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By john Yellow Ddff* Cohtract, Symbol Of feudalism. Wagging Its Tail Again McCarthy The -yellow dog” contra^ fs ofnew interpretations. wagging its tail again. During the telephone strike operators who re fused to promise to cross picket lines of Striking equipment install ment workers were told not to re port to work at other times. That’s the modem version. The older version goes back to before the turn of the century, when a man could not get a job in many shops unless he signed a card pled ging not to join a union. If he didn't sign, he didn’t get a job if he signed later, he was fired. He was free to quit his job, but he was not free to join a union and keep his job. Things came to a head in 1906 when the United Minez Workers called a general strike in the soft coal industry. The UMW was pretty stable in Ohio, Illinois, In diana and Pennsylvania, but it had made small progress in the south, particularly West Virginia, and southern competition was throwing northern miners out of work. Miners at Hitchman Coal and £oke Co. in the West Virginia pan handle between Ohio and Pennsyl vania went out with the rest of the UMW, but after six weeks they asked the company for a separate settlement. The firm formed a company union and took back only those miners who verbally promised not to rejoin the UMW. The UMW ask ed for a renewal of relations, was turned down, and then sent Thomas Hughes, an organizer, to Bentwood, W. Va. The company went to the Fed- eral circuit court for an injunction against Hughes and the officers of the UMW. It claimed it had indi vidual contracts with the workers saying they would not join UMW and that the mine union was try ing to make the men break these contracts. Hitchman presented 28 affidavits and claimed the union was trying to drive it out of busi ness. A preliminary injunction was issued which barred UMW from communicating with the miners in any manner until a hearing was held. 1 Three mortths later some legal mind in the company got to think ing that the verbal promises forced from the miners might not hold up in court—so workers were required to sign a printed pledge card. It said the worker was not a member of the UMW, had no intention of joining, was satisfied with the non union shop, that the company “agrees with me that it jvill run non-union while I am in its em ploy,” Xhe signa? also promised not] to try to orgarjjze fbi* IM UMW and to quit his job if he joined the Union. The preliminary injunctibn was granted in October 1907, and the hearing came the following May. This time the court granted a tem porary injunction, which barred the union from trying to organize the men until a trial could be held. This injunction went a little fur ther than the first one. It said the union organizers could not use “argument, reason, and persuasion” and could not “talk to” Hitchman employes “or persons about to en ter its employ.” The UMW moved to strike out the parts which prohibited “peace ful” communication with the work- ers. It took four months to get the motion heard and five more months for Judge Allston G. Dayton to de cide on it. He not only denied the mdtioh but dame up with a couple There IS a DIFFERENCE When ordering flowers be as sured of fresh beauty—plus—an added touch of floral design. Phone 439 re every order receives the ii.aividual attention of a floral expert. GOLDENS ■. Flowers OLDEST FLORAL SERVICE IN EAST LIVERPOOL Established by CHAL PETERSON—1885 137 WEST SIXTH STREET Phone Main 439 I L------------------------------------------------- He said UMW was conducting a conspiracy to persuade miners to quit Hitchman in violation of their contracts with the company. He said the very fact the union asked a miner to join was a violation of “peaceful persuasion.” He said the strike was a clear case of trying to ruin the company by depriving it of revenue for 50 days. He ruled it was “foul and injurious prostitu tion” and happened simply because rival companies refused to grant union terms until Hitchman was organized. He said a conspraicy ex isted and told the company it could recover damages if it took the pro per legal action. Finally, Judge Dayton wrapped the whole thing up by saying the UMW needed to be restrained because it had al ready won over 125 of the miners to its cause. The union appealed, but it slipp ed up on a technicality which re quired filing within 30 days, and five years inched by before the case came to trial. The case was tried before the same Judge Day ton. The UMW might just as well have