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The Wilmington morning star. [volume] (Wilmington, N.C.) 1909-1990, August 01, 1943, FINAL EDITION, Image 4

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The Sunday Star-News
Published Every Sunday
By The Wilmington Star-News
At The Murchison Building
R. B. Page, Owner and Publisher
Telephone All Departments
DIAL 2-3311
Entered as Second Class Matter at Wilming
ton, N. C., Postoffice Under Act of Congress
of March 3, 1879.
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stories appearing in the Wilmington Star
News.
SUNDAY, AUGUST 1, 1943
With confidence in our armed
forces — with the unbounding de
termination of our people—we will
gain the inevitable triumph — so
help us God.
—Roosevelt’s War Message
Our Chief Aim
To aid in every way the prosecu
tion of the war to complete Vic
tory.
THOUGHT FOR TODAY
“What are these wounds in thy hands,
Lord Jesus—
Hands that were else so fair?
“Knowest thou not that the Lord who
bought thee
Ever that sign must bear?
So must thy name on my palms be graven
Making thee mine for aye;
Only the hands that were pierced could lift
thee
Out of the miry clay,
Lift thee, and carry, and hold, and lead
thee
Into the Promised Land;
Safe I keep, and no man shall pluck thee
Out of my wounded hand.”
—ANNIE JOHNSON FLINT.
-V
More Power To Bowles
Chester Bowles, new chief deputy adminis
trator of the OPA talks more sense on ration
ing than anybody has done since that pesti
ferous office was set up to bewilder the people.
We can only hope that at least some of the
reforms he proposes are carried out.
One of these is the reorganization of all
OPA divisions, if that is necessary, to get a
little common sense into the bureau and its
rulings. Another is to tell the country more
of the whys and wherefores of rationing. If
he does these things, or even one of them,
the people will shout his praises from the
housetops.
Among his observations which have strong
appeal: “Rationing and price control must be
explained over and over in factual language
that anyone can understand” . . . “The Amer
ican people will cheerfully accept regulations
in wartime provided they really understand
the need for them” . . . “OPA cannot be
run solely from Washington.”
And he is further quoted as believing:
OPA regulations need to be made easy
for businessmen to understand and live
with.
OPA must at all times stand up against
pressures from industrial profiteers, farm
produce speculators and everyone who
wants a bigger share than his neighbor.
, OPA will always imply that a citizen is
right until he is proved wrong.
All this is cheering. It remains to be seen
whether he has the courage and the endurance
to win on these lines. Washington, being what
it is, will do its best to pin his ears down
as it has for other good men.
-V
The Italian Navy
It is noted that, however hot the fighting
in Sicily, Allied bombers are not using the
Italian navy as a target. One commentator
says that “on the whole the Allies appear to
have been almost as solicitous for the safety
of the Italian navy as was Mussolini.’’ And
the reason is obvious. While the Italians have
made as poor a showing at sea as on land
their warships have real value once they are
manned with Allied crews.
There is no knowing now how many war
ships Italy still has, nor how battle-worthy
they are. But it is to be assumed that under
;Allied command, and with such repairs as
they need completed, they could play an im
portant part in battles to come, either for
combat service or as convoys for transports.
And in any case their possession by the ene
mies of the Axis would contribute to Allied
mastery of the Mediterranean, which is stead
ily becoming more vital in the ^Overthrow of
Hitler.
The report is that the Germans are demand
ing the Italian fleet be moved to Toulon and
Marseille and as Italy is still an Axis part
ner the Italians may be forced to comply.
We may be sure, however, that any general
movement will bring down the fury of the
Allied air force and every ship be destroyed.
The Germans are no longer in position to
enforce their demands upon Italy. That power
has been transferred to the Allies. Rome^may
delay and Badoglio may have to give way
to a less vacillating premier, but it is still
General Eisenhower, and not Hitler, who holds
the whiphand over Italy.
. -V
Our Post-War Problem
There is good reason to think that when
the war is won, world trade will to a very
large extent drift toward its old pattern. Na
tions among the victors with rich colonial pos
sessions will again set up machinery to con
trol if not actually monopolize markets for
commodities over which they formerly exer
cised dominance.
Rubber and quinine provide a fair example.
