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farm, Garden, and Household,
< omm i n:i> r.v ittxam simonton. Our H it'.els who may have communications, ob • 'ion?, facts, suggestion*, or anything of interest, tinning to this department, are requested to commu • it tlif s unr t Dr. rutnam Simonton, xursport, who ; pan the same tor publication, it ot suflicient im rtauce, 013 llOA YB'.l* SYSTEM r«<»i»ttsEw rue following letter from an intelligent mem i.f our Legislature "’ill show the interest ■ people ansi their representatives are tak in tin- iniiortant subject of our common . pools. iiiun which, especially with reference . s i tain proposed changes in our sfchool poli , Tic public cannot liud one more (worthy its - ; :jus attention : Ar.a’si a. Feb. 10, 1-sO'J. in.. 1*. Si.uo.vros— Dkau Slit: Herewith I i you School Report for 18G8.. We shall •>a!,l> b called upon to make changes in ,i - bool laws; and kuowiug the interest you ... a t .ueatioii, I shall be pleased to learn . it h mg( s, if any, you deem necessasy. V. ry Respectfully Yours, * ¥ * * * * I . the . riel space which our limits permits, we .in do little more than direct attention tc a the recommendations of Mr. Johnson .in- Superintendent of Schools, in his interest ng re; orl before us. The chief of these are . Th. district system. 2. Teachers’ Instil lutes. County Snpervisorships. 4. Stall iniformity of Text Books. r>. Compulsory at lc udance. . I in* ii> rift system. 13y this is meant our - i.t system ot dividing the cities and towns ,:,i districts, each an independent government itself. This : is proposed to change lot •.in ; it . to dispense with districts and igeuts, and! the town itvii the school houses, iitc tiie .11 ot them, employ the teachers ■hi ua'i the sehoni eommittee, &o. Some of ;e, v alii ages claimed lor the town policy m less expense for school-houses, as many ai. districts could, as they should be, put 0 others, thus giving them better i.- uses and !i_-er schools; better teachers, the school ■; in ii tec being belter judges in this respect agents; greatly facilitating the grading schools; to end disputes about district lari'-s- .ich child going to that school most convenient and beneficial, subject to town regulation:—to promote uniformity of text books, ic. 1 a our judgment this change, lor most places, would In: a decided improvement, and, unlike most changes, would involve no increase of expenses. Many places in our State—Bangor, Bath. Rockland, a :.—have in d it, and with ■ icelicut results, us weieuru; as is the ease a ih some oi the other States. It has Suits avor tiie recommendations of your most eu . hteiied educators. Vet, as the report pro i-cs, au act enabling rather than compelling ..istu.-i 'n adopt ii, so as to avoid the friction incident to novel and compulsory measures, would, we think, be the liue policy. I eiirher.s'institutes. The Report recom mends one ot these tor eacli County, to contin ten days,—cost £.>0u.0o each, or -S4.s00.00 a > ear. lor the Slate, to bo paid by the .State. Uul while no doubt they would be productive • I much good, t wo serious objections, we think, de* against Mem. One is their bad reputation, s me ten year.- ago we had, for several years, i- .y the >.i.a tiling, And we can say ol .a lie: great Trojan Hero said from his . - . 111 which miserable things 1 ■ . a.eg [mu nt which 1 was,”—that they i :ov.ii la.juris, a- they will in the luture, like causes pi ductug like effects. For, a majority learners, :i:iu i isoii. intending to become a. w ii: u : a; lend ti.e-ut. I ree tuition through ne bounty oi the Stale, and tree board, oral iereiy non;ii.ai cos:, through tiie hospitality of tti" citi.i! ns, made them a cheap and very pleas in; hoiiday season, a sort of matrimonial fair, which hole about the same relation to educa tion as horse racing shows do to agriculture. Besides, at iaige cost to the people, tiie State is running two Noirnal Schools, whose office is ti do wed Wi.at tbe.se institutes call do but imperfectly ; and tiie lesuU will be precisely what we >ee in linanciul matters,—teachers wi . pieiei cheap ami imperfect schools, as the multitude do a cheap and base currency to one that is solid and enduring; so that the effect of the Institutes will be lo withdraw the larger portion ol the pupils from the Normal Schools, ust as cheap paper money lias all gold and sil ver from circulation. And a is a complaint in this Report, page sl. that,ex en without this com etit ion, ”5 ouug men and women” do not sulli cieu: , avail ihemsi its i : the advantages ol these special I raining schools.' Ii these inherent objections are not fatal tc a second trial of these institutes, the time is. For when taxation, national, .-.tale a.ui munici pal, is bearing like a fearful incubus alike upon production, capital and labor; and when from high prices and small incomes, the peo ple are crying—“what shall we do to he saved” from want,—it is at once a blunder and a crime to add to these grevious burdens; especially lor ol ji i is where expciience shows such doubt ini unlit). And while measures of certain or even seeming, necessity shah ever have our generous support, we must raise our voice, es pecially ill times like these, against the expendi ture of public money for any and all schemes which conn* not stamped with the test, "for value received.' Next week we snail notice the other propos >d measures. its rsKs ax\i> Auroiis. Last week ivt- spoke ol kerosene explosions, sale and unsafe kinds ol oil, £e. Let us now consider sonde of ils other dangers. We often lieur and read of persons being found dead in their chambers from tile mistake in blowing out the gas light instead of shut ting it oif; two persons in 1 his city recently, from that cause, coming very near such a fate. The leason is that the gas contains several substances, as carbon, hydrogen, &c., which, when inhaled into the lungs m sufficient quan tities, poison the blood and cause death oy suffocation. Now kerosene, as we have shown in previous articles. Is composed of essentially the same elements us Illuminating gas; both resulting the same thing and process—the distillation of bituminous coal; a high heat giving gas; a lower one kerosene. So that the gas, that which you “smell " in burning kerosene, is pre cisely the same thing, In nature and danger as that which kills people in ilieir chambers, dif fering only in amount. The one, small in quan tity, infuses its poison, littie by little, into the system, lo produce, by insensible degrees, sickness and death; enormous in the aggre gate; the other, lay its intensity, kill in an hour, shocks by its suddenness, but, through Us rare ness, destroys far less than tire other. This is not fancy, but a conclusion arrived at from long and extensive observation. In creased frequency of diseases ot the lungs and air passages, producing sure throats and coughs, attest its truth; even