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Published Daily Except Sunday By The Wilmington Star-News At The Murchison Building R. B. Page, Owner and Publisher Telephone All Departments DIAL 3311_ Entered as Second Class Matter at Wilming ton, N. C-, Postoffice Under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 __ SUBSCRIPTION RATES BY CARRIER Payable Weekly or in Advance J Combina Star News tion Week .$ -29 $ 5 3 Montes. . i6° 195 3-9U t . .. 5.20 3.90 7.80 1 YeTr V-40 7.80 15.60 News rates entitle subscriber to Sunday issue of Star-News _ BY MAIL Payable Strictly in Advance Combina Star News tion Month .$ -75 $ 50 $ .90 i Month, ’. J-* “ ::::::::::::::::::: IS »2 News rates entitle subscriber to Sunday issue of Star-News (Daily Without Sunday) 1 Month . $.50 6 Montes -$3.00 3 Months . 1.50 12 Year .6-00 (Sunday Only* 1 Month .$ 20 6 Montes .$1-25 3 Months .65 1 Year . 6.00 Card ot Thanks charged far at tee rate ot 25 cents per line. Count five words to line. ~ THE ASSOCIATED PRESS is entitled to tee exclusive use of all news stories appearing in The Wilmington Star THURSDAY, OCTOBER 24, 1940 Star-News Program Consolidated City-County Government under Council-Manager Administration. Public Port Terminals Perfected Truck and Berry Preserving and Marketing Facilities. Arena for Sports and Industrial Shows. Seaside Highway from Wrightsville Beach to Bald Head Island. Extension of City Limits. 85-Foot Cape Fear River channel, wid er Turning Basin, with ship lanes into industrial sites along Eastern bank south of Wilmington. Paved River Road to Southport, via Orton Plantation. Development of Pulp Wood Produc tion through sustained-yield methods throughout Southeastern North Carolina. Unified Industrial and Resort Pro motional Agency, supported by one county-wide tax. Shipyards and Drydock. Negro Health Center for Southeastern North Carolina, developed around the Community Hospital. Adequate hospital facilities for whites. Junior High School. Tobacco Warehouse for Export Buyers. Development of native grape growing throughout Southeastern North Carolina. Modern Tuberculosis Sanatorium. TOP O' THE HORNING One of the secrets of real humility is always to keep before our minds someone toward whom we feel, "the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose•” . . . We can always find those who have gone so far beyond us in courage or love or patience or insight that we cannot but feel humble reverence. Our own achievement vanishes like mist before the 'ight of theirs. —From "FORWARD." Christmas Is Coming—Fast Wilmingtonians generally might take a leaf from the merchants’ »otebook to good advan tage. The merchants already are planning for Christmas. At a meeting yesterday they con sidered a united program not only for the promotion of sales, which is a high objective, of course, but for the convenience of shoppers. Surely, this emphasizes the nearness of the Yuletide and the importance of giving thought to the season for gifts now. It is not too soon to direct attention to the advantages of early Christmas shopping. By starting now, and Christmas goods are al ready appearing in the stores, one may es cape the final rush, not only at the counters, but in packaging and mailing. It is hard to think of a pleasanter feeling than accompanies knowledge that all Christmas presents are off one’s mind long before the great day arrives. The post office department will cooperate with you by withholding deliveries until Christ mas Eve. From a selfish viewpoint it is worth while to shop early. Long-Range Bombing Regardless of the actual military value of the long-distance air raid carried out by the Italians against oil refineries and stores on Bahrein Island, this thrust clear across Asia Minor to the Persian Gulf is a remarkable achievement. It is also prophetic. Even Italian accounts of the feat are some what confusing. One version is that the bomb ers flew 2,800 miles to strike this blow at the British, while another has it that they flew this distance on the way out. The latter state ment fails to fit the facts of geography, how ever, since It is only 2,300 miles from Sicily to the Island and 900 miles from Bahrein to Eritrea, and it may be that the Italians follow ed that general route. This was not a non-stop flight, apparently, for the Italians say their bombers refueled at sea by making contact with submarines. What 'll 1 ever the actual rang® of their ships to drop ’ their missiles, there is no great comfort here, as far as Americans are concerned. Teamwork j 0f this kind would be possible against us in j war unless our navy could control the sea far from our shores. At present, isolated raids on distant objec tives, even though they have the advantage of surprise, are not likely to have much effect. They can do damage, but this damage can be repaired. Steady, sustained assaults are neces sary if any campaign of aerial bombing is to j have a decisive bearing on the outcome of the I war. Nevertheless, the radius of action is being constantly increased. Our own plans for de fense must take full account of that fact. Parking For Ruralites The Junior Chamber of Commerce’s plan to open a parking lot for out - of - towners ! 