Before the war they came principally from
the Dutch East Indies. There is no reason
to believe that any part of the former control
of them will be voluntarily surrendered. It
is more probable that The Netherlands, having
been victimized by Hitler, will seek to impose
even greater control over both as a means
of recovery from the losses sustained during
the war.
They are cited not to direct disquieting at
tention to Holland but to point a case and
to note that after winning the war and the
peace, nations now fighting the Axis and not
having extensive colonies will still face the
task of winning a place in the post-war world.
Upon no nation will this fall heavier than
the United States, which will have invested
so much of its wealth and resources in vic
tory that its struggle to hold a proper posi
tion in affairs and commerce will call for
great thrift, ingenuity, business sense and en
terprise by its people and government.
The United States is not in this war to
gain a foot of ground or a dollar of profit.
Literally, and despite the four freedoms, it
is fighting for survival. It must be recog
nized then, that its task will not be finished
with the signing of a treaty of peace. Instead,
its most difficult job will still lie ahead. Seek
ing no gain in battle, having no imperial
ambitions, this nation must not only solve
the problem of self-support but the greater
problem of participating more extensively than
in the past in world trade, through which it
may hope to discharge a part of its tremen
dous national debt.
It must not again be caught short, say, of
rubber and quinine, because price levels at
foreign supply sources are prohibitive.
The return of peace will find the United
States impoverished. Its mineral wealth, in
cluding petroleum, will have been drained to
near to the vanishing point. But it will still
be in the best position among all the warring
nations in arable soil, in shipping, in air
power, and best of all it will not have lost
a jot or tittle of its ingenuity and inventive
genius. *
Proper use of these, together with complete
stoppage of the waste which has character
ized its war effort and bureaucratic domin
ation, will bring it out victorious in its great
est post-war task. But it must understand
that competition will be keener than at any
time in its existence. A three hundred billion
dollar national debt will call for complete
revolution in the national economic life, start
ing with the government and extending into
every household.
-V-_
Comes With Bad Grace
Mid-westerners are getting hot under the
collar at the prospect of having their gasoline
ration cut to the point of equalization with
that of Atlantic coasters. Instead they ought
to be thankful they have had too much too long.
Throughout the period of petroleum malad
ministration during which Eastern consumers
have been discriminated against, there has
been no word from the Middle-west to en
courage a square deal in gasoline, no sugges
tion that all areas and consumers be treated
alike, no appeal for fair play everywhere.
On the contrary, the people of the Middle-west
were content to get all they could and let
the East walk.
Now, with greater supplies reaching the
Eastern seaboard and Secretary Ickes at last
inclined to let Easterners out of the dog house,
so to speak, our cousins out yonder are dou
bling up their fists and hurling fighting words
at us because we are to have part of the
gasoline they have enjoyed so long. Their
complaint comes with bad grace, and the
situation thus created indicates how much
better it would have been had gasoline ra
tioning been equalized from the start.
-V
French Appointments
The announcement that General Giraud has
been given command of all French armed
forces with General DeGaulle named perma
nent president of the Committee of National
Defense, seems to clear the atmosphere after
a storrn that has lowered over the Allies for
many months, at least for the present.
The value of the arrangement will depend
in chief measure on the cooperation these
leaders are capable of achieving between the
administration and the military. It is hoped
that it will harmonize all elements in the
French empire, something it can do only if
Giraud is allowed to fight France’s battles
without interference and heckling by DeGaulle.
If there is some distrust of the outcome U
is due to DeGaulle’* temperamental outbursts
during the eight months of negotiations.
It’s Not So Trivial
What are we fighting for? One young person
answered: “To get the sugar bowls back on
restaurant tables."
Sounds frivolous, doesn’t it? With the world
in turmoil and matters of “great pith and
moment” still to be settled, how can anyone’s
mind focus on an inconvenience like this?
Because, we believe, it is inconsistent with
freedom for another to put sugar in our coffee
or on our mush, and deny us the right to
do it for ourselves.
It is an infringement on our fundamental
liberty. That’s what counts. Any abridgement
of liberty, however trivial it may seem, is
another good reason for defeating Hitler whc
brought it about.
Fair Enough
(Editor's Note.—Tho Star snd the News accepts no
responsibility for the personal views of Mr. Pegler,
and often disagree with them as much as many of
his readers. His articles serve the good purpose of
making people think.