that scourge, diptlieria, foliowing closely in the wake of the introduction of kerosene light. Not that of itself it generates that disease, but prepares tlie throat membranes to receive the diptlieria poison when it is abroad in the air. Hence lamps so constructed as to burn the ' oil but imperfectly, permitting the unconsnmed gases lo pass into the room, to be inhaled into the air passages and lungs, should be condemn ed as our mortal enemy. This is especially true of sick rooms. Many a time have we en tered them—little 7x9 bed rooms—with these : poisonous gases so thick that we could not breathe till the doors and windows were thrown ! open; the patients themselves, often already j sutfering from iuug diseases, requiring, there fore, the purest air. Headers, as you value j health and life, avoid these dangers. Physi cians,—you whose high duty it is not only to seek lo restore, but to warn against the causes injurious to health, you are recreant to your trusts, it you tail to proclaim every where these ! dangers,—if you permit a particle of kerosene ■ in sick rooms under your control. What shall be used? Candles, sperm, lard, or sweet oil, in oil lamps. But these are not so neat and convenient, will cost mere than kerosene oil. But it you keep sick but a sin gle week longer from tliese dangerous causes, j the extra cost for medical attendance and nurs j ing will provide you suitable lights for a year. We wish to call attention, however, to some thing better than these. Some of our patients are using an excellent article, expressly pre pared for this purpose. It is called Nix's Pick mium Wax Night Lights. It gives a fine, subdued, little light, without odor, and costs less than the cheapest keroseue. We trust ev ery druggist will order a supply, and extensive ly advertise it—for thesako of humanity, if not j their own. ' j Wanting ourseli to purchase a good horse, aud mistrusting our knowledge iu such matters, we applied lor iulorraation to an Intelligent gentleman—Dr. E. Hopkins, jr., of Searsport— who, having had large1 study and practice in such things, is well qualified to instruct there in. At our request he lias written out for pub lication, what was intended for private In struction, the following article; and we doubt not that—alike the horse to find so good a friend and eulogist, and the purchaser to learn how to select a good one,—will be thankful for it. I11E HOUSE. This noble animal is so intimately connected aud associated with our every-day life, that a ' word in his praise, in a paper devoted to agri culture, and its kindred arts and sciences, may not seem out of place. Of all animals with which we arc acquainted, the Ilorse is, perhaps, most calculated to inspire the beholder with admiration ; and of all quadrupeds, does un doubtedly, in liis general aspect, present the j most perfect aud beautiful symmetry of form, 1 aud adaptation of part to part. His flashing ; eye, flowing mane, and gallant, arching crest, j wavy tail, aud powerful quarters, expanded and | almost transparent nostril, clean sinewy limbs, ! and nervous, elastic style of action, are all so I I many points of attraction aud beauty, that they ! ’ cannot fail of attracting the attention oi the j : most indifferent observers, and arousing their I admiration and sympathy for this beautiful and I grand animal. Man's passion lor the horse dates back to his i first acquaintance with him, and is confined to i no nation or class of ilia human family. In | deed, comparatively, there are but lew persons who take up interest in his history, or pleasure in training and driving him. There may be animals as useful to man, but none with so strong a hold upon the affections and sympa thies as he. In our long and weary journeys, he is at once our companion and servant; alike patient and unflinchingly courageous in the ; quiet business of private life, aud in the tierce | struggle aud smoky din of the battle-field! ] ; With silent submission he awaits his master’s j pleasure, and moves only at his bidding. His ! courage is not shaken by heat or cold ; neither hunger nor thirst drive him to rebellion. When restless, he is quieted by the soothing tones of his master’s voice, and by the cheering, eu | couraging sounds of the same voice is aroused : to the noblest efforts to do his will; in fact, the valuable qualities of this noble servant of man are suggested by the experience oi each and ail of our readers;—his invaluable services ; in war, iu the chase, in travel, aud last, but by | no means least, in agriculture, are known to all, | and have been experienced by man in every ; portion of the known world. Although our people dilfer much in their opinion, as to the color, style of movement, &c., oi their driving horses, yet the desire to own a free, nimble driver, is nearly universal, and might almost be styled a national characteristic. With these few remarks in lavor of the j horse, 1 propose to point out some of the | marks of a good business, or carriage horse. ! SIGNS or A GOOD 110RSK, AND HINTS TO PlJIt CIIASKItS OF THEM. In regard to selecting a horse lor your ear* i ‘‘‘age and general use, It Is not to he supposed that any written rules can be laid down, or des cription given, that will enable a purchaser to have the keen perception and discriminating eye, or the regard to form and motion, and the rapid, searching glance at defects, with which an experienced horseman seems to be eudow jed; still, some hints can be given which will | aid, somewhat, many purchasers in their selec I tion. Before attempting to purchase, he should determine lu his own mind what kind of a horse he wants for his business,—both as to size and general qualities; for the value of a horse de pends upon his adaptation to the kind of busi ness required of him. For a common carriage horse, experience has tuught that one of medium size will gener ally be found to be the most lasting, as they nre generally the most compact In form; usu ally possess a hardy constitution; are nimble, easy and gracefulin motion. The heightshould he from fifteen to sixteen hands, and weight from nine to ten hundred lbs.; the back should he short and straight; the shoulders deep, broad, and slanting back at an angle of forty live degrees, and the point well forward ; broad across the loins and stifle; the legs should not he too long, and should he wide, flat, bouy, and free from flesh below the knees and hocks; above these joints they should he lull and mus j cular. The head, generally, should he small,1 clean and bouy; the nostril expanded; flue muzzle: wide between the eyes; small ears, j neatly set on; the neck rather light and short, i as the reverse, as well as a heavy head. Induce j stumbling; but using strong and promptly from the shoulders and withers, and tapering I to the head, which should not be abruptly plac ed upon it. The body should be round,—a cylinder being