd Fellows Hall.
No. 108.—Chinaware, Bedford, O. Clyde
Garvin, Box 802, Bedford, O,
No. 113.—Huntington Park,
first and third Thursday at
Fe Ave. Upstairs. Lawrence
2960 Allesandro St., Los Angeles, Calif.
No. 116.—Generalware, Lincoln, Illinois.
Glenn Hale, 714 Decator St. Meeta first
and third Friday of each month in Odd
No. 121.—Generalware, Decorators, Se
bring, O. Harry McCarthy, Box 28, North
Georgetown, Ohio. Meeta in K. of P. Hall
every second and fourth Tuesday.
No. 122.—Generalware, Cambrighe, O.
Woodward, 624 Highland Ave., Cam
lge, Ohio. Meets second and fourth
-dnesday at Moose Hall..
No. 124.—Decorators and Decorating
Kilnmen, East Liverpool, Ohio Chas. A.
Rose, 541 Mulberry St., East Liverpool,
Ohio. Meeta every Tuesday in Room 4,
No. 130. Kilnfiremen Helpers and
Trackmen, East Liverpool, Ohio. Clifford
Wilson, 223 W. Fourth St., East- Liver
pool, Ohio. Meeta second and fourth Fri
day in Room 2, NBOP Bldg.
No. 131.—Battersout and Mouldrunners.
East Liverpool, Ohio. Alice Seevers, 2107
Penna. Ave., East Liverpool, Ohio. Meeta
every Thursday in Room 8, NBOP Bldg.
No. 132.—Handle Casters and Finishers,
East Liverpool, Ohio. Bertha Magnone, 54
California Ave., Chester, W. Va. Meeta
first and third Monday in Room 1, NBOP
No. 134.—Stone and Art Ware. Crooke
ville. Ohio. Arvin Riley, S. Buchey St.
Meeta firzt and third Thursday.
No. 135.—Stone and Art Ware, Rose
ville, Ohio. Wilbur Smith, Box 218. Meeta
first and third Monday In Odd Feltowa
No. 138.—Biaquo Warehousemen, Eaat
Liverpool, Ohio. James Shafer, Box 464,
East Liverpool, Ohio. Meeta first and third
Thursday in Room 2, NBOP Bldg.
No. 140.—Porcelain, East Liverpool, O.
Delma Gilleapia, I.O.O.F. Blds. W. 6th
Street, East Liverpool, Ohio. Meeta third
Tuesday in Room 1, NBOP Blds.
No. 141.—Oddmen and Laborers, East
Liverpool,, Ohio. Dell Fryan, 508 Sugar
Street, East Liverpool, Ohio. Meets second
and fourth Thursday
in Room 4, NBOP
1032 Pearl St., San
second and fourth
O. Mrs, Byrel Smith,
dusky, Ohio. Meeta _____ __________
Tuesday in Labor Temple.
No. 144.—Stoneware. Cambrigde, Ohio.
Frank Clark, West View No. 2, Cam
bridge, O. Meeta first and third Tuesday
in Carter Bldg. 200 S. Sth Street, Cam
NNo. 146.—Generalware, Paden City,
W. Ca. Wm. D. Krebs. Box 284, Paden
City, W. Va. Meets every Thursday after
pay day In Eagle’s Hall.
No. 148.—(Mixed), East Liverpool, Ohio.
Jessie O. Thompson, 831 W. Third Street,
East Liverpool, Ohio. Meets first Thursday
in Room 1 NBOP Bldg.
No. 150.—Stoneware and Artware Work
ers, Red Wing, Minn. Walter Quinn, 1203
No. 155.—Underglaze Decorators, East
Liverpool, Ohio. Manr Theiss, 810 Mont
ana Ave. Chester, W. Va. Meets fourth
Wednesday in Room 2, NBOP Bldg.
No. 156.—Porcelain, East Palestine, O.
Meets first and third Monday in K. of P.
Hall. Marguerite Sircy, Route 1, Colum
No. 161.—Refractories, New Castle, Pa.
Wilbert Shelenberger, R. D. 8, Box 437,
New Castle, Pa. Meets third Wednesday
in Room 408, Trades Assembly Hall.
No. 163.—Potters Supply and Refrac
tories, East Liverpool. O. Mildred E. Mc
Daniel, 1038 Ohio Ave. Meets first and
third Friday in Room 4, NBOP Bldg.