's to be commended. A small charge will be nade upon entering the lot and this will be refunded upon presentation of evidence that purchases totaling $1 have been made at any of a group of stores yet to be selected. By this means rural dwellers may come to Wilmington to shop, and be saved the cus tomary aggravation of hunting hither and yon for space for their autos at a curb within easy walking distance of the main business area. Properly advertised and promoted there is good reason to believe the arrange ment will draw shoppers from the hinterland in increasing numbers. Now that the Jaycees have set the pace it may be expected that merchants in other sec tions will adopt the same plan for the com fort and convenience of city dwellers. There is no means of accurately estimating the number or money value of sales lost to down town stores through lack of adequate parking places. But it is safe to believe that the finan cial loss runs to five or six figures. There are many known cases of citizens resorting to mail order buying because this system does not involve the annoyance of seeking, and often not finding, parking space. A parking lot, or several lots, operated on the principle to be used by the Jaycees prob ably would bring a substantial increase in store sales at no material advance in “over head” to the participating merchants. Balkan Problems Hopes that Turkey and Russia will combine to veto any new Nazi thrust through the Dardanelles to the near East cannot help br*, be strengthened by reports now trickling otrt of that area. The massing of hundreds of thousands of Turkish troops near Adrianople is a sign that the Turks are getting ready to fight if need be; the rumors of Russian-Turkish military talks fall into the same pattern. The sudden black-out of Bucharest, obviously ordered in Berlin, seems prompted less by Nazi anxiety over possible British raids that worry over what Germany’s Russian partner may have in mind. • However, what we are getting is still about nine-tenths rumor and less than one-tenth fact and it is obviously impossible to make any hard and fast conclusions on this basis. Re ports from the Balkans, always unreliable, were never more so than today. It is plain enough that a blow-up is brewing there. Outside of Russia’s role, the outstanding question is whether Britain is going to allow herself to be caught napping again or whether she will be able to anticipate the Axis moves. The British, for instance, cannot allow Greece to be turned into another Norway. If Germany and Italy take over the whole of the Greek peninsula the British position in the near East, her defense of Egypt, Suez and the vital oil fields in that area will be seriously weakened. Britain’s task, here as in Norway, is to keep a step ahead of the Nazi moves. This task is complicated both by British scruples and by a lack of British forces to do the job. British strength in this area is mainly naval; she has few if any troops to spare from other fronts. She cannot, in any case, hope to match the enormous power of the German and Italian military machines now poised for action on Balkan frontiers. But, despite the hazards and handicaps involved in positive action Britian cannot leave the initiative to Hitler many more times without making her difficulties a great deal worse than they already are. Many Kinds Of Ballots The Council of State Governments is author ity for the statement that many varieties of the Australian secret ballot, which was first adopted in this country by Kentucky in 1888, will be marked by voters in 45 of the 48 states in the November 5 election. The thjee states which have not adopted the Australian ballot are Delaware, Georgia and South Caro lina. Delaware allows party leaders to distribute ballots before election day. In Georgia, al though a variation of the Australian ballot is provided for by state law, each county has the option of its use. South Carolina still uses “party papers,” each party putting out its own ballots. As safeguards against unofficial ballots most of the states require an official endorsement, printed or stamped on the back of every ballot In all states the ballot must be folded before it is deposited. Twenty-five states require some form of stub to circumvent chain voting, or the “Tasmanian dodge”—a ruse by which one stolen ballot starts an endless chain of marked ballots deposited by bought voters. Another device for identifying the ballot is the initialing or signing of the ballot on the back by one or more judges or clerks. Arkansas passed a duplicate ballot law in 1935. The box of duplicate ballots, which