BV WESTBROOK PEGLER
NEW YORK.—I am not saying that in a
war against a totalitarian power it is wrong
to adopt, temporarily, in a free country, some
of the devices wnich the enemy employs. I
believe it is necessary and that just how far
the free country must go in such imitation
depends on the length and pressure of the
emergency. In our country, however, some
such measures were urea long before we rec
ognized the inevitability of military war,
against a foreign power. They were resorted
to in tnat emergency which was described
as the war on want, in the course of which,
incidentally, a few conspicuous well-connect
ed individuals of the ruling group seized op
portunities presented by the emergency and
pyramided their incomes and their fortunes
to great heights.
I have been frisking my books for some
presentation of the methods of fascism in
Germany to serve as a standard by which
we may determine whether, in fighting fas
cism, we have been going fascist and I sub
mit for consideration some observations writ
ten by Otto D. Tolischus, who was the corre
spondent of the New York Times in Berlin,
in his book, They Wanted War, published in
1940. I think this citation is pertinent to the
discussion aroused by the remarks of Vice
President Henry Wallace in Detroit last Sun
day in the course of which he touched up as
American fascists, some Americans who had
turned against the new deal administration.
It seemed to follow that anyone who had
turned against the administration was fas
cists in his view.
I will point no parallels myself, but gome
may present themselves to you as you read.
Mr. Tolischus wrote that Hitler’s economic
mobilization was the key to the whole na
tionalist socialist economy and consisted of
the total conscription of manpower, which
Mrs. Roosevelt has earnestly proposed for us,
thus far without success, and of its resources
—“of capital and labor, producer and con
sumer, of men, women and youth and their
co-ordination in a system ruled not by eco
nomic calculations but by iron discipline which
still provides certain paternalistic ‘socialism’
for workers and leaves the limited profit mo
tive to employers to spur their energies.”
Mr. Tolischus said Hitler had created a
gigantic trust devoted to total economic and
military war and that those who would have
opposed his methods were forced to adopt
them in self-defense. When her rearmament
began Germany was in an economic crisis
with her industrial production down nearly 50
per cent and great unemployment. Our own
state of affairs was very bad, too, about the
time we entered the war on want.
By bringing her idle production capacity
and idle labor together through total con
scription,” Hitler wiped out unemployment and
created his war machine. To do this, he
fixed prices on a cost plus basis, and limited
profits by price control and the compulsory
investment in government loans of all profits
above 6 to 8 per cent. However, some profits
remained as high as 14 per cent and the
investments in the loans, of course, are theo
retically sound and are not confiscations or
taxes. Companies were made to invest their
surpluses in war-essential enterprises and
were forbidden to build non-essential plants
or, if permitted to build them, had to yield
them to government control. Another econom
ic measure was the control of industry by
the allotment of government orders for raw
material and yet another was a limitation
on the wages of the heads and directors of
corporations.
The wages of labor were fixed as of a
certain date, subject to minor adjustments,
workers were frozen to their jobs to prevent
shifting, the right to strike was abolished and
independent labor unions outside the labor
front, a subsidiary of Hitler’s party were for
bidden. Virtually all food was rationed, to
the detriment of the living standard and the
prices of farm products were fixed and mar
kets were regulated to compel delivery of
products to the control agencies.
“Workers,” Tolischus wrote, “enjoy a ‘so
cialism’ which improved working conditions
through ‘beauty of work’ organizations, es
tablished paid vacations for all, organized
leisure and vacation recreation through
‘strength through joy’ organizations, provided
labor courts for appeals against dismissal and
honor courts for appeals against insults to
workers’ honor.”
For farmers, Hitler’s brand of fascism re
duced interest rates and provided cheaper
fertilizer anc other supplies and prices above
those of the world market but below those
which they might command in a free domes
tic market in time of shortage.
I recommend Mr. Tolischus’ book to Mr.
Wallace and all others who denounce as fas
cists those who have opposed portions or all
of the new deal program from the beginning
of the war on want to the present stage of
the war on fascism and as well to those who
have been so denounced.
QUOTATIONS
It is believed that the equipment of the
American Army is superior to that of other
armies. This is particularly true of Ameri
can transportation, which has continued to
stann up order almost inconceivable condi
tions.—Lieut. Gen. Omar N. Bradley, Second
Army commander in Tunisia.