taken the Christmas holidays off in 1912, because the judge ela borated on his opinions when he handed down the injunction. He said West Virginia law went back before 1776 and under such law it was as unlawful for labor to form a monopoly as for capital. He said the principles and practices of the union made it an unlawful organization, that union principles deprived workers of the right to work because it made them obey union orders to strike. He ruled that union agreements limiting the employer to hiring of union men were an intrusion upon his right to run his own business. He said the UMW was trying to gain control of the coal mining business by setting up an illegal monopoly and by conspiring with rival coal operators. Then he made the injunction “perpetual” because to remove it would deprive the company of its competitive advant ages. The UMW appealed to the US Circuit Court of appeals and hit pajP dirt. This court reversed prac tically everything of Judge Day ton’s—so the company appealed to the US Supreme Court. The Sup reme Court went back to the ori ginal findings and upheld the “yellow dog” contract. It said a contract not to join a union was a valid contract, that inducement to join another union was equivalent to breach of contract, that the UMW was guilty of fraudulent practice because it told its memr bers not to tell the company they had joined the union. Also, the court said the right to strike was not the right to instigate a strike,! that by shutting down a mine by strike they tried to coerce the com pany into recognizing the UMW, and that the injunction was right and proper. Justice Brandeis, in a minority opinion, said the union had a righti to solicit members among Hitch man workers, that neither the union nor its activities were illegal, and that the ends and means it used were also legal. However, the majority opinion made the “yellow dog” contract the law’ of the land. Before, a worker felt that it was "just something he signed” and he didn’t hesitate to join a union. The Supreme Court ruling said he had no right to join a union after signing a “yellow dog” pledge because he had en tered into ah individual contract With his employer and that by sign ing with the union he violated the contract. While this opinion spurred de velopment of company unions, it also gave added impetus to the growing resentment among work ing men against the judicial sys tem which still based its reasoning on feudal concepts. It was the cry stallization of this resentment that led to the labor reforms we have had so far. WERTS, MANPOWER DEPUTY Washington (LPA)—The Secre tary of I^ibor hall appointed Leo R. Werts deputy director of the Office of Defense Manpower. Werts will assist director Robert C. Goodwin. A manpower expert in World War II, Werts has been with the Labor Department since 1932. MONEY LOANED FOR PURCHASE AND IMPROVEMENT OF HOMES 5 Per Cont Monthly Reduction The Potters Savings & Loan Co. WASHINGTON and BROADWAY EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO OFFICERS: JOHN I. PURINTON, Preaidant ALWYN C. PURINTON, Secretary CHAS. W. HENDERSHOT, Vice Preaident IO§. M, BLAZER, Treasurer W. E. DUNLAP, Jr, Attorney Washington (LP) A variation+ of the “yellow dog” contract has been revived to try and break the telephone strike. Joseph A. Beirhe, president of the Communications Workers of America charged that long-lines de partments of telephone companies from coast to coast have “locked out” more than 10,000 operators who refused to cross picket lines of striking telephone equipment in stallers. Beirne charged the companies with using “yellow dog” contracts in an effort to break the strike, which began Nov. 9 when 10,000 Western Electric Co. equipment in stallers walked out. He said he will file charges against the companies with the Federal Communications Commission. A total of 33,000 workers have walked off their jobs as the result of contract disputes another 120, 000 have refused to cross picket lines. In addition to the 10,000 equip ment installers, there are 6000 warehousemen striking against WE and 1000 production workers out at WE’s Haverhill, Mass, manu facturing plant. There are 16,000 operators on strike in Michigan. Chief issues are wages and hours. The union turned down a company offer of 9 Vac an hour, is holding out for at least 15c. It alsb wants a one-year contract or a longer contract with reopening clauses. The company wants to ban any wage increase for 18 months. The strike has been effective in all 43 states it has affected except in isolated instances. In Alabama