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News of Interest to North Carolina Farmers
Tar Heel Farmers Are Prepared For Defense -——— + - physical Condition Of Farm land Better Than Since World War No. 1 jv'oith Carolina farmers are well •repaved for national defense! This is the opinion of the N. C. agricultural extension service, based upon the observations and knowledge of its 350 farm and hon e agents in the 100 counties of the state, and its 80 subject ■atier specialists and administra tors at N. C. State college. To support the opinion, the extension service submits the following facts and figures. Througn ueuu uuppiiis pi.# tjCCS learned from demonstrations, and'through the Agricultural Con servation program which has built ,p the fertility of the soil while stabilizing income, the physical ■ondition of North Carolina farm and is better than at any time since before the first World war. Restricted production has enabled aimers to "rest” a part of their land each year, to grow and turn aider legumes, and to control ero sion. For instance, since 1936 farmers cooperating with the AAA have planted nearly three million acres 0; legumes and grasses and turned under more than four million acres ,,f g^en manure crops. In the past five years more than 500.000 tons of around agricultural limestone and" nearly 10.000 tons of triple superphosphate have been applied. About 45.000 linear feet of terraces have been built. And this year alone. 2.927.100 pounds of Austrian winter peas were distributed as an AAA grant-of-aid, the seed to be planted on approximately 75, 000 acres as a winter cover crop. Without income i^oss These improvements have been made without any appreciable loss ■n income. Recently published re ports showed that cash income in creased in 1940 in all phases of North Carolina life except agri culture. Cold, hard figures were used in making this comparison, and State college officials say they don't tell the true story. They admit that cash income from tobacco in 1940 is less than in 1939. But in 1939 farmers pro duced about 60 per cent more to bacco than in 1940: and they used correspondingly larger amounts of fertilizer, labor, and land. The acreage retired from tobacco could be. and was used on liter ally thousands of farms for home gardens and the production of food and feed previously bought. Actually the extension leaders say. the farm people of North Car olina are better off this fall than they were after the rich crop of tobacco last fall. They may not have as much money to spend, but they have more canned goods on their pantry shelves, and more hay and corn in their barns. Largely responsible for the re ported drop in cash farm income was a decline in government pay ments. Ttiple-A officials point out that the failure to plant within al lotments in 1939. when there was no control program on tobacco, cost North Carolina farmers thou sands of dollars in conservation payments. Receiving »i4,uuu,vuv Bui farmers voted in marketing quotas for their 1940 crop, and they are now beginning to receive an estimated $14,200,000 in 1940 conservation payments. All of this money will be in the hands of growers by early spring, or just as soon as they sign applications for payments and the federal treasury can check their records and issue checks. The estimated $14,200,000 in con servation payments under the 1940 program compares with only $7, 319.739.91 distributed in conserva tion payments under the 1939 pro gram. The Triple-A program also is distributing $4,077,205.70 in 1940 cotton price adjustment, and $79, 100.03 in 1940 wheat price adjust ment payments. Therefore, the bulging food and feed storage places, and the near -v 20 million dollars in govern ment payments which will be in 'he hands of farmers within the j’cxt four or five months, should cave North Carolina agriculture veil prepared fob any immediate :mergency. With their soils built up in fer mty and protected against ero *lon- not to mention enormous in :r,-ases in beef, dairy, swine an® poultry breeding stock in the past lev-' years, Tar Heel farmers can well say: “Uncle Sam, we are eady for any defense call!" 4 Heavy Summer Rains Teach Erosion Lesson HALIFAX, Nov. 10—Heavy sum ?er rains taught W. A. Kitchen of Gotland Neck a practical lesson D°ut the value of good soil con ^rvation practices, reports F. W. earns, assistant farm agent of Halifax county. cent* Helds cultivated on the tai 0Ur were not damaged by the stJ' but the fields cultivated in si. Ight rows regardless of the -0IT Were Sreatly damaged. In startednStanCeS' §uH>es were ,0Kr ,‘VIr' Kitchen says he plans cl.f?