the best form for capacity; I round horses have the best wind, as their lungs have full play; they keep in the best condition and require the least food. The feet should be , of a good, dark color, good size, round, neither ! too high nor ltat, well spread frog, tough and ! sound. The coat of a good blooded horse is ; generally short and tine; the color most pre j l'erred is bay, chestnut, black, or dark brown. , Horses of these colors are worth more in any 1 market. A horse with the above qualities, and otherwise sound, will generally prove a valua I ble animal, aud will be admired by all good judges of him. 1 A Thrilling Spectacle. A gentleman named Bowers, from Meigs ville, Jackson county, nowin town, informs us that, on Christmas eve, about 3 o’clock in tlie afternoon, the farm of a Mr. White side, about five miles from Meigsville, was ' the scene of a most exciting and nearly fa tal event. It is briefly this : Mr. Whiteside was iu the little town do ing some business ; his wife was away at a neighbor’s where a sick child was struggling with cholera infantum ; aud the only in door servant they had was out to the barn looking after some cattle, when their child— a bright little boy, just learning to toddle around on its little feet and prattle the name of “pa”—tumbled or crawled out of its cra dle, iu which it was left asleep by the ser vant a few minutes before, aud managed somehow to ge; to the door, which was un fortunately left open at the time, although the girl left iu charge of the place avers that she had closed it, on going out. The child tumbled into the front yard, it is sup posed, aud was crying aud sprawling urouud when a groat grey eagle, seen by tho girl as she was leaving the barn, came swoop inn; down, aud. fastening its immense aud cruel talons iuto the clothiug of the little boy, rose up, apparently with much difficul ty, as high as it could, which was not very high, aud sailed off' across the adjacent woods, just skimming, as the servant says, the tops or the trees. When the servant saw the eagle coming down, as she was leaving the barn, she had a presentment of the strangest kind, aud says that she felt that the child was out of doors, and that the fierce bird of prey was pouucing down upon it ; but when, iu a moment after, she beheld the great tyrant of the air rise above i the housetop, with the little child in its tal- i ons, she grew dizzy aud fell to the ground. Her weakness, however did not continue long, the cold air blowing across her face revived her quickly, aud jumping on her feet aud gazing round wildly, she saw the i eagle disappearing over the woods iu the I direction of the Cumberland river. .She , was filled with but one impulse—to rescue the little boy. She became as one frantic, tor she had a remarkable affection for the child. She rushed forward, bounded over j the fence as if endowed with the lightness aud agility of a deer, dashed iuto the wood, dark and tangled as it was, not taking time to hnut out footpaths, or cow tracks. She instinctively felt that the thieving bird would keep iu a straight line, aud she kept1 in a straight line also. With the strength aud unshrinking courage of a strong man who has become suddenly deranged, she dashed the undergrowth aside, crossed the ravines as if she had beeu on a level plain, spurned the fallen trees aud jagged rocks as if they were the smoothest and softest moss. The patch of wood was fully a mile aud a half through, but the girl made the run to the other edge of it without feeling in the least fatigued. Beyond the wood, aud between it aud the river lay a patch of cleared ground, partly marshy aud partly cornfield, full of old stumps. When she left the wood, and had a clear view, she saw the eagle as if he were inclined to alight with his burden somewhere iu the neighborhood of the river. This gave her new courage and fresh hope, aud she ran forward with increased speed. It lucklily happened at that time that therew as a man j hunting iu the neighboring marshes, aud just at the particular morneut when the eagle reached the ground with his burden, j a shot went off so dangerously aud alarm ingly near him, (for the hunter was behind a clump of bushes, ubout 20 yards off, aud had his back towards the eagle and the child,) that he mounted into the air again, but without his burden. The pursuing girl was filled with joy when she beheld the bird rise without the child. But fearing he would return as ho seemed inclined to do, she set up a vigorous shouting as she ran, which attracted the hunter’s attention iu that direction, who, seeing the eagle quite j near him, aud a lady rushing down the 1 slope with streaming hair aud garments, ! and wildly shoutiug, concluded at once that there was something strange, and, perhaps,j dreadful iu his immediate vicinity, and he i also set up a vigorous hallooing, and pro ceeded to load his gun with much precipi tation, forgetting to go after the game he had just shot. The eagle soon became aware of the formidable opposition he would meet if he attempted to recapture, his prey, : aud, thinking better of it, he wheeled round : and swung himself, in oue grand swoop, | across the river, aud disappeared behind I the shelving rock which forms its opposite j bank at that point, before a shot from the i hunter’s guu was ready to speed its flight to its bold heart. When the girl came down to the liuuter, she fell stiff', and was not able even to indicate what was the mat ter. While the rough gallant was endeav oring to restore her to consciousness, he heard the scream of a child, aud leaving the slowly recovering girl, he went toward the spot where the screaming came from, aud beheld a fine, healthy, rosy boy, with torn clothes, but otherwise uninjured, eu-! deavoring to rise upon his little feet. The ’ tears streamed down his innocent cheeks, aud his face wore a mofct hideous expres sion. He took the baby in his arms and carried it to the girl, who was now sufficient ly recovered to cempreheud that her belov ed charge was safe. She clasped it to her bo som, covered it with kisses, aud wept with joy. In the meantime the mother and fa ther of the child had returned home, and finding it empty, with no sign to indicate where the inmates were gone, save a buck- i et of spilled milk out near the barn, where 1 the girl had left it in her flight, they be came anxious aud uneasy ; but the return i of the servant, the hunter and the wonder-, ful little voyageur, who had the most thrill ing adventure that was ever heard of, re stored them to trapquility. There was a truly merry and joyous Christmas in that! household. [Nashville Press. THE FINANCES. Remarks of Mr. M’Creary, of Kentucky : Delivered in the Senate of the Ini to I Nt itra, Wednesday, January H. Mu. 1’uksidf.n't :—It i* my purpose to direct the attention of this body to the condition ol our financial affairs. It might be more agreea ble