CWA was hindered by a state-wide injunction against picketing. In junctions were also issued in six Indiana cities and in Des Moines and Cincinnati. A move for an in junction in New Jersey was to be heard Nov. 16. Flying squads of pickets, roam ing from one exchange to another, have proved effective in disrupt ing company plans to make strike breaking schedules. There has been little violence. In Brinkley, Ark., however, Mayor Jack Cox took it upon himself to arrtst two strikers without warrants because they “were disturbing the peace in my presence.” Further meetings were planned both here and in New York be tween union and company officials and Federal mediators. Since 1946 the Bell Telephone Co. has been grahted rate increases amounting to $405,000,000 a year. Business Week in its Nov. 11, 1950 issue says, "Many Wall Street ers think that 1950 earnings will run above $12 a share, compared with $9.22 in 1949. If they’re right, it will be AT&T’s highest earning rate in many years.” Same publication also says Bell earnings have jumped about 32 per cent. Public Housing Wins Four—Loses Two Washington (LPA) Public housing projects were voted dis continued in Kenosha and Madison, Wis. at this month’s election. Ark adelphia, Ark. Bay City, Mich. Edinburgh, Tex. and Newark, N. J. voted to continue public housing programs. Some sort of a new low was set by the opposition in Bay City. They slipped into Catholic churches on Saturday night before election and inserted a pamphlet attacking public low-rent housing into the weekly Catholic newspaper which is distributed on Sunday. In Newark, where no more pri vate land is available for public housing, people in every precinct in the city voted to o. k. the use of city park land for future housing projects. More Pay For Blacksmiths Seattle, Wash. (1LNS).— Mem bers of the International Brother hood of Blacksmiths at the Seattle branch of the Reynolds Metal Cd., have won a 10-cent hour wage boost. *0% i a ORGANIZATION DID IT, SAYS TAFT—Senator Robert A. Taft (R, Ohio) tells reporters on his return to Washington that he interprets the electioti results as meaning that Taft-Hartley is “pretty permanent ly on the books.” He attributed his election victory to organization, not popularity. His people really worked, Taft said, and tabor just didn’t do as good a job. Revive 'Yellow Dog' Pact To Break Telephone Strike Steel Shortage Perils Defense, Says Chapman Los Angeles (LPA)—Steel-mak ing capacity is inadequate, Secre tary of the Interior Oscar L. Chap man rtold the American Petroleum Institute. The shortage, he said, is "threatening both the national de fense program and the civilian economy.” Chapman urged the steelmakers to "raise their sights.” The shortage of specialized steel products for the oil industry is “reaching alarming proportions,” said Chapman, who heads the Pet roleum Administration for Defense. He pointed out that oil men have always feared they would not have enough, whereas the steel meh “have too often seemed to fear that they would have too much.” Thus Chapman joined those who have criticized the steel industry for years, for its shortsightedness' and for its belief in an economy of scarcity. “Inadequate capacity to* make steel puts the brakes on our whole industrial machine,” Chap man declared. He said the short age in materials, equipment, afid facilities required by the gas and oil industry is growing. Frank M. Porter, API president^ reported he has been “deluged with complaints” from producers all over the country about their dif ficulty in getting enough steel to maintain current drilling programs. A gray market in steel pipes is be infc probed by a Senate committee, Ford has already laid off work ers because of steel shortages. Nash-Kelvinator announced Nov. 13 it is stopping, production of ref rigerators and electric ranges at Grand Rapids and Detroit, because of steel shortages. Last week the magazine Steel forecast “acute steel supply condi tions” next year. The steel industry is now operat ing at more than 100 percent rated capacity, and will expand—in 1952. Moves To Legalize Gambling Defeated Chicago (LPA) Folir states voted down proposals to legalize gambling, and four others turned down proposals aimed at the liquor business. In California voters overwhelm-I ingly rejected a proposal to leg alize gambling and put it under state control. Proponents had said the take would be $300,000,000 a year, earmarked for welfare pur poses. Massachusetts defeated a proposal for a state lottery, but voted old-age pensions, which the lottery would