_ai’l'an8e his terraces and in to n‘s conl°ur tillage in order 4ave his soil. COTTON GROWERS TO VOTE ON DEC. 7 Will Decide Then Whether They Want Marketing Quotas In 1941 BY GENE KNIGHT Assistant Extension Editor N. C. State College RALEIGH, Nov. 10.—I/F)—A red letter day on the calendars, of 'North Carolina farmers is Decem ber 7, date of the cotton referen dum, E. Y. Floyd, AAA executive office of N. C. State college, an nounced tody. On that day, cotton growers of the nation will go to the polls to decide whether they want market ing quota provisions placed on the 1941 crop. The national quota for next year remains the same as that in effect this year, 27,900,000 acres. This will make possible, if yields are normal, the marketing of approximately 12,000,000 bales of cotton. .tseiore the 1941 national market ing quota can become effective Floyd explained, it must have the approval of two-thirds' or more of the farmers voting in the Decem ber 7 referendum. During the past three years, cotton growers have approved the quota provisions by wide margins. The fact that an individual state votes against quotas does not mean that restrictions would not be in effect there if the nation as a whole voted favorably. The sum total of the balloting is added, and if a two-thirds majority favor the limitations, then every cotton state will have to abide by regu lations. Floyd explained that a cotton marketing quota is declared when the supply of American cotton be comes seven per cent above nor mal. By “normal” is meant the cotton usually required for a year’s domestic consumption and exports plus 40 per cent extra to insure adequate carryover. “On August 1 of this year,” the State college AAA executive offi cer said, “It was determined that our supply was not seven per cent abov normal, but 37 per cent.” Although the United States is using almost a record amount of cotton largely as a result 0f the national defense program, the Eu ropean war has cut down exports seriously. lhis situation makes advis able,’ Floyd said, ‘‘a continuation of the present cotton program, so that supplies can be kept in hand. In addition to marketing quotas, the program provides for other aids, among which are acreage allotments to adjust supplies with demand and the cotton loans to puf a floor under the price. "Cotton loans and cotton mar keting quotas are linked togeth er," he explained further, “in that loans are available to growers on ly in years when marketing quo tas are in effect.” A balloting place will be set up in each cotton community where eligible growers may cast their ballots. A grower is "eligible” if he shared in income from the 1940 cotton crop. 2 COTTON MEETINGS SCHEDU_BY AAA New Hanover Farmers Will Go To Gaston For Meet On Nov. 15 RALEIGH, Nov. 10—A series of meetings will be held next week in the cotton-growing counties of the state to make plans for the referendum on cotton marketing quotas for 1941 which will be held December 7, it was announced to day by E. Y. Floyd, AAA execu tive officer of N. C. State college. Newly-elected county and com munity Triple-A committeemen are urged to attend. Floyd said that important in formation on the methods of hold ing the election, and the issues involved, will be presented by dis trict farm agents, field officers, and other representatives from the state AAA office in Raleigh. The schedule for the meetings follows: Thursday, November 14—At 9:00 a. m. in Rutherford, Stanly, Wake, Orange, Sampson, Johnston, Wil son, Granville and Bertie; and at 2:00 p. m. in Polk, Union, Har nett, Alamance, Bladen, Wayne, Greene, Vance, and Hertford. Wednesday, November 13— At 9:00 a. m. in Burke (With Mc Dowell also attending), Mecklen burg, Lee, Randolph, Brunswick, Lenoir, Pitt, Warren and Gates; and at 2:00 p. m. in Caldwell, Cabarrus, Chatham, Guilford, Co lumbus, Jones Martin, Halifax and Chowan. Thursday .November 14—At 9:00 a. m. in Catawba, Rowan, Moore, Davidson, Robeson, Onslow, Beau fort, Northampton and Pasquotank (with Perquimans attending); and at 2:00 p. m. in Lincoln, Davie, Montgomery, Forsyth, Scotland. Pender, Pamlico, Edgecombe and '' Initiated By State College Agricultural Fraternity ; RALEIGH, Nov. 10.