* * »
That means I’ll have to upend the whole
two weeks w’th my mother-in-law, so I think
I’ll just stay at home. -New York physician
refusing extra gasoline for vacation trip
No satisfactory ail-avnthetic truck tires
have been built as yet bv anyone. No satis
factory all synthetic tubes have been built
as yet by anyone.-J. p Sieberling. rubber
manufacturer.
“GENTLEMEN OF VERONA”
---
Railways Shaky Link
In Italian Defense
Bombing of the rail yards at
Rome hits a vital spot in the Ital
ian transportation system which
is playing an important role in
Italy’s war strategy.
"In the summer before the out
break of the war, Italy had in all
about 14,500 miles of rail, says
the National Geographic Society.
Nearly three-quarters of this mile
age was state-owned, llany sec
tions of the routes have been elec
trified, with the result that power
stations and power lines supply
ing the necessary lifeblood of such
transport have become outstand
ing military objectives of Allied
airmen.
Coastal Lines Vulnerable
Nature has marked the course
and modified the character of the
Italian railroad system in a way
unfavorable to Italian defense.
Because of the great mountain
backbone of the Apennines, run
ning the length of the “boot,” two
of the three major trunk lines hug
the eastern and western coasts.
Fo-r long stretches they are vul
nerable to Allied naval attack.
Linked by steel along the west-1
ern coast are such important and
already heavily-bombed ports as
Genoa, Leghorn, Naples, and Reg
gio Calabria, opposite Sicily. Cen
tral Rome is less than 20 air miles
from the sea. It is a rail junction
of several main lines, from which
a short spur runs to the little sea
port of Anzio.
On the eastern coast rails edge
the shore from Rimini to Termoli.
Pushing inland from the latter
port, they return to the Adriatic
to join the potential “invasion
coast” ports of Barletta, Bari, and
Brindisi. In the south, the often
hit naval base of Taranto is situ
ated on the largely coastal branch
that connects the eastern and west
ern railroads. For the entire length
of the broad under-arch of the
Italian boot, this minor line hugs
the shore within sight of possible
sea raiders.
The Italian rail system is linked
with that of Europe only by pas
sage across the giant arc of the
Civilian Defense
Timetable
New Hanover High School Room
107 at 8 P. M.
FIRE DEFENSE A
Monday, July 26 and every two
weeks thereafter.
GENERAL COURSE
Tuesday, July 27 and every two
weeks thereafter
GAS DEFENSE B
Wednesday, July 28 and every
two weeks thereafter.
FIRST AID 10 HOURS
Beginning Monday night July 26,
and continuing Wednesday nigh*
July 28, Friday July 20, Monday
August 2 and Tuesday, August 3,
at First Christian church Third
and Ann streets. A 8 P. M. Miss
Louise Siler instructor. Anyone
desiring to take course is asked to
attend.
TRAINING SCHEDULE FOR
MAFFITT VILLAGE
General Course
Thursday, Juty 22.
First Aid
Beginning Friday, July 23.
First Aid
Monday, July 26.
First Aid
Tuesday, July 27.
Fire Defense A
Thursday, July 29.
Alps. Entrances to and exits from
Italy are thus routed over moun
tain passes, through tunnels, and
along rocky ledges where heavy
bombs may bring disastrous land
slides to block the roads and tun
nel openings, or even shatter the
roadbeds.
Especially vulnerable to such
attack is the coastal line that
runs along the Italian Riviera. It
clings to ledges, goes over many
bridges and through literally doz
ens of tunnels. Other susceptible
spots are found in variuos moun
tain regions of the Alps and in
the Apennines, where innumerable
engineering works were necessary
to complete the rail network that
holds Italy together.
'Over the Alps come many of
Italy’s essential raw materials for
carrying on the war. That way
must come any aid in men and
supplies to help repel an invasion.
Yet Italy is particularly poor in
the necessary transport fuels of
coal and oil. Now cut off from
the normally large sources of
coal from Great Britain, as well
I as from oil once received from
Soviet Russia and the Western
Hemisphere, it depends almost en
tirely on supplies from the Ger
man-occupied coal-producing re
gions of Europe. As a result, heavy
shipments of coal from the north
continually add to emergency con
gestion of the Italian railway sys
tem.
Long before the Europe conflict
loomed, Italy had begun the elec
trification of its railway in order
to make up for the fuel shortage.