are signed by voters, remains unopened except in case of a contested election. The face of the ballots , used in general elec tions in not identical in any two of the 48 states. Thirty states, however, in general fol low the party-column pattern, and 17 the office group pattern. But it is not so much the face of the ballots which will interest the people of America on November 5 as what is inside. Can’t Take It As the war continues it becomes harder and harder to understand the Nazi viewpoint. For example, a Berlin dispatch announces the Nazis demand a "thousandfold” revenge for a British air raid on the capital, which is termed “organized terrorism on the population of Ber lin.” What, we would like to know, has Hitler’s air force been doing to London for some weeks past? Certainly it has not been on a Sunday school picnic. If its bombings have not been "organized terrorism” we have no conception of what the words mean. Obviously the Germans can dish it out but can’t take it. Editorial Comment CAE PARKING SOLUTION Raleigh News and Observer Addressing a district meeting of the North Carolina Building and Loan League here last night, Dr. Malcolm McDermott of Duke Uni versity suggested that bomb-proof shelters may become an accepted feature of American arch itecture. Said Dr. McDermott: In Spain, in China, in Poland, in Finland, in Holland, France, Belgium and now in Eng land we have seen the bombing of civilians’ homes from the air become a regular method of waging war. If this sort of thing is to con tinue, then man must become a subterranean dweller. Our general type of architecture must change. It must go down, instead of up. What I am saying is not as fanciful as it sounds. Without passing on the question of how "fan ciful” the suggestion is, The News and Ob server wishes to add to it a suggestion of its own. It is that when the bomb-proof shelters are built they be designed so that when no bombs are falling the shelters may be used to accommodate the parked automobiles which now litter up the streets of all cities. 1 MISSED THE BOAT Winston-Salem Journal Hitler is said to believe strongly in signs and omens. For that reason he was expected to make a desperate effort to invade England on October 13. In order to make history repeat, the Ger man dictator should have attempted an invas ion bf England on that date. For it was on Oc tober 13, 1066, that William, Duke of Norman dy, successfully invaded England. And it was on October 14 that he defeated England’s Har old in the battle of Hastings, and marched to the throne of England. But if Hitler really had in mind any idea of commemorating the anniversary with a repeti tion of the success of William, the British dis abused his mind of the thought by showing him that they were prepared with a formidable re ception committee. England has not been invaded since October 13, 1066, and the conqueror succeeded then largely because of treachery in the royal household. Most Americans hope and many are beginning to believe that such an invasion will not happen again in our time. It is true that Hitler has much more effective means of pentetrating the British Isles and waging successful warfa-e thereon than did William the Conqueror. But the British also are much better prepared to resist invasion than was Harold. FIRST FRUITS OF A MISSION N. Y. Herald Tribune ' Germany’s new trade pact with Yugoslavia, ( together with the kind words of Foreign Min- j ister Alexander Cincar-Markovitch about "po iitical collaboration” that accompanied it, may be considered the first fruits of the Reich’s imposing “military mission” in Rumania. It 1 is a small victory on the face of it, to be sure: 1 some slight increase in Yugoslav shipments to Germany, on better terms for the Nazis ] than under previous agreements. The Foreign ! Minister’s cryptic obiter dicta could mean J much or little; they may prelude a substantial 1 swing in Yugoslav policy toward the Axis, or 1 be merely a polite fraud. But it must never 1 be forgotten that the white war, the economic war, is still in full swing, and that on such minor victories as Germany has just won at < Belgrade hang tremendous issues. i Significantly enough, the announcement of ’ the conclusion of the pact was accompanied by < “authoritative reports” that Germany, thanks 1 to the work of the R. A. F., is unable to I deliver many of the manufactured products 1 that form her share of the barter arrange ments. These reports are more than a tribute to the increasing efficiency of the British bombers; taken in connection with the con clusion of the trade agreement, they indicate that the German Army is being used to an even greater extent than before as a make- , weight in deals of this sort. In other words, there is a distinct possibility that the barter system is dissolving into an undisguised stick- 1 up. The rumored German offers of credits j and “paper articles” in place of the goods she cannot supply have only a sort of grim ] humor in this regard. 