have supported. Arizona defeated a plan to legalize gambling. Montana turned down a move to legalize slot machines. Arizona rejected a local option proposal to prohibit liquor sales. Arkansas voted down a proposal to prohibit manufacture, sale or transportation of liquor, and poss ession of more than quart. Ore gon beat a proposal to prohibit sale of promotively advertised liquor. South Dakota turned down a proposal to bar serving of liquor ami food in the same place. Arizona defeated moves to in crease aid to the aged, and anti segregatiop moves. Maryland ap proved a strict anti-subversive act, as did Michigan. Georgia rejected a move to use the county unit voting system in general elections. South Carolina dropped its poll tax. Rhode Island gave voting privileges to the Nar raganset Indians, and Idaho gav full citizenship to its Indians. Bal timore turned down a proposal prohibit the use of stray dogs for medical research. West Virginia, Montana and Ore gon voted bonuses for World War II veterans. THE POTTERS HERALD, EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO RAILROAD SHOP JOB PROSPECTS CUT BY DIESEL Washington, D. C. (ILNS). The trend in railroading froip steam to diesel-electric locomotives has resulted in reduced job pros pects for boilermakers, sheet metal workers, machinists and persons employed in a number of other rail road shop trades. This conclusion is carried in a report, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U. S. De partment of Labor, for the use of Veterans Administration officials who counsel veterans planning to train under federal veterans’ train ing programs. One reason for declining employ ment in the shop trades, the report said, is that diesels requires less maintenance than steam locomo tives. Another reason is that the huge diesels require different types of skill. Boilermakers Hardest Hit Boilermakers have been hardest hit by the shift to diesel locomo tives, the report said, explaining that from 1946 to 1950 the number employed by railroads dropped from 1-2,830 to 9,759—a 25 percent decline. Over the same period, the rail roads’ employment of machinists decreased from 45,707 to 40,978. While machinists also maintain equipmgi^ other than locomotives, a good portion of the decline is at tributed to the fact that fewer ma chinists are needed to keep diesel electric locomotives in working order. The bright side of the employ ment picture, according to the BLS report, is that the trend to diesels has created more work for elec tricians. In 1946, railroad shops employed 9,789 electrical workers. By 1950, the number had increased by one-third, jumping to 13,018. Traffic Decline Also Factor Increased use of diesels doesn’t account for the entire drop in em ployment of boilermakers, machin ists and others, the report caution ed. Because of a falling off of traffic, total railroad employment declined by about 7 percent from June 1946 to June 1950, so there would have been some decline—but not as much—even without disel ization. “It is significant,” the report adds, “that employment of electric ians increased sharply while total railroad employment was declin ing.” The report pointed out that since 1946, the number of steam Idcomo tives on the roads decreased by 30 percent, while the number of die sels tripled over the same period Of time. The'• steam locomotives dropped in number from 38,000 to 26,000, while the diesel-electrics rose from 3,000 to 9,000. Buy Union-Made goods from others as you would have them pay Upion wages unto you! 1944 12-42 BARBARA BELL PATTERN No. 1944 This well styled suit-dress is particularly suitable for y e a ’round wear made up in appropri ate fabrics. The unusual closing on the jacket is accented with large buttons. Short or three-quarter sleeves are provided. Barbara Bell sew-rite perforated pattern No. 1944 is designed for sizes 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 40 and 42. Size 14, short sleeves, requires 4% yards ^»f 39-inch fabric. For this pattern, send 25c piths 5c for first-class mailing, in coins, your name, address, pattern num ber and size wanted to Barbara Bell (name of your newspaper) P. O. Box 99, Station G, New York 19, N. Y. Don’t miss the new Fall and Winter STYLIST! this latest issue contains 48 pages of interesting saving information smart new styles more American Designer Originals free pattern printed in the book, 25 cents. INCREASE IN PROFITS^ PRODUCTIVITY AMO WAGES' First I'WG* 1950 THIS CHART from the Economic Outlook shows how labor has not shared fairly in the output of industry. Calls