—Attired in conventional barnyard garments and bedecked with various items of farm paraphernalia, these top-ranking students in the State college school of agriculture have completed a week-long initiation into Alpha Zeta, national honorary agricultural fraternity. The State college chapter was founded in 1904. Members must rank in the upper two-fiftlis of their classes and be outstanding in character and leadership. Front row, left to right: Estou S. Stokes, Linwond; Clarence King, Laurinburg; DUDLEY ROBBINS. BURGAW ; Jewel H. Davenport, Creswell; and Charles H. Lockhart, Durham. Back row: Quentin \V. Patterson, Hiddcnite; Paul J. Brown, Charlotte; Carter Hurst, Franklin; and Quentin Sur ratt, Burlington. Whiteville Farmer Has i RURAL BARD SEES New Type Of Cash Crop; BIG THANKSGIVING Finds Scuppernong Grape Growing A Profitable Enterprise WHITEV1LLE. Nov. 10.—J. W. Soles of Whiteville, Route 4, lias found a new cash crop that is adapt able to Columbus county, S. C. Oliver, county farm agent of the State college extension service, re ported today, lie is growing scup pernong' grapes and finding- it a pro fitable enterprise. “Mr. Soles received $365.32 this year from the sale of scuppernong grapes off eight-tenths of an acre,” Oliver said. ”Jle harvested 17,276 pounds of grapes and sold them for two cents per pound, or $40.00 per ton.” , All'. Soles reported 10 me iaim agent that he set out the scupper nong grape vines six years ago and fertilized them the first two years at the rate of 1.000 pounds per acre. Since that time he has had no ex pense whatsoever except pruning, which lie does with farm labor, and harvesting. “Many of our farmers in Colum bus county are seeking a new cash crop to supplement their income from tobacco and cotton,” Oliver declared, "and it is altogether pos sible that we might utilize our nvt ural location of soil and climate for the production of scuppernong grapes. Practically all of our farms have a grape vine or two with the runners reaching the round. “If these runners are covered with dirt, they will root in a compara tively short time and may be cut off and set out in desired locations. Through this method a grower can get all the new plants that he wishes at virtually no cost to him. One or two acres of scuppernong grapes could prove most profitable to our growers as a supplemental source of cash income.” Need For Lime Found By Farmers In Stanly ALBERMARLE, Nov. 10— De spite the increased use o£ lime, farmers of Stanly county have just begun to scratch the surface to ward meeting the need for this essential material, says J. E. Wil son, farm agent of the State Col lege Extension Service. Many growers as using lime now that never used it before. This group helped to run the county total up to^750 tons ordered through the AAA grant-of-aid program this year. In addition, dealers have distributed a large tonnage of the material. During the coming year, a rec ord amount of lime is expected to be distributed among Stanly farm ers. Farm machinery should be painted, have all exposed metal surfaces greased, and stored in a shelter during the winter, advises D. S. Weaver, extension agricul tural engineer of State college. Camden (with Currituck attend ing.) Friday, November 15— At 9:00 a. m. in Gaston, Iredell, Richmond Yadkin, Hoke, New Hanover, Car teret, Nash and Washington (with Tyrrell attending); and at 2:00 p. m. in Cleveland, Alexahder, An son, Wilkes, Cumberland, Duplin, Craven, Franklin and Hyde. Saturday, Noember 16—At 9:00 a. m. in Caswell and Durham, r Buck Turns Tables, Slays His Pursuei DELCO, Nov. 10.—This is news! In a thick clump of woods on the B. L. Daniel strip of forest be tween Acme and Armour Wednes day morning, a huge buck deer ran down W. C. Newton’s fifteen months-old deer dog and killed him. Mr. Newton came over to Delco hoping to get some deer hunters to hunt up the large buck and kill him. He said that the deer had been chased by two other hounds in addition to the one that was slain. After reaching the clump of woods. Mr. Newton said, the deer turned back, put the two larger hounds to route, then ran down the 15-months-old dog with great fury. After the deer was chased from the scene the dog was found fa tally wounded. His ribs were, crushed in, a hole was gouged in his throat, and his skull was brok en. He died within a few minutes after the battle. Mr. Newton says that the huge buck is still roam ing about the neighbourhood. 