In 1922, some 500 miles of railway
were operated by electricity. With
plenty of water power available in
its mountain districts, the country
had raised that figure to more than
3,200 miles by 1939. An additional
200 miles were completed in 1939
40.
Coal, however, remains a prob
lem for most of the Italian rail
ways. Also, in wartime, electrified
lines may present an even greater
handicap in case of bombing. For
when power installations are put
out of commission, the effects are
felt not simply in the bombed area,
but all along the line.
-V
New Ration Books Will
Be Issued To Members
Of U. S. Armed Forces
WASHINGTON, July 31- UP) -
The Office of Price Administra
tion (OPA) announced today plans
for making the new ration book
No. 3 available to all members of
American and Allied armed forces
who need them.
Special application blanks will
be distributed by commanding of
ficers about August 15. and appli
cations will be mailed to a central
office in Chicago. Inmates of Joilet
(Illinois) prison will do the clerical
processing of the applications.
When civilians applied for the
book recently, servicement were
excluded specifically so that their
applications could be handled sep
arately and without duplication.
-V
CALLING
The invasion of Sicily and the
constant air attacks upon main
land cities must be bad enough,
but particularly maddening to the
people of Italv must be those pep
statements coming with increas
ing frequency from their fascist
bosses.—Charleston (S. C.l Even
ing Post.
As Others Say It
STYLE NOTES
Seemingly the small Victorian
tidies on chair backs and dollies
under things on tables are mak
ing a comeback as millinery. —
Aikansas Gazette.
COINCIDENCE
There is a nonpecuniary satis
faction at times in the actions of
financial statistics, possibly be
cause our sem e of the orderly—so
olten outraged in Wall Street —
suddenly finds itself satisfied.
Every one has noticed how often
totals of figures arrange them
selves according to patterns, as in
040,046, or 771,771. More than oc
casionally a single number will
dominate an entire series of cal
culations, illogically but fascinat
ingly. About three years ago the
New York Curb Exchange pro
vided one of these strange pat
terns. The number of stocks which
rose, cne number of stocks which
fell and the number of stocks
which were unchanged on that day
were the same. Yesterday it re
ported an equally strange coin
cidence Its f'\ e most active stocks
all moved one-fourth of a point,
three up and two down.
ANOTHER RECORD
Another top record for North
Carolina is its contribution of man
power for the war effort. The
Tar Heel state led all others of the
Union in signing up 1,103 17-year
clds for our Navy during the
month of June. They are part of
the flock of 2,998 taken in dur
ing the six months period starting
the first of the year. What it
takes to give the Germans and
Japs what they deserve these boys
probably have it. More power "to
’em—and to our Navy—Raleigh
Times.
TntES PREFERRED
It happened in Norfolk, Va. A
man stole four tires from a car,
but left a purse and diamond ring
undisturbed on the front seat. He
a.so left a note, “Roses are red.
y'Piets are olue. We like your
jewels—but your tires are new!”—
Stars and Stripes (London, Eng.)
good advice
^A husband writes Dorothy Dix
that he feels like a stranger in
Mr own home He really should
drop ;n there oftener. Norfolk
•Va.) Ledger Dispatch.
BAD NEWS
More bad news on the home
front. Those ducky little $10,000
bibs are becoming scarce, ac
cording to the treasury depart
ment. Oh, well, the watermelon
season is virtually over —Charles
ton (S. C.) Evening Post.
WHEN LADIES DISAGREE
The three women members of
the State Board of Cosmetic Art
Examiners aie reported to have
‘ngaged in a knockdown and
drag-out figot in their office in
Raleigh this week. Somebody's
makeup probably was mussed. —
F ayetteville Observer.
HOPE YET FOR MR. HOOVER
Fifteen months after Pearl Har
bor they found regular work for
Barney Baruch, So stick around,
Mr. Hoover, with your creden
tials and leHeis of reference from
three substantial citizens of your
community. — Richmond (Va>
limes-Dispatch
AW, SHUCKS!