No. 164.—Porcelain, Insulator, Akron,
Ohio. R. F. Brandenstein, 766 Clay Drive.
Meets second Friday of month at 8 p. m.
in German American Hall, 834 Grant St.
No. 165.—Chinaware, El Cerrito, Calif.
Helen Mitchell, 1420 Everett Street. El
Cerrito, Calif. Meets second and fourth
Wednesday, 1340 San Pablo Ave., El Cer
No. 166.—Refractories, Sebring, Ohio.
George Goodballet, Box 185, Sebring, Ohio.
Meets first Tuesday of every month at
American Legion Hall.
No. 168.—Art and Novelty San Jose,
Calif. Millard Lee 168 Herring Street. Los
Gatos. Calif. Meets third Thursday of each
month, Labor Temple, 94 N. Second St.,
San Jose, Calif.
No. 171.—Generalware, Stockton, Calif.
Jeanette Jewell, 141 Mosswood Ave. Meets
second and fourth Tuesday in AFL Head
quarters, 805 E. Weber Ave.
No. 172.—Maintenance Men, East Liv
erpool, Ohio. Emmett B. Blake, 1830 Alli
son St. R. 2, East Liverpool, Ohio. Meets
second and fourth Friday in Room 4,
No. 173.—Porcelain, Frenchtown, N. J.
Harmon K. Wright, Box 81, Revere, Pa.
Meets third Monday in Legion hall.
No. ..174.—Sanitary, Metuchen, N. J.
Walter L. Szelc, 852 Elm Street, Perth
Amboy, N. J. Meets second Saturday of
month at 10 a. m. in Fords Veterans* Hall
Fords, N. J.
No. 175.—Sanitary, Trenton, N. J. Jose
eph Nosari, 104 Vine St., Trenton, N. J.
Meets second and fourth Tuesday.
No. 177.—Sanitary, Robinson, Ill. Duane
Davis, Box 10. Robinson, III. Meets first
and third Thursday in Labor Temple.
No. 178.—Artware, Sebring, Ohio. John
A. Dorff, R. D. 4, Alliance, Ohio. Meets
every other Wednesday in V. F. W. hall.
No. 181.—Tile, Porcelain and Artware,
Trenton. N. J. Robert Thompson, 68 S.
Olden Ave., Trenton, N. J. Meets second
and fourth Thursday in Falcon Hall, N.
No. 183.—Generalware, Los Angeles,
Calif. Cora Lee Hutchison, Box 682, Hunt
ington Park, Calif. Meeta second and
fourth Mondays of each month at Culin
ary Hall, 411 E. Broadway, Glendale, Calif.
No. 184.—Chinaware, Trenton, N. J.
Walter H. Smith, 518% Princeton Ave.,
Trenton 8, N. J. Meets second and fourth
Monday in Polish Falcons Hall, Burnswick
and Indiana Ave.
No. 185. Porcelain, Trenton, N. .J.
Pete Torretta, 31 W. Ingham Ave., Tren
ton, N. .J. Meets last Monday of every
month in Broad St. Bank Bldg.
No. 186.—Stone, dinner and Artware,
Los Angeles, Calif. Dorothy R. Miller,
2414% No. Broadway, Los Angeles 81,
Calif. Meets first and third Friday, 2290
No. 190.—Porcelain, East Liverpool, O.
Nellie Gardiner, 986 Lisbon St., East Liv
erpool, Ohio. Meets every other Friday in
Room 1, NBOP Bldg.
No. 192.—Generalware, Warehousemen,
Packers, Decorating Kilnmen, Sebring, O.
Hugh Dailey, 589 W. Oregon Ave.
No. 193.—Sanitary, Trenton, N. J. Alma
Wallo, 165 Bunting Ave. Meets first Tues
day, 725 N. Clinton Ave.
No. 195.—Gloat Warehousewomen and
Kilndrawers, East Liverpool, O. Mies Villa
Carraher, 704 Aten Ave., Wellsville, Ohio.
Meets first and third Wednesday in Room
2, NBOP Bldg.
No. 196.—Generalware, Hoilydale, Calif.
Clare C. Meetzek, 1029 Arthur Ave., Clear
water. Calif. Meets first and third Thurs
day in Catholic Hall.
No. 197.—Earthenware and Artware,
Cambridge, Mass. Louis Fournier, 8, Fran
cis St., Somerville. Mass.