to the Senate to p tstpone my remarks until a later period in the session ; but facts and fig ures, projects and counter-projec..s, estimates and speculations will accumulate until It would confound the wisdom of Solomon to tell what we are owing, and exhaust a dozen such treas uries as his to discharge the debt. Finances is the engrossing topic ot the day. it addresses itself to the anxieties, the hopes, aud the fears of all classes and conditions of men. Bondholders aud bankers, lawyers and doctors, farmers and mechanics, are deeply I and Vitaliy interested iu its solution. Nor is that all. Many millions of our bonds aud oth er securities have crossed the waters, aud Eng land is merry at the prospect of a rich tribute to be drawn yearly from the sweat and toil of American citizens. How long it will take her to acquire the lion’s share cannot lie determined with mathematical certainty, but from the start site has taken the period will be short, proba ! biy not longer than Washington and his army were engaged in achieving our independence. [ Laughter. J Considering the amount involved aud the dif ferent nationalities concerned, you could liard j ly overestimate the importance of the question. It should be coolly, calmly and thorougnly con sidered. Great toleration and l'orbearauce should be observed iu tbe discussion. High authority has declared that the subject is “inys ' terious” iu some of its relation. There are I gentlemen in this Chamber who do not under | stand “ mysteries,” aud those who should deal tenderly with their ignoruuce iu that regard. There are very few men who can see very far into the future. The great mass of mankind | can not even tell what a day or an hour will I bring forth. A leading lawyer in Kentucky said that he admitted the lore-knowledge of 1 God as a general proposition, aud with only one exception, that he did not believe that God i Himself could tell iu advance how a county 1 court would decide a case. [Laughter.] Skep ticism shall never induce me to place a limita tion niion the attributes of the Almighty, but I will slate that uo power short o: Omniscience j can disclose what the Radical party will do be j tween this and the 1st day of July 1871, nor what | will be the fiuaucial eouditiou of tbe country at that period. [Renewed laughter.] Various ; opinions are entertained by thoughtful and iu I tulligeut men, hud proscription, fierce aud vin dictive as it may be, will fail to harmonize ac tion or sentiment upon the subject. The President ol tbe United States iu his last annual message, remembering his early strug i gles sympathizing with those who, are now eu-; j countering greater dillieulties, aud desiring that a time should come when poverty should j lift up Its head and rejoice, aud when labor! should be emancipated from the thraldom of! capital, ventured to give utterance to an idea j which had been floating unexpressed iu his; brain for more than a year. liven if it were heresy, the generous impulse which prompted ; it should have been a shield to protect it from j assault. Hut hardly had the words talleii Irom the lips of the reader when Senators sprung to j their feet aud proceeded in angry phrase to de- j uouucc and condemn it. But the theme was changed. A wail for the dead fell iu sad and mournful accents upon tile ear; eulogies of Stevous followed the censures of Johnson, aud twenty funeral orations, pouring forth a lone tribute to the genius of the departed, silenced for a season the thunders that had been play ing around the head of the living statesman. 1 do hope that no gentleman will take excep tion to winu I am about to sav, We have had discord and disseution enough. If there be one among us whose warlike spirit prompts him to deeds of chivalry, let him go to Turkey or to Greece and light it out on that line, bear ing with him the glad tidings that “ all is quiet on the Potomac.” [Laughter.] Approving aud endorsing the sentiment put forth by the veteran who ise re long to preside over our des tiuies, and animated by the same pacille dispo sition, i say now, henceforth and forever, “ Let us have peace.” [Great Laughter.] The country, without respect to race or color, would be more pr .sperous and if vve could only have peace. As it would be an endless under- i taking to attempt a reference to all that lias ; been said or written upou the financial ques- | tiou, I shall coniine my remarks to a very oriel review of some of the positions taken by the distinguished Senator from Indiana (Mr. Mor ton,) and shall rely for mv facts entirely upon the reports of the Treasurer and Secretary of the Treasury. These gentlemen, however widely they may differ in other respects, concur in the utter de testation, scorn aud contempt which they en tertain toward repudiation. Language would , fail to express the horror widen would seize upou their souls at the bare thought that the Government would ever dishonor the very smallest of its engagements or repudiate any of its obligations. A spotless virgin would not more instinctively fly from the vile presence of a seducer than they would shrink from the con taminating influence of a man so iost to shame as to breaLhe a suspicion against the national honor. [Laughter.] Such a crime would sink him so low iu their estimation that repentance aud remorse could never raise him Irom the | depth of his degradation. It is a fact that good morals and good charac ter depends upon the observance of good faith iu all transactions public aud private. It is equally true that profession an i practice are not always travelling companions iu this world. Repudiation, hideous as it mar appear, is not such a stranger in this land as to startle us by a novelty. Instances occur very late in our history. The patriots of the Revolution, with out an effort at redemption, abandoned the pa per currency which had been paid to the fann ers who fed and clothed the soldiers who fought. The last act of repudiation is of re cent date, aud consisted in appropriating a large amount of private property to puolic use without any consideration to the owner. The Constitution provides: “No person shall be deprived of property without dne process of law; nor shah private property be taken for publie uso without just compensation.” iu pursuance ot tuts provision Congress passed it law allowing loyal owners §300 each for the slaves enlisted in the war. Commis sioners were appointed to hear and determine the claims, but before a dollar was paid the law was suspended, aud the debt virtually repudi ted. The law itself was a very feeble attempt to meet the requirements ol the Consiitution, as just compensation implies the full value of the property. Men were stripped of their earnings, widows of their dowry, orphans of their inheritance, aud the soldier who followed the llag from the beginning to the end ol the war had to submit quietly to the repudiation of his