1 It was Adolf Hitler himself who said that Germany must export or die, which was only 1 another way of saying "import or die.” Under 1 the strain of war production and bombings, 1 the life of the Reich now may depend on Ger- 1 many’s success in forcing raw materials from i her neighbors at the cheapest possible terms. The Yugoslav pact would seem to be an in- ! stance in which the method worked. i This is not to say that the turmoil which < the Nazi incursion into Rumania has created 1 will result only in a set of trade “agreements,” 1 concluded under duress. The same technique may be applied to obtain military concessions, and if it fails, force may be substituted for 1 threats. But it is well to remember that each economic advantage extorted from the Balkans is grist for Hitler's war machine that one German bomber poised on a Ru manian airfield may be the equivalent of * many tons of German agricultural machinery \ in negotiating for Balkan wheat. Thus re- 1 garded, the Nazi troops in Rumania may al- 1 ready be paying dividends without firing a ' shot. *s j t The people have confidence in Congress- J they know Congress is a strong force in keen mg us from being stampeded into war -House i Minority Leader Joseph W. Marint, Jr \ The Editor's letter box The editor does not necessarily endorse any article appearing In this department They represent the views of the Individual readcrB. Cor respondents are warned that all communications must contain the correct name and address for our records, though the latter may be signed as the writer sees fit The Star-News reserves the right to alter any text that for any reason Is ob jectionable. Letters on controversial subjects will not be published. AUTHORITIES TO EXAMINE DARE STONES AT MEET BY ANNE HIERS On October 19th, and 20th, a con ference of historians, geologists and other scholars will be held at Brenau for the purpose of study ing the Dare Stones, which may contain the solution of the prime mystery in American history—the Lost Colony of Roanoke, Among the eminent scholars A'ho have accepted the invitation if Brenau are: Dr. S. E. Morrison, lead of the History Department of harvard University, and Dr. C. E. Drittenden, of Raleigh, N. C., sec retary of the North Carolina His torical Commission. Dr. Morrison ivill preside at the round table to ae held Saturday evening, October 19th, at which the credibility of the Dare Stones will be discussed. Three years ago in September the first stone, seeming to bear on the fate of the Lost Colony of Roa loke, was found in a tidal swamp m the Chowan River near Eden ton, N. C. This stone contained closely carved inscriptions which summarize the fate of the Lost Dolony from the time when Gover lor John White left them on Roa noke Island, North Carolina, in August, 1587. until the massacre of seventeen of the surviving twenty four members in 1591. Among the seventeen massacred persons, ac cording to the stone, were Virginia Dare, the first English child born n America, and her father, Ana lias Dare. The first stone re 'erred to a burial place east of a ■iver at which another stone bear ng the seventeen names would be cund. Jjr. ii. j. Pearce, Sr., and son, Dr. H. J. Pearce, Jr., conducted a earch in the Albemarle country of forth Carolina for more than a ear for this second stone. Finally, n the spring of 1939, a stone bear ng the story of the massacre and he names of the seventeen persons massacred was found near the Sa ida Rive in South Carolina. At he same time the person finding his stone found twelve others half 'uried in a ditch on a hillside ’hese thirteen South Carolina tones in part related to the death nd burial of sixty-four members f the Lost Colony, of whom forty ight were listed by name. One f the thirteen stones carried the lue that the seven survivors were oing Southwest. The third chapter in the history f the stones is concerned with the iscovery on the Chattahoochee liver in Hall County and Haber ham County, Georgia, of ten more tones relating to the fate of the even survivors. These ten stones ;s well as most of the South Caro ina stones, were signed Eleanor Dare, who was the daughter of lovernor John White and the mo her of Virginia Dare. The ten tones on the upper Chattahoochee onvey messages from Eleanor Dare to her father and are chiefly :oncerned with directions as to iow he might reach the surviving :olonists. For about a year the story of the :olonists seemed to end on the up >er Chattahoochee with seven sur ’ivors, apparently now under the irotection of friendly Indians, and ipparently endeavoring desperate y to get word to Governor White is to their whereabouts. The last if these stones read: “Father, sea 'en survivee hither. Eleanor Dare -1593.” The latest chapter in the history if the stones began to come to life n the summer of 1940. Some