No. 198.—Feldspar, Million and Smelt
ing, Trenton, N. J. William Taylor, 188
Allen St.. Trenton 8, N. J.
No. 199. Chinaware, Pomona. Calif.
Doris Goodwine, 550 Fillmore Place, Po
mona, Calif. Meeta second Tuesday of
each month, 637 W. Second St., Pomona,
No. 200.—Chemical Supply, Crooksville,
O. Mrs. Estella Knerr, 281 W. Main St.
Meets second Thursday of each month in
No. 201.—Chinaware, Huntington Park,
Calif. Orvis Reese. 6507% Middleton St.
Meets second Thursday at 4 p. m. and
fourth Thursday at 7:80 p. m. at 6418
Sante Fe Street. Huntington Park, Calif.
No. 202.—Artware, Santa Monica, Calif.
Keith Clark, 1130 Ocean Park Blvd., Santa
Monica. Calif. Meets first Wednesday of
each month at 1428% Second St., Santa
No. 203. Pioneer Pottery, Art and
Novelty, East Liverpool. O. Ruby Stanley,
1200 Harker Ave., East Liverpool, Ohio.
Meeta first and third Wednesday in Room
4 NBOP Bldg. I
No. 204.—Sanitary, Los Angeles, Calif.
Ray Nelson, 6111 McKinley Ave., Hoily
dale, Calif. Meeta first and third Wednes
day in Butcher Hall, 5510 Pacific Blvd.,
Huntington Park. Calif.
No. 205.—Refractories. Tiffin, O. Will
iam W. Tate, 539 N. Washington St., Tif
fin, Ohio. Meets third Thursday of
No. 207.—Refractories, Crooksville, Ohio.
Warden Mauller, 606 Summit St., Crooks
ville, Ohio. Meets fourth Thursday each
month. Municipal Bldg.
No. 208.—Foremen, Supervisors: Sani
tary, Trenton. N. J. Secretary, 215 Broad
St., Bank Bldg. Meets fourth Friday at
Carpenter’s Hall,, 47 N. Clinton Ave.
No. 209.—Artware. Wellsville, O. Evelyn
King, 529 Broadway, Wellsville, Ohio.
Meeta first and third Thursday in Ameri
can Legion Hall.
No. 210.—Refractories, Art and Novelty
Ware, Trenton, N. J. 215 Broad St. Bank
Bldg., Trenton, N. J.
No. 211.—Artware, Crooksville, O. Mrs.
Ethel L. Hayman, 427 McKinley Ave.,
Crooksville, O. Meeta the first Friday of
every month in the Odd Fellows Hall.
No. 212.—Generalware, Chester, W. Va.
Beulah Gadd, Ferry Road, Chester, W. Va.
No. 133.—Sanitary, New Castle, Pa.' Neu 218.—Sanitary, Torrence, Calif. L.
No. 133. Sanitary, New Castle,
Vre/sZw Zw. V ZZwvv c. ,,
Pa. Meeta second and fourth Wednesday ingtor
No.’ 214. Saniitay, Redlands, Calif. ^TMost
cLh?”CMeeta ?S’'and thitf’JridSTia K^iild democracy
American Legion Hail. .... erous
CaHL ,1,*—Art and Noyelty’ Aas*1** dayg
Daniel Hughes, 420 Waldo St^ New ^Castle, R._tWeigand.i^28881 Panama Ava, Wilm- proceggiong carnivaJs, enor.
By RALPH D. WINSTEAD
THE CELEBRATION OF labor
days is as old as labor exploitation.
Even in the ancient city states and
slave empires, the worker? had
certain times established by law,
to unfurl their fraternal banners,
parade in regalia, air their griev
ances, and in some instances take
direct action to even the score for
The best known and to some the
most appealing, was the workers
holiday celebrated once each fifth
year in the City State of Athens.
This Athenian Labor Day was held
the first day of the month called
“Boedromion” (about the 15th of
September), the first of the nine
days of observance of the quad
rennial Eleusian Mysteries.
The Eleusian writes themselves
were begun by n long unarmed
march afoot by both sexes of the
adult aristocracy from the center
of Athens to the Temple of Mega
ron in the town of Eleusis.
At dusk on the night before, as
was their right, the freedmen and
Helots (slaves) gathered in their
societies, itemized their grievances,
rehearsed the chants to be sung
denouncing specific masters or
mistresses for abuses and decided
upon those who were to be beaten
with staves and those to be stoned
for brutalities. Then under flaming
torches, the columns of workers,
grasping their banners, long staves
and brickbats, marched out sing
ing to take their places in two long
columns flanking the narrow road
IF THE NUMBER of Labor
Days and the degree of participa
tion is a gauge of labor progress,
the guildsmen of the middle ages
marked an all time high for labor.