claim. The Constitutional provision to which I have adverted was iu full lorce at llielime when the act was done. The Constitution was the su preme law of the land, or, as Mr. Webster has forcibly expressed it, it was the bond, aud tbe sole bond, oi our Union. No civil oilieer could enter upon the discharge of his duties until he had taken a solemn oath to support it. Iu view of these facts 1 would ask any honest man to lay his baud upon his heart and say if the peo ple of Kentucky have been rightfully deprived of the property which they held uuder the double guarantee of Constitution aud of law? i do not ask him to decide it by the Declaration of Independence, nor by the star-spangled banner, nor by the higher law (laughter), but by the sacred compact which our fathers form ed lor our Government, by the charter which secures our liberties, by the Constitution which was intended to protect our prosperity. Lest a returning sense of justice should in duce some legislative body to make some repa ration for the wrong inflicted upon a loyal com munity, the fourth section of the fourteenth amedtneut provides that neither the United States nor any State shall ever pay for the loss or emancipation of any slave, but that such obligation shall be held illegal aud void. This clause is retroactive and nullifies the force of exiBtlng obligations, and how far it would re ceive the sanction of our highest judicial tribu j nal is a matter which is yet to be tested. IIow i ever, if dauger is to be apprehended from tha' ! quarter, following the precedent set in the Me j Ardle case, the jurisdiction could be repealed by an act of Cougres declaring that the Su j preme Court should take cognizance of no cast : involving a constitutional question. (Laugh ; ter.) The Secretary of the Treasury, in his report, i alludes incidentally to the inequality of the burden of taxation, and doubtless realizes its utterly exhaustive influence upon those sections where no bonds are held and where none of the j interest is distributed. But he forgot to notice i the hardship, the oppression and the wrong iu ! volved In the act of depriving whole coramun i ities of one-half of their estates without pro j cess of law and without compensation, aud then taxing the remainder to pay the interest on claims which rest upon no more solid foun dation than their own. Has the Government kept faith with its own citizens? A dominant i parly may defy the Constitution, trample on the ' rights of the weak, and sport with their mis fortunes; but the flres of fanaticism cau uot always burn, the passions of men will grow j cool, and the day will come when justice and | public taltli, beneficent as the Constitutiou and ! broad as the Union, will prevail. I If geutlemeu really desire to constitute them : selves tlie peculiar friends and guardians of the public faith, if they wish to preserve it pure and ■ unspotted, they should pursue a course of im | partial justice toward all the creditors of the United States. In discharging their high trust let no preferences, partialities or prejudices warp their judgment or control their action; and above all, let them do nothing In violation o', the Constitution. The public indebtedness, large as it is, is go iug for the most part to our own citizens, and in view of their equal rights, pay all or pay none; or if they cau ouly pay a part let them refer the matter to a master commissioner for a pro rata distribution of the assets among all the creditors in exact proportion to their sev eral demands. Whatever may be the hardship of such a measure it will fail upou all alike, and those who have been drawing the gold will have less reason to complain than those who have never received a cent. A discrimination among American citizens is in flagrant violation of the fun damental principles of our free institutions, and a fraud upon the equal rights of the people. Our Government was estaolished to secure the rights and to perpetuate the liberties of the people, and not as an engine of oppression and torture to degrade and enslave them The condition of the country in a financial point of view is alarming, aud most of the remed.es proscribed appear to be temporary in their character. Many of them propose, in certain contingencies, to issue mote bends, us If the bonds already in existence were not ab sorbing the means and consuming the substance of the people. That relief which comes from increasing the burden will not meet my appro bation. Tbe desperate situation of our affairs is rendered perfectly manifest by the ooutlict iug aud contradictory measures advocated by statesmen of great capacity aud of enlarged experience. Scarcely any two agree, aud yet each one has the utmost confidence iu the wis dom aud policy of his own scheme. The speech of the distinguished Senator from Indiana iu support of his proposition was an effort of great vigor, and as au intellectual dis play would compare favorably with anything that has been lately delivered iu this Chamber. He began bis voyage amid the couvulslous of revolutions, circumnavigated the globe, visit- , iug England, Germany, France aud Spain, and, more fortunate than Captain Cook, he entered the ports of redemption and reconstruction with flying streamers, under cloudless skies, j and impelled by pleasant breezes. (Great | laughter.) lie came overland from California, developing a sufficiency of gold iu that State i and the Territories to pay our debts aud put us oil the high road to prosperity, aud after all he returns to us with courage on his brow and a constitution invigorated by the toils and dan gers through which he has passed. (Renewed laughter.) If his discoveries should prove of little value to the currency of the country, we cau at least rejoice at the restoration of his health. Whatever may be thought of the speech in other respects, it will be the unanimous ver dict of candid men that it is the most cheering and hopeful presentation of our financial affairs that will be made during the present genera tion. i lie secretary ot the treasury, with the am plest means of information, seems to be puz- 1 zied aud bewildered by the difficulties of the ; situation. Ho shows very clearly that Web ster and himself were alike inimical to a depre ciated currency, aud by extending his research es he might have discovered that other men entertained similar opinions on that subject. (Laughter.) He recommends that Congress shall pass a law legalizing gold contracts, and I can see no particular objection to that prop osition. If persons desire to pay aud receive good money I would make it lawful for them to do so. In his opinion it is of the highest importance that the tax-paying voters should be encouraged by the fact that the debt is in progress of rapid extinguishment. I would like to oblige the Secretary very much, but I cannot encourage tax payers by any assurance. Ido not believe that