ele -en other stones have been found in the Chattahoochee River in Ful on County, Georgia, some ten or ifteen miles from the City of At anta. State Police School Will Close Saturday CHAPEL HILL, Oct. 23— UPI — rhe closing exercises of the Insti ute of Government police school in jrogress here this week. Director Ubert Coates announced today, lave been set for 10:30 o’clock Sat irday morning, and Hugh H. Clegg tas accepted as principal speaker. The topic of the assistant direc or of the Federal Bureau of In vestigation and head of its new lational defense division will be ‘Law enforcing officers and the lational defense.” Mr. Coates also announced that ix supreme court justices and everal ranking state officials had iccepted invitations to attend, and ocal officials and police were ex acted from throughout the state. Sverett Is Aonointed To WPA Position Here L. S. Everett, formerly district nance officer of the WPA in this rea, has been promoted to dis trict employment officer, replac ig Wiiliam Ellis, of Winter Park, rho drowned recently in Mason oro Inlet at Wrightsville Beach, : was announced yesterday by L. . Jordan, WPA area engineer. Jordan said C. C. McGinnis, tate WPA director, who promoted Iverett, had not yet named a new istrict finance officer \ Veterans 'I Man About Manhattan NEW YORK, Oct. 23—The glit tering displays that make Fifth Avenue the window - shoppers paradise are miraculously coming to life. For years the strollers from every corner of the globe who swarm the Avenue night and day could, by strict ruling, see nothing but inanimate objects in the win dows. But now the displays have sud denly blossomed out with motion, sound and human beings, and un doubtedly soon will approximate Broadway floor-shows. The taboo on action in Fifth Avenue windows was imposed long ago by the Fifth Avenue Associa tion—the merchants’ governing body—because it feared that un restricted competition for eye catching displays would degrade the swanky thoroughfare to a Coney Island. Having decided that, the mer chants of course immediately set about to outdo each other with spectacular static displays. The leading stores wound up by hiring stage designers to produce exhibits that would attract atten tion from the other fellow’s win dow, and the trend hit a hys terical peak one night when the surrealist artist Salvatore Dali and a fur-lined bathtub somehow crashed through the plate-glass window of a bizarre display he was arranging. » * » mat was as far as the stores could go in that direction, so they plunged into a, frantic scramble for trick ways of circumventing their own inanimate-display rule. A cosmetic firm put a tali, gush ing colored fountain in its second story window. Technically it was action, and there were a lot of raised eyebrows among other Ave nue tenants, but it was relatively conservative and not on the street floor, and would have cost a lot to rip out, so they let it stay. That started the ball rolling Another second-floor establishment smuggled in a life-size scantily clad mechanical drum-majorette that caught every male eye-and got away with it. A department store at Christmas put swinging bells in its ground-floor window, with amplifiers to carry their clanging out to the sidewalk. # * * Finally the other day a big de partment store, swept off its feet by style-show enthusiasm, decided to go overboard and put living models in its window. Then at the last minute it had qualms, so the store hit on a unique compromise. They borrow ed from peep-shows the girl-in the-fishbowl illusion, in which the image of a real person behind the scenes is projected by lenses and appears dwarfed in a globe a few inches from the spectator’s nose. From there it’s obviously only a step—a few months in terms of Fifth Avenue conservation — to putting real living people in the windows. 3 INSPECTS DEFENSE EDINBURGH, Oct. 23— OS’) _ Prime Minister Winston Church ill tracped tirelessly over moor land today inspecting the defenses 1 in this area guarded by Scottish i and Polish troops. He conferred . with Gen. Wladislaw Sikorsky, Po- i iish premier and war minister, and us final word was: “You’ve done a very fine job.” j Nation’s Businessmen Are Planning Larger Advertising Budgets WHITE SULPHUR, SPRINGS W. Va., Oct. 23.Iff)>—Paul B. Wtst, president of the Associa tion of National .advertisers said today the nation's busi nessmen were planning larger advertising budgets to keep step with anticipate d trade gains. A survey of A. N. A. mem bers, including mai ty of the largest advertisers in the coun try, West said, showed at least 56 per cent proposed to 6pend more money on advertising in 1941 than this year. Si:c per cent indicated smaller budlgets, and the remainder were waiting for developments. West’s analysis of Che ques tionnaire opened thin thirty first annual conventiun of the association. The first day was devoted mostly, however, to, technical