Born during the calamitous wars
and rapines of the dark ages dur
ing the smashing of Rome, its pat
ricians and its slave system, the
guilds were a type of organization
that included masters and journey
men and would be a company union
today. They were adjusted to their
times, to the authority of the
church and to the hierarchies of
feudalism, yet expressed many es
sentials of the democracy of labor.
From their beginnings in Britain
for instance, following the Norman
the guilds pro
system for cor-
Conquest of 1066,
vided an effective
rection of abuses. In each shop op
erated by a master there was one
journeyman and one apprentice de
signated to take up grievances for
their fellows. Members of ruling
bodies of a guild in a community
were known as Guildmasters. A
percentage of journeymen were
seated as Guildmasters and repre
sented their fellows in the shops,
securing adjustment of grievances
appealed to them. The Guildmast
ers set the hours of work, working
conditions and pay rates ruling aS
NBOP BWg Monday ot month* ®oo,n 4 to the amount and quality of cloth
No. 213.—'Artware, Pelham, N. Y. Leon- ing,
lodging and food at the mast
ard^Hiii, 128 S. Fulton St., Mt Vernon, erg ^able,
to be given apprentices.
spectacular evidence of
was in their num-
guild days, patron saints
and other holidays, enjoyed
alike from apprentice to masters,
and d™king bouts. It
THE PUTTERS HERAID, EAST EIVERPOOE, OHIO'
to Eleu.sis, down which, fol lowing I on THE
daylight, their masters and mis-[September,*
tresses must walk between them|city, a mighty labor parade and
and take their punishment. When|demonstration of unity welcomed
an Athenian worker said, “I’ll take|the first non-secretive General As
it out of his hide,” he was onlyLembly of the Knights of Labor. It
stating the law. |was a truly inspiring tribute, New
The Sewell L. Averys or other|Yurk being peerless in public ac
N.A.M. ilk of that time were espec-[clamations. The Knights, with
ially unpopular with their families]twelve years of secrecy behind
on that march. They walked alone]them, loved it*
to enable their blood kin to keep| Among labor organizations, the
out of the range of the stones or] Knights alone had met the tests of
brickbats that were due. Not even the terrible depression of 1873
the top army and navy brass was|1880, steadily increasing in streng
exempt from the rigorous going] th. Their secret assemblies had
over, for on the “line” were the|been rooted in from coast to coast,
powerful organizations of the mer-[ Members had engaged in the des
[perate railroad, mine and iron mill
[strikes of the late 70’s, with honor.
[They had had successes in political
[action also. Congress at their in
[sistence had passed the Homestead
’. [Law (in 1880) a measure fought
|for by labor since advocated by
[George Henry Evan in 1840. Ter
rence V. Powderly, new successor
[to founder Uriah S. Stephens as
[Grand Master Workman, had with
[ease been elected mayor of Scran
|ton, Pa. There were scores of other
[such election successes.
is estimated that the guildsmen of I
London about 100 years before!
America’s discovery had an aver-J
age* of 26 special holidays beyond I
those enjoyed by the general pub-1
There were special days observ-1
ed by individual shops, by separ-1
ate guilds, by all guildsmen in an I
area or city. Finally the guilds I
participated in certain celebrations I
of the church, the nobility and of I
town or city official bodies. I the GREAT LABOR RALLY
Through such organization the |on the First Monday of September,
craftsmen and even the workers in |i882 so inspired the New York
many unskilled callings (chimney- [unions that they repeated the per
sweeps for example) elevated Iformance on that day in 1883 and
themselves to relative freedom 11884, even with no Knights of
compared to the bondage of the [Labor convention to greet.