the public debt of the United States ever can be paid, aud the facts upon which this judgment is based are drawn chiefly from the report of the Secretary of the Treasury, i The Treasurer, who is a gentleman of the ; oldentime, and who speaks about what he thinks, has indulged in some tolerably plain talk upon this question. The lower grades of this fractional currency authorized by Con gress are most offensive and disgusting to his sigut, taste aud smell. (Laughter.) He calls it “an almost worthless, irredeemable, poison ous and stinking copper and nickel token cur rency." lie waxes warm as the argument pro ceeds, until he challenges the world to show as mean a government as ours (laughter) and de clares that an individual guilty of such prac tices would be branded as a twopenny thief aud consigned to a house of correction. The gov ernment is accused of fraud aud open repudia tion ; but of all his charges there are none so damaging anti disparaging, so unwarrantable aud unjust, as the comparison to a twopenny thief. (Laughter.) This effort to degrade the government by intimating that Its operations are contlued to a retail business is a surprising misconception ; but as it was prompted by sud den excitement, and is evidently not the result of deliberate malice, we may hope that time aud reflection may induce the author to modi fy or retract tile aspersion. (Laughter.) Depreciated paper is the object of assault on all sides, and those who forced it upon the couutry are now its deadliest foes, z speedy resumption of specie payments, with or with out the means, is advocated as a sure defence against all the dangers that surround us. That redundancy of of currency of which we hear so much may exist in the region where the bondholders live, but in the agricultural dls tistiicts there is no such complaint. In my section the people are neither given to idleness nor to luxury. They have never had the wealth to indulge the one nor to support the other; aud a man who enjoyed both would not bo a very respectable member of society. Intelli gent labor is industriously applied to a iruit ful soil, but still money is so scarce that any contraction of the currency would operate most injuriously upon the agricultural and mechan ical interests. JLet it not be said that i am or have been the friend of the paper money, or of any of the overgrown monopolies that have fed and fat tened upon public plunder until they defy the constitutional authorities of government. The resumption of specie payments, if we were ready to resume, it is admitted on all hands would be attended by a great enhancement ol the value of paper money. A dollar in gold, instead of being worth a dollar .aid thirty-live ceuts would be exchanged at par, or the pre mium of thirty-live per cent, of gold over green backs would no longer exist. So that a man holding $100,000 in greenbacks would have it suddenly raised to the value of $135,000 in that currency. But the people of the United States are not all bankers and bondholders. The great majority of them derive no profit from the one or the other, and the interests of this class, numbering twenty to one, are eutitled to some consideration at the hands of Congress in its efiorts to solve the financial question. The debtor is entitled to fully as much symyatby as the money-lender. The laborer between his plow handles and the mechanic in his shop are, under our system of government, the equals of any other citizens of the Republic. It is their energy and their productive industry which up holds and sustains the fabric of American civil ization. Knock out this support, and the Gov ernment with its bonds and its currency would be involved in a common ruin. The claims of labor and the welfare of the laborer are matters which must engage the attention of statesmen if the sunlight of prosperity is ever to shine upon us again. Politicians may plot and plan, bankers may discount and accommodate, dem agogues may delude aud deceive, but the truth : will come at last.that the hard hands and stroDg arms of labor must work the deliverance. Has any person seen a farmer or mechanic who complains of a redundancy of money? The complaints that have readied my ear are precisely the reverse. If they are in debt, do they desire the privilege of paying one-third more than they contracted, and are they par j ticularly clamorous for a reduction of their j wages? Are they feverish in their anxiety to ! see $400,000,000 of Government bonds sold in j Euglaud for gold to redeem the greeback cur rency, aud them to see the tax-gatherers col j iecttng In the same gold to ship across tie w i j ters iu payment of the interest on the bonds? j According to my theory the burden rest, upon ! their shoulders, anti their tongues must make the call before f will ever vote for a bond for a boud for any purpose whatever. ! The Southern States embrace a population | of eight or ten millions, and unless their very [existence is to lie ignored some consideration should bestowed upon the measure, as it is very lisely to affect their interests. Are they ready specie payin.-uts, and do they desire that all j values shall be reduced to tit■ • standard of geld i aud silvery Almost evury newspaper that comes i frum that quarter informs us that some linely i improved estate has been disposed of at I Sheriff's sale for two dollars per acre, and as the uufortuuate owners have been bereft ot a.11 else, they would hardly favor a project which would saeriliee their lauds at $1 t‘o Of the situation of the Southern people I j know little from actual observation. Since the ! war I have been no further South than Gor duusville, in Virginia. Manassas, which has risen from the ashes, reminds us of the opening ; scene iu the civil strile. I passed CedarMouu- : tain, or Slaughter's Mountain, as the people of Hie country call it, iu whose shades Jackson marshaled nis forces, and from whose summit swept the charge that never failed of victory. I crossed the liapidan, where Gran; aud Lee, the great masters of military science, for seven long months confronted each other from oppos ing bauss. Ditches and earthworks may be seeu on all sides, but where are the farms, the orchards, aud the gardens, tile corn, the fruit, and the flowers? These rich valleys, like West ern prairies, spread out before you, bn. no fence , obstructs tile view, and no sound breaks the i solemn silence that reigns around, i'here re- : main, however, some evidences of a banished civilization. Now aud then a single chimney, liiie a monumental column, points you to the past. It bears no lettered scroll; bat slid it speaks of happiness and home, its warmth: has been a comfort to ago, aud sparkling eyes and ruddy faces have reflected its light, iiut i the scene inis been changed. The thunder cloud of war drew near and more near until | its angry flashes gave fearful warning of ap proaching doom. The