discussions behind closed doors. Other speakers included A. O. Buckingham of Cl uett, Pea body and Co.; A. E. Marshall, Rumford Chemical Works, Gor don E. Cole, Cannon 1FK ills; Carleton Healy, Hiram Walker Inc.; William A. Hart,, E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co.; J. F. Apsey, Jr., Blai^k and Decker Manufacturing co.; J. O. Carson, H. S. Heinz co.; D. O. Smelser, Procter and Gamble co.; Albert Brown, Best Foods, Inc.; and Harold E. Thomas, Centauer company. The National Defense pro gram headed the list of linctors for better business read by West from the questionna ire re sults. Increasing effectiveness of advertising methods, the farm buying situation, fair trade practices an-’ othe as al so were listed. The defense program, West continued might have sis me hampering effects on both sales and advertising in some I tines. He pointed out that conscrip tion might hinder some com- ( panies by withdrawal of tra ined personnel, while other fi:rms, might have so much govern ment business they could not handle much private trade. “Defense spending or no de fense spending,” he c om mented, “intelligent advertfc dng and sound merchandizing are needed as never before and, if we put the emphasis on in telligence, they will now as al ways bring results.” 2.. ---L High School Art Club Meets This Afternoon - i The New Hanover High school Art club will meet at 3:30 o'cHock : :his afternoon at the Wilmm;*von j Vluseum of Art. Miss Margaret Hall, director of * the museum, will discuss the :wb- t iect, “Still Life as a Subject for Painting.’’ There will be discus: don , and practice in setting up still life and some time will be spent in ( sketching. t SAPID WING BEAT t While it hovers in the air, the i iny humming bird beats its wings f it the rate of 40 stroke a second. 1. rate of 70 strokes a second is equired for its flight takeoff. 4 Steam heat was introduced in ' ailway passenger trains in 18 L. i Hollywood Sights And Sounds HOLLYWOOD Oct. 23—Wi—Ester [ Ralston is a girl you can believe 1 when she says she doesn't care about Hollywood any more. Esther flew into town for a role n “Tin Pan Aliev.’’ It wasn't a oig part—nothing to compare with the assignments she used to get in a ier starring days. It took less than a week to put her impression of the late Nora Bayes on the screen i iust one of the characters of the colorful (in retrospect) period cov ered by the film. She left here two years ago hap pily married to Ted Lloyd, Broad way columnist and radio man, att ar two ventures in matrimony had ended in divorce. Her movie ca reer, once brilliant, had hit the shallows. Today she doesn’t even remember the titles of the last three or four pictures she made oefore saying goodbye. Many a former star returns to Hollywood briefly, coyly eager ; with hope that this will mean the ' beginning of a triumphal come back. Not so with Esther. She's a | New Yorker now. She has a hus band and a daughter (Mary Es ther, nine years old now) and a part-time career in radio and on i the stage. She says she’d like to j come back once or twice a year Eor a picture, now that the air ways make travel so quick, but she wouldn’t care for a return to her old Hollywood life. She's pretty enough, too. Except | that her once-golden hair is no"' ! its natural brown, she looks the same as she did when she was Paramount’s golden pride. [ Those were the days when she ived in that big rococo mansion j n the hills with its big swimming . pool and gardens and neo-Holk- - vood furnishings. She used to I hink she was gloriously happy i hen; she told everybody so. Sk vas a Cinderella’s dream come ;rue: a pretty youngster knowing f> ittle but theatrical barnstorming ind poverty had hit the jackpot in he movies. But she hasn't much movie mon sy left, she says. „ [ “I made thousands of dollars. She says, “and I wish I had some | jf it now. But I paid the Holly | vood tax. It's a sort ol tax ii:! Picture fame. What cost you one I lollar always cost me four times . is much because I was in picture* I think the tax is still on and o )aid by everybody, even the in dock girls who don't get mum noney but are still in pictuies ind known to be.” * * * Miss Ralston was signed for’ ■ole of Miss Bayes on her bum-’ lay and flew right out here wj iut ever knowing how she nap’ )ened to be chosen. „ “But I met Nora Bayes once. ;he recalls, “and I’ll never lotf • t. She told me, ‘Child, you 'ua“ hink much of this now. but =o lay you will. Remember tnm ■verything you do or say or tn.nj ome day will show in your fact. And what changes in Holiy"0 trike her most? , “With these cards (Screen ors Guild) we keep track of „ he things we do during a day. he says. “If we’re detained « he hairdresser's or in mak t’s on the card and nobody - ^ ussed.” i The Hoosac tunnel in Massac^ setts was the first great rat ’ •unnel built in the United ‘ rwenty-five years were i'cCl n its construction.