FIRST MONDAY in
1882, in New York
So, they were certain in 1882
[that they had organizing techni
ques, a program and the ability to
[finance struggles that would lead
[labor to victories, now they had
[thrown off that web of secrecy
[which Stephens had woven so art
'1 [fully for protection against Pink
|erton spies. They expressed all this
[with gusto as they paraded in New
cenaries (G. I.’s and gobs to us) [York on the first Monday of that
before whom their commanders [September singing:
also walked that day. [“Toiling millions now are waking
By he time the last member of I them marching on
the ruling and employing families ty^ms now are shaking
of Attica were checked into the Kre
Temple of Megaron at Eleusis byl.stonn the Fort, Ye Kni ht o(
the priestly Calhdae, each one de- Labor
serving of censure or punishment]
had had it. ’*1'|
These rights of redress were so]
practiced during all that millenium
in which Acropolis, the Parthenon,]
the “new” Temple of Megaron and]
countless other marvels of Ancient]
Greece were built and in which oc-|
curred unmatched achievements in]
the arts, sciences and philosophy.]
Of course an eventual gang of]
conspirators finally thought up thg]
Taft-Hartley Act of that time and
put an end to this Athenian Labor
Day, and that, coincidentally, also]
marked the end of the Golden Age
I The Knights in General Assem
Ibly elsewhere in 1884, missed the
|New York hullaballoo, so adopted
la resolution that the First Monday
lin September should be a Labor
|Day Holiday and legally enacted as
Isuch. The delay could be pardoned.
[Things had been hectic.
I They had won two outstanding
[strikes on the Union Pacific RaiL
Iroad, and in so doing had faced up
Ito and brushed a side the current
[Anti-Mormon hate campaign, a
[screaming meemie, more' corrosive
[than the earlier Know-Nothing’s
I Jay Gould had just been met in
Istrikes on his Missouri-Pacific
(Missouri, Kansas & Texas
IWabash lines. A great victory
I In Congress, the Knights
Iwon legislation for a National Bur
leau of Labor Statistics, which was
[being set up in the Department of
surrounding serfs, vassals, villains hnterjor. State Bureaus had been
and bondsmen. Iwon in several
In Britain, at one blow in 1562, [Labor’s fight for
King Henry VUIth, in an edict or [by the National
injunction, more sweeping than 11867 was won.
any yet written under Taft-Hart-1 «pbe Knights'
ley, destroyed that system. He for- [multiplied five times over and was
felted all the guild halls and pro- [pagt the baif million mark. Hadn’t
perty including the homes for the|it id to abandon secrecy, Pink
aged the standards and emblems |erton or no,
all the benefit funds and treasuries
of all the guilds and cancelled all 01d A»anJi"kIertKon ce^m'
their rights and privileges. I y 8een the first Labor Day of two
This stroke was followed over (years previously as a great day,
the years by: the enclosure acts [worth millions to him, his finks
the conspiracy laws against work-|and spies. At that time the union
ers’ attempts to set wages or other|gmagbi racket was dun. Then it
terms the seven year minimuml ... .__
for apprentices the vagabond acts.M fo"r *nker
Repressions followed in other coun-|ton, to smash the National Miners
tries until throughout the western [Association, had caused the hang
world Labor Days all but vanished|ing of tbe ]ast of eleven Irish
into the miseries of the developing and
factory system, for 320 long years,!
perhaps the worst ones working [J*8^ 68 others to prison for
people have ever seem [“aiding and abetting” in the Molly
states as well,
Labor Union in
Battle for your cause AMERICA’S YOUTHFUL labor
Equal rights for every neighbor |organiza*' ,ns made many attempts
Down with tyrant’s laws!” |to ltan luixr holidays both before
The “tyrants” probably did not afnd tbe labor movement of
|New York City greeted a Knights
.Uke much aa the Knights aMof
P“Jlel-iW|out demonstration on the First
New York Central coup with “The|wn_j.v
Public Be Damned" W H. Vander
hilt, Rockfeller, extending his oil tow,ni
monopoly, at the moment had just I y*,
forced the Pennsylvania Railroad *w° such attempts involved
into his rebate and “drawback” [events on November 5, 1857 and
system whereby he not only recur- |’anuary 13» 1874. Both events were
ed rebates on his own shipments |va8t'mass meetings of unemployed
but also the excess in rates levied |a^ Tompkins Square, New York
against his competitors. Buccane- ln tae depths of pressions,
ers Jim Fisk, Daniel Drew and Jay |On.the earh«r date rr&uy thous
Gould were still looting the Erie|ands marched to Wall Street and
Railroad. Andrew Carnegie had [8erenaded the Merchants and Stock
just bought the mighty Homestead |®xch®nges, the results being fed
Mills near Pittsburgh to add to his F™ trooPR to guard Wall Street, a
Edgar Thompson Works at Brad-|80,JP kitchen program and some
dock, and was telling his Laurence |Pum*c works. The second event was
Phipps to be nice to the Home- |a 5kar®’e mounted police in
stead workers’ union,—for the time |w^’cb thousands of men, women
being. Charley Schwab, the future |and children were beaten and
founder of U. S. Steel and Beth’e- [trampled. The police had appeared
hem, was 20 years old, just fir .-h- [without warning, instead of Mayor
ing his first year as Chief Engine- [Havemeyer who had agreed to de
er for Carnegie and had no pre- |l*ver a scheduled address,
menitions that his power was gone. April 5, 1866 was another labor
In fact, quite the reverse. [memorial date. It marked the
The Knights were unconcerned |®tart of widespread strike for the
about possible trade union rivals. hour day initiated by ship yard
Many had been at Terre Haute and [workers in Greenpoint, Brooklyn.