mother kneels at the family altar, invokes the blessing of Elijah's God, aud goes fort it with her children a lugi tive in the land. Every thing that will burn I is given to the flames, and the chimney stands as a landmark, a starting point for the surveyor iu his work of re-establishing metes an 1 boundary lines. Oilier portions of Virginia may have suffered less, but I honestly believe that ih people of that State are not prepared for specie payments, and that any great contract! iu of the currency would involve them iu ruin. They could en dure a gentle inflation, but they will scarcely; survive a further contraction, I know n >t how others may feel, but as for iny single seif 1 con fess to a weakness for the old commonwealth of Virginia. If she has sinned in the sight of, Heaven, Heaven aud earth have witnessed the terrible retribution. When we speak of Vir ginia, tile long past rises before us, and we are i li- ijucuueu wiui l;it* neroes, me statesmen, ;.utl the philosopher^ of other days. The sword of her Washington haugs in ihe L’a'eut Olllee, aud there too, is his camp an 1 his camp furniture, even down t > ills pewter plates, held as the sa cred memorials of a patriotism which endured all things for his country’s sake. Jcifersoii and the Declaration, ami Madison and the Consti tution, the eloquence of Henry, the learning of Marshall all protest against the divorce which severs the bonds of union and degrades Virgin ia from her position oi equality in the family of Stales. Dismembered aud divided, spurned aud insulted, sutie ring and bleeding, the frail and tottering remnant of her former seif, if we can not alleviate, let us do nothing to increase tlie calamities which overwhelm her already. Neither the vicissitudes throu li which she lias passed, nor the furnace of affliction in which she walks at present, have ever been able to extort from her oue word of complaint or re proach. If it is believed that Mie can be driven or pel'suari*. d to a profe.-sion of the Radical creed, it is a mistake; she will live aud die in tlie faith which has been hau led down from the fathers. It is assumed that gold will come to this country when it is needed. In my opinion it will be needed a long Lime before it will come. When our exports and sales in foreign coun tries shall exceed our imports that excess wil be paid to us iu gold. Another assumption is that greenbacks will enhance in value a-> soon as an act of Congress shall tlx a day for the resumption of specie payments. Tne ability ol a debtor to meet his obligations is of more consequence iu the eyes of creditors than any promises or pledges he may make upon that subject. If iie is in doubt ful or failing circumstances, it is certainly pru dent to name a distant day, and this p ■-..•caution has been proposed ti the Senate. Hut tlie great question is. can the Govern ment meet Us liabilities? Tlie report of the Secretary of tlie Treasury shows that for the last three years and seven months the average annual expenditure in payment of interest and other demands has been §508.d4G,GGI.G8, and that during that time the public debt, instead of being diminished, has been increased by the addition of §1G0,175,475.48. In three years and seven months annost tsvo thousand million dol lars have been expended, and the debt is larger than it was at the close of the war. The Sec retary says that if it had not been for the L’a ciiie Railroad, the purchase of Alaska and other , estimates, which he believes to be substantial ly correct, the debt would have been smaller. Hut such contingencies are as likely to happen in the future as in the past, and the fact stands as stated. While the debt lias been thus rapid ly Increasing, the resources of the Government for its liquidation have been more rapidly de- , dining, as ths tables will show : The receipts from internal revenue for the year 1860 were $399,226,013.43 The receipts from internal revenue for ISO? were 266,027,537.43 The receipts from internal revenue lor 1868 were 191,0S7,5S9.41 The estimate receipts for 1S09 are 14',2u9,014.uo The receipts from customs fur the last three years have beeu as follows : For the year JS00 $179,040,051.58 For the year ISO? l?0,4l?,slu.SS For the year ISOS 104,404,599.50 This statement, which is taken from the re port of tile Secretary of the Treasury, points rather to deficiency bills titan to the payment of the public debt. Hut the most alarming leature connected with our multiplied embar rassments is that our precious metals aud out gold-bearing bonds are leaving ns and going to Europe. California aud the Territories in me last twenty years have produced in gold and silver upward of $1,300,000,000, and of this amount 81,100,000,000 have departed from our shores. Nor is that all; more than six hundred mil lion dollars of our gold-bearing bonds are now in tlte hands of European capitalists, and be sides this they hold in State stocks and other securities more than two hundred million dol lars ; and the Secretary says that we are even now increasing our debt to Europo at the rate i of sixty or seventy million dollars per annum In tlie (orm of gold-bearing bonds. When Europe shall hold all our bonds the gold duct, of California and all the T. rritorii s will bo insufficient to pay the inti rest. Onr pur i chases abroad are made mostly in gold-hem mg I bonds, aud if this shall cease the receipts from customs must cease with it, and the t-.x-ga'ii erer must hunt for currency where it is scarce, and for gold where there is none, to support j the Government and to pay the debt. Borrow ing from one mail to pay another is the contri vance of a bankrupt, and the adoption of such measures on our part would only develop the utter helplessness of our situation. lu addition 1 to tlie nurdeus already enumerated our coin j mercial marine lias been sold to foreigners, and the cost of our transportation goes into their ; pockets. The Secretary ascribes the great reduction j in the amount, derived from internal rev-mue to j inefficient collection aud to a reduction of taxes. This may be partially true a! tlie present time, but it will not be long before still a further re duction will be attributed to the exhaustion of the people. Their capacities are truly wouder ! ful, but, wonderful as they arc, human energy ; and human endurance have a limit. Five huii , dred millions of dollars is a large sum to be ! drawn yearly from the labor of the country in ! the shape ot taxation. Is there any system ol i labor upon earth that could stand such a drain? I Our largest river would cease to flow and his 1 bed would become dry and parched if the clouds did not bear back the volume of water dis charged into the Gulf. But here is a financial gulf into which pours a golden stream, but from its metallic surface arises uo moisture, no vapor, no rain to cheer and to bless the sources of its supply IIow long can it continue to flow? How long wifi thirty million people be content to pour the golden lruits of their unre quited toil into the bosom of this gulf which, like the Dead Sea, lias uo outlet? Ireland lias groaned under a similar infliction until the “greenest isle of the ocean" lias lost its verdure and until penury and want are tlie only lnhei itance of her children, The great law ol seif preservation forces them to leave her borders in search of tlie means of subsistence, aud whither will they fly when American, like Iri-h labor, is made tribu ary to tlie capital and the power of other countries ? AY hen Europe shall lioid our bonds tlie effort to discharge them must end in exhausting Lhe means ot pay men It would be useless to attempt lo slop ibo cur reut that is sweeping our gold and gold seem , ties to Europe. Many of our citizens have In come suddenly aud vastly enriched by specula lion, peculation, and spoliation. 