2 t SHORT COURSE TO OPEN ON JAN. 14 Instruction For Adult Farm ers And Farm Women Planned At College RALEIGH, Nov. 10.—The fifth annual tobacco short course for adult farmers and farm women will be held at N. C. State college Jan uary 14-17, inclusive, it was announc ed today by Dan M. Paul, director of agricultural short courses at the college. A program is being arrang ed to include lectures each morning and grading demonstrations two aft ernoons. Paul said that the opening day of the short course will be devoted to a discussion of the agricultural con servation program as it atfecls to bacco. E. Y. Floyd. AAA executive officer, will preside and he has in vited several Triple-A leaders from Washington to make talks at the meeting-. Lloyd T. Weeks, extension tobac co specialist, is helping Paul plan the program. The past four pro grams have included lectures and discussions of such problems as fer tilizers, seeds, soils, plant nutrition, the relation of forestry of tobacco production, and soil conservation in tobacco areas. The fourth annual short course last January attracted 27 men and one woman. With only two or three exceptions, the enrollees were not among the 210 persons who attend ed the three previous tobacco schools at State college. Paul announced that pro»iamfc> giving complete information as to flie speakers and subjects to be dis cussed, as well as tlie cost of the training school, will bd issued shortly. In addition to the Tobacco Short Course, other similar schools for adult farmers and farm women are being arranged at the college for this winter. Anticipates Groaning tables Laden With Finest Of Foods BY JOSEPH S. HUFHAM DELCO. Nov. 10.—Mr. Gobbler you should worry, for your tim< has com^ to die. And, Frienc Pumpkin, we must borrow some 0f you to make a pie. Sweet Pota toes, nice and juicy, heaven know: you’re waiting doom: I can see ole Mammy Lucy wants you for the baking room. Backbone Odor. I can smell you as you're rising from the pot; ant I might as well now tell you, foi the appetite I’ve got, you have such a sweet aroma that I find it hare to stay from around you in the kit chen, out of Mammy Lucy’s way And those fryers that were latei in their births than early ’spring will not see another summer wher they'd like to scratch and sing Neither will they have to worrj over dodging from the hawk, foi already they've been taken to thi woodpile chopping block. That old goose that used to ram ble, squawking 'round, and looking hard, is no longer pruning fea thers with contentment in th< yard. Christmas stockings know no stuffing like that goose is get ting now. If they keep on cram ming in him he’ll be bigger thar a cow! rvnu a pui uuu or ure pjiggic, iuti once squealed where fences ja%v whets my appetite, remember, J am fond of fresh-pork ham. And the nice soft juicy sausage, with some gravy for the rice is enough to tempt a beggar into making sacrifice. Sure! For such a tramg would linger, and would chop v little wood, for he’d have a pre monition that such recompense is good. Sweet preserves that have been hidden, oh so long, to go in pies now show up in such abundance that I gasp in wide surprise. Anc whene’er they catch me licking of! the cake n’batter spoon, or a-tast ing of the fillings, then for sin 1 must atone. INOL SO long ago x umcucu, ctxnj I didn’t shed a tear, for I heard the sweetest gossip that has fallen on my ear. And right now 1 change my meter for to tell you how i1 led. and as best I can remember this is what the gossip said: “Ye old dining table, so long have ye known the sting of de pression that now ye must groan beneath all the goodies we’re long in gto eat. The Democrats con quered, it’s time for a treat.’’ So when it is laden with all kinds of food, I’ll sit down beside it, with this understood, m y stomach’s not rubber, but listen, I pray, I’ll stretch it, or burst i1 on Thanksgiving Day. 4 Preacher Finds Poultry Profitable Enterprise f 10—'The experience of the Rev. A. E. Watts proves that poultry is still a profitable enterprise, says G. B. Hobson, farm agent of the State College Extension Service. This Taylorsville minister raises poultry as a hobby and thought it would be interesting to keep a record on his flock of 130 White Leghorn pullets during October. The total value of the eggs produc ed was $55.43 while feed cost amounted to $22.10. This left him a profit of $33.33 for the month. Home-Made Christmas Gifts Are Suggested Housewives Urged To Begin Now To Make Attractive Yule