Pittsburgh the year before to help |The strike spread from port to
launch the Federation of Organiz- [port and into many industries and
ed Trades and Labor Unions of the [crafts from the seaboard. It start
United States and Canada on the^ when New York legislators in
call of carpenters’ leader Peter J. [defeating an 8 hour bill, charged
McGuire (who was yet to earn the|ft was the proposal of a few labor
title of “Father of Labor Day”). |agitators while real workers op
They were sorry but not surprised |po®ed it, otherwise it would be en
that the Federation,had declined|acted- They changed their rea ns.
and might be a flop. I One well observed labor huLuay
They would have been surprised! Z Z
to know they were participating in|, MOVES DURING Grover Cleve
the first annual Labor Day cele-l^11^8 aiministration 1873-77, to
bration in America! I resolve the issue of whether the
I Democratic Party would be liberal
or reactionary, involved the legal
[establishment of Labor Day as a
[major tactical maneuver. Among
[other tactical or major issues were
[resolution of the Haymarket bomb
[case of 1886 and whether or not
[labor should have protection in its
[right to organize, strike and picket,
[especially when confronted with
[armed Pinkerton finks and thugs
[and bedeviled by his spies.
I Four figures stand out in these
[moves. Cleveland, titular leader of
[the Democratic Party with sub
Istantial control of Congress, and
[Mark Hanna, Republican boss hav
ing Wall Street’s money bags,
[were the champions of banks and
[corporations. John P. Altgeld gov
ernor of Illinois and Peter J. Mc
|Guire, national secretary and
[strike leader of the Brotherhood of
[Carpenters and top A. F. of L. of
|ficer, led the liberal forces in the
[Democratic Party. All the moves
[were made with an eye to control
|of the convention of that party and
|the elections of 1896.
__ xi a. 1 Altgeld moved first on June 26,
l!cG^ ^eAty‘ By the 1893, in a bold gamble to solidify
the 1884 Knights convention, Pink- labor for the liberal cause and to
erton’s doldrums were over. His administer b^ted justice. He is
operatives were certainly there in Lued absoiute pardons for Fielden
numbers The only question is- Neebe and Schwab serving life
how high had they squirmed. [sentences for the Haymaket affair.
At that convention the Knight’s [it Wus no “they have suffered
Grand Council committed one in-[enough” pardon. The careful analy
defensible act. Delegates of [sis in his message left no doubt
Knights’ assemblies of coal miners [that Parsons, Fischer, Engel and
accompanied by representatives ofhpies had been lynched under the
unaffiliated miners’ unions sought [cloak of courts of law and that
an industrial union type of Trades
Assembly Charter like that of the
Glass Blowers’ famous Assembly
300. The Council flatly refused it
—then granted one to the Brewery
Workers. Whispers that the de
nial was due to miners refusal to
support officials for re-election
were never backed up. It was the
kind of dissension Pinkerton had
been creating for forty years, with
none the wiser.
The miners were outraged. In
short order they secured exactly
that kind of charter from the Fed
eration of Organized Trades and
Labor Unions. Within twelve
months under it they built the
powerful National Federation of
Miners and Mine Laborers helped
put new life in their parent body I
and later helped to reorganize it|
into the American Federation of|
Labor. Between whiles they won|
a contract from coal operators in|
seven principal states. The miners’]
union was never to be crushed]
The conflict between the Feder-1 LinKK had beaten the lynchers only
ation and the Knights tied up with|by suicide.
such events could never be undone] That message, largely suppress
and was a factor in the struggle to|®i by the press, met a storm of
secure Labor Day by law. On Feb-|vilificatlon against Altgeld, indelib
ruary 21, 1887, two and a half|iy branding him as “anarchist” and
years after the Knights’ resolution, [destroying his liberal forces, or so ...