1 he simplicity of A merit an manners anil ot republican ni.-tiiu Lions pulls upon their pamper- I ta.-les; licit-. crovvus and courts lilt in-iore their imago, i tious, and they will exciiaua tiieir bonds or their gold for an opportunity of beholding with their own eyes the pride and pomp and pageant ry of a genuine aristocracy. In speaking of restoring the tax on mamil.i turns, abolished in March last, the Secretary suys : *• flic objections to the restoration ot this tux are tn it would indicate vacillation on tiie part ut Cun&re.s-.” I hope that I have been reasonably consistent in life; but I am willing lo vacillate a little iu that direction. (Laughter.) lie proceeds : “It Is ai*o apparent that if moored it would tail to be permanent, try reason ot the peridsieut and united lio-ul it)' ot a class ol citizens influential and poweilul, and whose iultin-nce aud power ate rat,idly iucrea-inp. This is oil.- of the most tearful declarations that ever proceeded from any ot the depart ments of our Government. And is it true that the Bresidtnt and his Cabinet have become the agents and the servants of a privileged ''lass, and that Congress, forgetful of its solemn duties to the sovereign people, protects Hu nch in order that the scourge may be applied with more iatal effect lo lire productive iiidus try ol the country? From lire decision ol Uu Secretary 1 appeal to tlie grand inquest ot lie nuiiou upou lhe distinct issue that wealth and influence are not good grounds lor the exemp tion ot any portion of our citizens from their just and equal proportion in all the respons. ties ol government. Neither policy nor vvi dom lior justice demands all exemption in favui ot those who are most able to pay. ill the plan ol resumption proposed by the able Senator from lud'atia his own misgiving* as to the result are shadowed forth. Why does he allow six months' additional time to the National banks? ine m nucin that a buna jub resumption lakes place on the [‘art of the Gov ernment the banks will be able to rc.Acimt . There is nothing in their business nor iiyihcii situation that « ommeiids them in uu especi.u manner to the idstenug care of Congress. They are sixteen hundred or more in number, with a capital ot $400,UU0,UU0, upou which they draw iroin the government a yearly interest of $:i4,000,000. This sum is paid to them will: the privilege of fleecing the people out of Sod. 000,000 more. They are probably as wed to do as any instil utious in the country, lint the provision was not intended entirely lor their benefit. They are required to hold an amount ol greenbacks equal to 'lieu* circulation; and by postponing the day of their iv>umpuou in > aie rdnd on as salety-valves to Withhold the greenbacks Hum presentation lor payment 1'hesC banks are general.y conducted by men ol sagacity and loresigut in iniauciai aiiairs. ivuowmg that guu.l uiivler any eireuuistaucc* would be as good as greenbacks, p. is lair t > presume that each batik Would have a tru* * agent in Washington on the iiistday oi J.dy, 1671, and all ul Uieiti would be instructed tot convenient to the Treasury Department w.. tue hour oi resumption should arrive ; and vv lien if dal come, without the sound oi a iinim oi the note oi a bugle, they would move to in onset. “Fi m-paeed uud slow, a mthoI Imhh tlu-\ lu . . bull us Hie breeze*, but Urea.ilul as inc o." :u. (Great laughter.) ii the Secretary should d< so t ■ :oink i n partial jus-ice to his customers, b vv .. i v a force ot sixteen hundred money conn.ms ■ meet the demand. Let him appoint mat nu.n ber and the sun of mat day win set upon an empty treasury, dn igia;. Iiogislativo. Thursday, 1-Vb. li In Senate. Committee on Jud; :iarv r. p >, L-d an Act to incorporate the Win' rpnn C> in etury Association. In the House Mr. Kinks, irom the i nn inii tec on Railroads, Ways and Bridges, ou p tiliou, reported bill an act to amend firm-v acts, ami additional then Ij, reiai ing 10 tin- Ken uebec & Wiscasset Railroad Company. Mr. Clark, from tiie Committee on Claim-, on petition of Mathias Y. Ciiiluan for reim bursement of aid furnished a soldier, reporie I leave to wllhdruw Mr. McCausiand, Irom same committee, on petition of Bickford C. Mathews, reported leave to withdraw. Au act to authorize llie I'ortiand, Stcu Portsmouth K. II. Cafcjipauy l-i t ike slock in the Portland, Bangor & Machias S-e.iu»l>.,:it Company was also rep >rlcd. Mr. Hubbard, from Judiciary Commiti.— i, ported bill au act to iuc-orporate the Bo.doba) village corporation. Mr. Folsom, from the Committee on Interioi Waters, on bill an act to authorize S.tmuclA . mis to maiutaiu his wharf in Custine, repoi; -o the same ouglit to pass. Mr. Hincks, by leave, laid oil tiie labh Idd ui act to increase the capiial stock ot Hu- IV lobscot Bay and River Railroad Company. Friday, Felt. It*. In Senate. On moti.m of Mr. Metcalf, hid an act relating to the taking oi menhaden or porgies 111 the waters of Maine, was t.ik. n up mil passed to be engrossed. On motion of Mr. Murray, bill ail act to reg Bute the sale of milk, was taken from tiie tit lie and passed to be engrossed. Bill an act to repeal chap. 4-Is of the. Special Raws of 18GS, entitled an act to prevent the .lirowing of slabs, &e, into the Penobscot river, was presented and referred. Saturday, Feb. R). Mr. West, from Committee ou Interior Wa ,ers, reported bill an act to authorize John Bird -t als., to extend a wharf into tide waters at dockland. House. Ordered, That the Committee ..u he Judiciary be directed to inquire into tin expediency and propriety of amendin'; public uws of 1858, chap. 33, sect, o, so as to make it abligatory for cities and towns to appoint agents. Ordered, That the same Committee be direct id to inquire into tiie expediency of amending the statutes relating to divorc e. The Committee on lutorior Water.-, on peti tion of John Mclntire, reported bill an avt au thorizing the rebuilding and maintaining m a wharf known as the Swcetland wharf in Ruck port Harbor.