Astrologers who claim to know
l> stai gazing the date when the
second front will ooen will main
tain secrecy when they meet next
v._eek at Harrogate. — London
(Eng.) Sunday Chronicle
Interpreting
The War
BY KIRKF, L. SIMPSOX
The long awaited first ,
crack in the Nazi-FascJt a/1
arCt+ ,°Vir Europe *howed iZtJ
in Italy this portentous war , 4
to hint at the dry-rot defe
beginning everywhere to 2n= .
its foundations. t>'a" >t
/As sudde.i’y as Kaiser w,
nelm’s bayonet-built hoiK, .
cards began toppling about r.
man ears a quarter century
the sinister edifice Hitler aS°J
Mussolini have reared in its in/"4
is rocking now with omei„/e,
disaster. its junor architect
Duce, has gone down in a heJ‘
long crash in Italy. carrvjne S’
him the whole Fascist win*/
babel of rumor of impending It
ian and Balkan defection L
nothing certain except the rZ
cut fact that Hitlerized Germany
is being isolated. y
The day 13 close at hand
she must fight alone an/ /en
full weight of two-front war i8
pressing in upon her from */!
and south. Per western defense
are offering no security from 4
glo-American air attack that /
ripping the industrial heart Z
Germany to chreds, city by Cih
plant by plant.
No Pause
Whatever its ultimate result
tne po itical . pheaval in Italy th Z
foretells her own and Nazi doom
caused no moment's pause in
nan and Anglo-American effm
to crush Germany between the
jaws of a colossal military vise
The unconditional surrender
terms set down for the foe
allied councils at Casablanca
many months ago were being re
stated to Italy, collapsing like j
punctured balloon, and to Ger
many and o.ipan as well Thv
the crash of Italy must bring with
H not remotedly but soon a con
verging Allied sea and air pou
er to deal as sternly with Japan
as witn foes in Europe is written
for Tokyo’s war lords to read for
themselves.
That Casablanca pledge, like ve
unconditional surrender demand
is destined lo be implemented iu,
sooner than Prime Minister
Churchill and President Roose
velt and theii military advisers
could have deemed possible when
they foregathered on French Afri
can soil to map major strategic
directives new bearing fruit
around the globe.
With or without her surrender
Italy is already all but out of the
war as an important factor. Thai
means early ielease of Allied na
va! strength and shipping from
the Mediterranean for use else
where in attack. It means by ev
ery portent that the inching, slow
rr-otion American-Austvalian of
fensive in the upper Solomons and
in western New Guinea is but a
preliminary skirmish for tattles j
to come in the Indian ocean-Paci- f
lie theaters.
And the southeastern sector of L
the Japanese defense arc is being
found vulnerable even now. Real
ists in Tokyo can already see the
doom of theiv fatal alliance with f
1he Axis in Europe. They can
'lead it in methodical America-: ,
sea and air bombardment of the:: !j
lost legion on Kiska in the Aleu
tians and in probing thrusts ;.'
Japan's own island outposts. Tr.:
roads to Jap.n itself are being , 1
certainiy prepared as was tv. J
road to Italy
Carolina i
Bird-Lore
THE HOl'SE WREN
(By C. S. Brimley)
For years we had been can
the Carolina Wren, the “H**
Wren” as it was the one coir
in our lots and gardens and brew
ing in anything that was W
around that would hold a r,e"
and it was rather funn;
of it in northern books and article
on birds as being a bird oi
deep woods and thicket't
around houses at all. In ^ase ,'
the true House Wren of the bo*
was known only to us as a
ried transient that passed tnr *
in the spring on its way nor ,
again in the fall on
to its wintering ground
south. However, in the -' f
change came and how far ;
| go no one knows. Hcu’e _
the genuine kind, grayer an -
er than the Carolina '•Wei
out a white stripe over tne ■
and with a shorter tail, ®
breed in Salisbury and
ed by Elmer Brown a
Hoffman, since then -xe> ^
spread nearly all over
though they may be aDs
summer from the sout
tion. but they arc present . .
in all the larger towns
of the State. Beaut
Winston. Greensboro.
Statesville, Charlotte, ju .,
a few. Whether
disappearance of the C. Ilf
with its ringing “l
dom” song from oui ■■■■,,.„ ■
gardens I do not k . ;
the latter bird hat i
its way farther n< •
The House Wren lays 1. . -'
es of eggs, but nest- 1 I
same sort of situation-. 0 Mf
cans, bird boxes, <
handy receptacle,
is particular. Let us n' p ’
ever, that the two spec 1
along together arid neit.nc. •
ate the other, and so
own neighborhood tiir
have more than held tne

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