Oregon enacted the Brat bill mak-lCJeve^nii jubilantly, both such days. As a strike leader
(thought. That they were proved :m both of the strikes May Day
mg the First Monday Septem- |wrong came as no surprise to Alt-1 commemorates, he certainly had a
ber a legal holiday to be known as [geld and McGuire, who had seen major part in conceiving that holi
Labor Day. On March 15th Colo-[labor vote on the Haymarket case, day, even if others nourished and
rado did the same. New York, New|with its feet’ 81iPPin* awaY from brought up that offspring.
Jersev and Massachusetts follow-lthe Kni&ht8 of Labor in the hund-j So it was that 332 years after
Jersey a a sa tta followof thousands when lts leaders the destruction of the guilds and
ed and there the program rested I screamed that Parsons and his as-1 their Labor days, workers through
for seven years both as to the[sociates should be “summarily out the world now have such holi
states and as to Congress. [dealt with—blottled from the face, days again, two different enesi
commemoraJea.A.pril 1, 1898, when
at Virden, Illinois, a trainload of
armed finks fired on striking
members of the United Mine Work- Z.
ers. The miners with arms routed, k
the invaders and subsequently won
the strike. In the contract April
First was established as an annual'
holiday in memory of the 12 union
miners killed on that day. It so
appears and is observed in all
United Mine Worker contracts.
May First is another partially
observed labor holiday in the
United States and Canada though
universally celebrated with orr^
without legal sanction in all other
countries of the world. May Day
monstrations are in commemora
tion of two great American strikes
for the 8 hour day. The first was
initiated by the October 7, 1884
convention of the Federation of
Organized Trades and Labor
hour day be
May 1, 1886.
directed that 8
that May Day by organized and
unorganized with great solidarity.
Trerr dous gains were secured in
the fiiot four day’. Wholesale vic
tories seemed a-ured. Then the
strikes were smashed and the early
gains largely retracted during the
terror uncased following the Hay
market bumb provocation in Chic
ago the fourth evening of the
strikes began on
The second May Day strike for
the 8 hour day was set for May 1,
1890 by the American Federation
of Labor in convention in Decem
ber 1888 and carried out under its
plan by the Brotherhood of Car
penters who won the 8 hour day in
137 cities and reduced their hours
to nine in most other communities-
In mid-1889, the International
Labor Congress meeting in Paris
lauded American workers for the
1886 strikes, condemned the mar
tyrdom of the eight men punished
with death or prison in the Hay
market bomb case, and called for
throughout Europe on May 1, 1890
in support of the scheduled Ameri
can strikes. Those demonstrations
were held and thus was bom In
ternational Labor Day, May First.
of the earth”, and joining the A.
F. of L. whose Frank Roney on a
national tour had blamed the bomb
upon the police and demanded
labor support and a fair trial for
A simultaneous move by the lib
erals was to create unity between
labor and the Populist Party, its
Granges and Farmers’s alliances,
bringing their members into the
Democratic Party and making ac
tive precinct captains and commit
teemen of them. Peter J. McGuire
stumped the country adding, “10
cent hourly wages” to the old Pop
ulist war-cry, “Fight 10% mort
gages-10 cent corn!” He dramatis
ed the unity sought with “Togeth
er we can whip the 10-10-10!” The
party’s town, country and state
committee posts began to move
into liberal hands.
Cleveland’s forces woke up. Pas
sage of the perennially pigeon
holed Knights’ bill to legalize the
First Monday in September as
Labor Day would show Cleveland
as the true friend of labor and ex
pose Altgeld, whose Illinois had
not adopted that act.
McGuire rushed to Washington,
united labor and liberal forces be
hind the Labor Day bill and the
Cleveland coup was turned ..into a
liberal victory, particularly since
at the last minute some Cleveland
men united with Republicans to
amend the act so that enactment
was also required by each state to
make it effective therein. Using the
strong Cleveland signature mess
age of June 24, 1894 as ammuni
tion, McGuire pushed the Labor
Day act through most of the states
that had not acted on the old
Knights’ measure. His only labor
opposition came from socialist and
anarchist groups committed to May
First as labor’s holiday.
Thus Peter J. McGuire was truly
father of Labor Day, maybe of
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