Presents By MRS. CORNELIA C. MORRIS Food Conservation and Marketing Specialist State College Extension Service With Christmas less than seven weeks away it is not too early for housewives to begin making plans for home-made gifts t h a 1 will be welcome to friends and the family during the holidays. The question of what to give often leaves us in a quandary when the answer may be right at home in the kitchen. In the sugar canister, the fruit basket, the spice box and the flour bin are the makings of gifts that express good wishes in the time and care given to their preparation. Fruit cake and plum pudding are old-time favorites and can be made weeks in advance of the holi days. Other kitchen-manufacturec gifts might be salted or roasted nuts, crystalized fruit peel, mar malades, jellies and candy. Shell ed walnuts and pecans packed ir attractive glass containers make acceptable gifts, too. Colorful jellies can be. made from canned juice which was pu up when the fruit was in season but for those housewives who were not so foresighted, cranberries anc citrus fruits make excellent sub stitutions. For marmalades, citru: fruits are especially desirable be cause of their flavor and pectii content. Oranges, lemons anc grapefruit are now in season anc are at the best stage of ripenes: for making' marmalades. Later ii the year they will have lost mucl of their valuable pectin content Marmalade Recipe The following recipe for citru; fruit marmalade is a favorite anc yeilds a surprising amount of mar malade: Wash one orange, one grapefrui and one lemon and cut into thii slices with a very sharp knife Sharpen the knife frequently. Thi amount of fruit will measure on quart. Add 3 quarts of water t the fruit and boil for 30 minutes Stir frequently with a woodei spoon during the cooking. Le stand over night in an enamelei preserving kettle. Next mornin, boil 20 minutes ahd let stand untj cool. Measure. (It should measur one and three-fourths quarts.) Adi , an equal amount of sugar (3 1 bounds.) Cook rapidly until the jelly stag is reached. Cool for two or thre minutes before filling jars, to kee the fruit from rising to the tor Small globe shaped jars make at tractive containers for gifts. If you have ever had the mis fortune to make crystallize* orange or grapefruit peel that wa tough and hard, you will like th following recipe. The peel, if pro perly made, will be tender and de licious and will keep l'r/.'Sh for days. Wash and scrub fruit. Remov peel. Cover peel with water an* boil for 15 minutes. Drain. Cove with water and repeat the boiiin. process three times, or until th' peel is tender. Drain and cut pee into navrow strips. To the peel o one grapefruit add three pints o water and one "pound of sugar Cook until transparent and the syrup has been absorbed. Remove from fire and dry th* peel on a wire cake rack. Rol in granulated sugar. When cold arrange the strips of peel on ; clear glass plate, wrap with celo phane and tie with ribbon or tin sel cord. This makes an attrac tive and inexpensive gift. Plans for making any of th< aforementioned products should b* made very carefully. See that al supplies and equipment needed an on hand before any of the actua work is begun. For best results concentrate on only one or t w * products. Gather Pine Needles The most satisfactory time t gather pine needles for basket making is in the fall after the; have fallen from the trees. Thi needles are mature then and an of a lovely shade of brown, J shade that always will be t h i same no matter how long the bas ket is used. If a green color i: preferred to brown, boughs o green needles can be broken frorr trees and hung up until dry, al though evenness of color is diffi cult to obtain by this method. After the needles are cured t< the desired shade of brftwn o: green, the green needles shoulc be pulled from the boughs an< both brown and green needle: should be dipped into boiling wa ter for a few minutes to destro; insect eggs. Dry the needles anc then rub them off with a coarsi cloth. After they are polished ii this manner, tie them in half pound bundles and store them fo: future basket-making riei os iviaKe mice uuis A window box of herbs is th< first step toward the cultivatioi of an outdoor herb garden that of fers both gift and marketing op portunities. Fresh and dried herb: and jars and bag- of fragran herbs are in demand in the gif shops. With a little imagination herb vinegars, mixed herbs foi seasonings, candied herbs ant herb-flavored jellies can be devel oped into a real enterprise. When grown indoors herbs dc best in a south window where they get plenty of sunlight. The STA1 IS SECOND IN MILK PRODUCTS Consumption Of Dairy Pro ducts Increasing In North Carolina BY LOUIS H. WILSON, Editor, N. C. Department Agriculture RALEIGH, Nov. 10.