for anti-inflation measures “based firmly on the principle of equality of sacrifice.” TV Performers Win First Pacts After Strike Threat New York (LPA)—Television actors, singers, dancers and ann ouncers won their first contracts ■with the TV networks Nov. 19, just a half hour before a strike dead line. The walkout would have tied up network video programs on Colum bia Broadcasting System, Ameri can Broadcasting Co. and Dumont. The chains were bargaining joint ly along with station WOR-TV. National Broadcasting Company, which had been negotiating with the others, went into separate ne gotiations the night before, and reached an agreement several hours earlier than the others. Since the American Federation of Radio Artists had agreed to re spect picket lines, radio shows on the networks would also have been halted. Higher minimum pay scales were won by the performers, as well as the right to limit film reshowings of programs. These replays, called kinescopes, are widely used in' tele vision industry. From now on the Television Authority, representing the five A FL unions involved, must give its consent before a show can be repeated on any station. The kinescope ruling covers live shows. The question of movies on television is now being considered in a complicated case before the National Labor Relations Board. Unions combined in the Televis ion Authority are the American Guild of Variety Artists, American Guild of Musical Artists, American Federation of Radio Artists, Actors Equity and Chorus Equity. One of the clauses in their new contract protects members with personal contracts from any penalty if they participate in a strike authorized by the authority. This means they are free to back up demands of other unions about to negotiate with the video net works. Among these are the stage hands, the musicians, and the en gineers. Terms1 of the new contract in clude the following pay minimums: Actors with five lines or more on a 15 minute show, $70, including five hours of rehearsal for a half-hour show, $125, with 12 hours of re hearsal for a one-hour program, $170 with 22 hours of rehearsal. Actors with less than five lines: $50 for a 15 minute show, with four hours of rehearsal $62.50 for a half-hour with six hours of re hearsal $75 for an hour-show with nine hours of/rehearsal. Extra re hearsal for all actors is $5 an hour. Vaudeville specialty acts are now $200 minimum for a single performer up to $475 for four per formers, including six hours re hearsal. Sportscasters on major events will get a minimum $200 an event or $550 a week for seven events of the same sport. Minor sports events are $150 per event or $350 a week. Walk-ons or extras will get $20 for a 15 minute show with three hours rehearsal and $45 for an hour’s show with nine hours of re hearsal. The contract runs for two years, or Pillsbury picks electric ranges for Its 2nd *100,000 Grand National Recipe and Baking Contest More evidence ef th* popularity of electric ranges! They’ll bo the offi cial ranges when 100 of America's best cooks gather in December at New York's Waldorf-Astoria Hotel for the big finals in the Pillsbury Recipe and Baking Contest. You'll be a winner, too, with an electric range. See your dealer now! OHlj) Thursday, November 23, 1950 Canada’s Steel Men Act Just Like Those In US Ottawa (LPA) Canada’s steel situation is grim, because the in dustry has refused to expanc’ There Was a shortage after World War II, and the steelmakers have done nothing about it. In December 1947, C. D. Howe, then Minister of Reconstruction, said Canada was producing 3,000, 000 tons a year, and needed 4,000, 000. In January 1949 Babson’s Canadian Reports said “steel is still the main bottleneck of nation al productivity.” In May 1949 the government shelved plants for ex panding the industry, on assurance by producers they were improving methods and increasing capacity. Between 1939 and 1949 the gov ernment subsidized the industry to the tune of $51,776,438.65. In addi tion, the government permitted ac celerated depreciation to three firms of $14,128,447.40 between 1939 and 1946. In the kame period steel profits totalled $58,981,586. Thus, the steelmakers got $51 mill ion of taxpayers’ money, made $58 million in profits—and there’s a steel shortage. starting December 1. Tentative agreement was reach ed in separate negotiations for radio artists. It grants 5000 per formers raises ranging from 15% 30%. Buy Union-Made goods fror, others as you would have them pay Union wages unto you! 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