—UP) — North Carolina ranks second in the nation in the value of milk products in the households on the farms where dairy animals are kept. This is the finding of W. T. Wesson, junior statistician of the state department of agriculture, who today reported that “con sumption of dairy products is on the increase in North Carolina.” Based on a federal-state crop report, Wesson said that “the state also has a national rating of third in the quantity of farm butter sold last year.” Meanwhile, the markets division of the department is cooperating with commercial dairymen throughout the state in an effort to further promote the consump tion of dairy products. A full-time dairy marketing specialist, Miss Isabelle Moseley, has been con • ducting a concerted campaign for i the last 14 months in behalf of i dairy councils to unite dairymen l in a program designed to boost 1 their sales and exand their mar ‘ kets. 1 “Despite the fact that milk con sumption is on the increase, the per capita consumption of milk is ’ far too low in North Carolina,” ^ Miss Moseley said. “The crop re ' porting service, based on 139 es timates, indicates that the daily • per capita non-farm milk con 1 sumption was less than a pint ; while the farm population con ’ sumed 1.5 pints per capita.” The report also revealed that: ’ 1. North Carolina produced 167, ' 326,000 gallons of fluid milk in 1939, [ of which 111.860,000 gallons or 67 j per cent was consumed on farms. r 2. One-third of milk produced j o:i farms was sold, “thus placing , North Carolina near the top in j quantity of milk consumed on 2 farms as compared with other states.” ; 3. Creamery butter “has beer ; gradually replacing farm-made ? butter in most of the northern states, but this is not ture in North . Carolina.” 4. Last year, butter churned on . farms in the state was more than 1 12 times the quantity produced in ; commercial plants.” ! Wesson reported that “the quan - ify of manufactured dairy pro - ducts in the state has been increas ing during recent years,” citing that 193,000 gallons of sherbets ■ were made in 1938 compared with 1 514,000 gallons in 1939, represent ing an increase of 166 per cent.” ! He added that “dairy manufac i turers purchased 11.738,950 gallons l of whole milk in the state last E year, of which 7,128,720 gallons E were sold for fluid consumption.” The crop reporting service indi cated that dairy products sold for $12,630,000 in 1939, representing 33 • per cent of the total state income 1 from livestock and livestock pro ducts. 4 _ PERMANENT HAY FIELDS ARE URGED i _ i Sufficient Vegetable Growth Controls Erosion And Produces Feed GUV A. CARDWELL r General Agricultural Agent Atlantic Coast Line Railroad ’ Company , “The productivity of permanent ’ hay fields should be maintained at ; all times in order to keep suffi •• cient vegetative growth on the land for controlling erosion as well . as for producing hay. The hay cut . from these fields will remove plant food, which should be replenished , by applications of fertilizers and • lime. Areas where the growth is [ retarded and the stand thin will [ naturally require heavier applica tions of these materials. On fairly productive land applications of 200 to 400 pounds of 2-10-4 or 2-12-4 fertilizer per acre, applied each year, or 600 pounds of superphos phate applied every two years, is suggested. On the less productive iand 200 to 400 pounds of 4-10-4 or 4-12-4 fertilizer per acre is re commended. Poor spots in mea : dows, as in pastures, are best rem i idled by applications of stable ma ■ nure. Because of its value as a ■ mulch, manure is especially bene ; ficial where additional seed is used : to thicken the stand on severly : eroded areas. The soil type will detentline to a large extent the I main point is to have good soil. Basil, chives, summery savory, sweet marjoram, thyme, and pars ley are a few of the herbs that can be grown indoors throughout the winter. 4 „ <« WINTER HARVEST TIME IN WOODLOTS No Better Time Of Year To Begin Harvesting Tim ber From Farms November, December and Jan uary are not generally regarded as harvest months on the farm. But R. W. Graeber, Extension for ester of N. C. State college, says there is no better time of the year than right now to begin har vesting timber from the farm woodlot for lumber, poles, fence posts and pulpwood. In fact, Graeber has compiled a farm forestry calendar which reads as follows: November—(1 ) Make appli cation through your county farm agent for forest tree seedlings to be planted on idle acres; (2) begin the planting of black locust, yel low poplar, white and green aril, and black walnut seedlings; and (3) begin the harvest of timber for lumber, poles, fence posts, pulp wood and piling. uecemoer—u) unecK over your erosion problems, build brush dams in gullies, and plow and mulch eroded areas as prepaia tion for trees planting; (2) crack walnuts for the Christmas trade; and (3) market cedar, holly, pines, and other material for Christmas decorations. January—(1) Harvest firewood for the home and tobacco-curing wood from timber thinnings and cull trees, leaving the better trees to grow into lumber and other commercial products; (2) leave an occasional dead snag for the wood peckers, den trees for small ani mals, and food trees for birds and other wildlife especially at the fence borders; and (3) plant pines in the Coastal Plain on idle acres of abandoned cropland, or on cut over or burned lands where no seed trees were left. Other Planting Dates A continuation of the farm for estry calendar would show that Graeber recommends the planting of pines in the Piedmont section in February, and the planting ot pines, locusts and other trees in the mountain area in March. in a further appeal, the Exten sion specialist says: “A forest far mer must not overlook his mar kets. North Carolina is typical of most southern states in providing a varied market lor many com mercial forest products. Check over the list of possible markets and determine how many such markets are in reach of you, and how many of these forest products you can grow and harvest on your farm.” Graeber provided the following list of marketable products from various species of trees: Lumber from pine, oak, poplar, gum, ma ple, beech, birch walnut, cherry, sycamore, basswood, etc. Poles and piling from pine, white oak, pin oak, cypress, juniper and black locust. Pulpwood from pine, gum, soft maple, basswood, cucumber, popular, hemlock, etc. Veneers from poplar, gum white oak, northern red oak. sycamore, walnut, etc. Handles from asii and hickory. Shuttles from dogwood. Dmension stock for chairs and furniture from hickory, ash, ma ple, beech, birch poplar, oak, gum, and walnut. Furniture, closet lin ing, oil and posts from red cedaf. Brush and basket material from hickory, oak and willow. Excelsior wood from pine and poplar. Christ mas trees and greens from red cedar, pine, holly, and red-berried shrubs. Seedling shade trees from willow oak, water oak. basket oak, and beech. Nuts from walnut, hick ory and beech. And litter and packing material from pine straw. Help Maintain Markets The State college man recom mends that farmers cut timber regularly and systematically to supply material for local industries and thereby maintain markets on a permanent basis. As to marketing methods, Grae ber poses a series of questions: “How do you sell your timber? Do you sell blindly on the pur chaser’s estimate as to volume and quality? Do you walk through the woods and ‘guess-timate’ on the volume a given tract of tim ber will cut? Or do you scale each tree and make a record of the volume? Or, even better, do you scale each tree and mark it to be cut, and then sell only the marked trees with a contract requiring the purchaser to protect the remain ing stand? Do you advertise for bids or sell to the first prospective customer who comes along? Do you sell timber for a lump-sum or by measure after the trees are cut? Lump-sum sales are often good and probably the best sales meth od if you have scaled your tim ber and know the volume. need for applications of lime on hay fields. Where lime was applied at seeding time, it may be several years before an additional appli cation will be needed. “The proper use of lime and fer tilizer will help in maintaining a good stand of desirable plants and thus keep down the growth of v/eeds. However, it may become necessary to clip the weeds occa sionally to keep th*m in check. “The hay should be cut at a time and at a height that will not im pair the new growth."