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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Is entitled to the exclusive use of all news stories appearing in The Wilmington Star MONDAY, OCTOBER 4, 1943 With confidence in our armed forces — with the unbounding de termination of our people—we will gain the inevitable triumph — so help us God. „ „ —Roosevelt’* War Message Our Chief Aim To aid in every way the prosecu tion of the war to complete Vic tory. __ THOUGHT FOR TODAY A brief period of prayer and meditation before starting the day’s tasks is a most effective way to “put on the whole armor of God.” A day begun with such -a period can never be the same as a day lived without such an initial act of devotion. —“CHRISTIAN OBSERVER.” -V On The Ground With the roads open to Rome, as Allied forces now claim, albeit the Germans have strong defenses to the south, the situation of Vatican City commands attention not only from Catholics throughout the world but of all civilized peoples, whether churchmen or not. The policing of St. Peter s square by Ger man parachutists puts the enemy in control of territory within the limits of the Papal State, even though the square has a slightly different status from the rest of the Vatican. Normally it is open to the public and under the police jurisdiction of Rome. In these abnormal times no one may enter without being hailed and questioned by German guards, the servants of a government which has lost no opportunity to violate church property and murder ministers. Is there any reason to doubt that the Nazis, if only for propaganda purposes, would treat St. Peter's, both church and square, and the Vatican with more consideration than they have other churches? It appears more likely that they might subject them to their cus tomary bloody vandalism and cast the blame on the Allies. Being without conscience, and utterly ruth less, this would come easy to them. And they are on the ground. -V— Poison Gas Use of poison gas by either Germany or Japan is considered improbable by statisti cians of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Com pany. who point out that, it proved much less deadly in the former World war than other weapons. The fatality rate of gas casualties, they say, was only 7 per cent, against 25 per cent for non-gas casualties. Noting that the first use of gas by the Germans, in April, 1915, against French and -- 1 a surprise for which the Allies were totally unprepared, caused 20,000 casualties, of which 5,000 were fatal, the statisticians add that although it was more widely used thereafter, the per centage of fatalities dropped from one in every four in 1915 to one in 36 in 1918. In the former World war, they say, "Ameri can troops suffered a higher proportion of casualties from poison gas than any other army. Of our total of approximately 270,000 battle casualties from all causes, about 72,000 were caused by gas. However, only two out of every 100 injured by gas in our army died as the result. The Russian army had the greatest number of poison gas casualties, esti mated at 475,000, of which 56.000. or more than 10 per cent, proved fatal. Troops ol Great Britain and France each suffered about 190,000 casualties, and Germany and Austria together probably had about 300,000 casual ties.” Although these may seem staggering figures, they are greatly outnumbered by cas l ualties resulting from other type of weapons. In view of the limited potentialities of gas as a military weapon, the statisticians say that the Axis would gain little by initiating its use in the present conflict. As they point out, “Not only are Allied troops well protect ed against this contingency, but they are like wise prepared to retaliate cfhickly and ef fectively. Nor would the use of gas against civilians prove of much value to the Axis. It is doubtful whether sufficiently high con centrations of gas could be developed over large enough areas to cause a considerable i number of casualties. Above all, Germany land Japan know that if gas warfare could j be used successfully against civilian popula tions, their cities are no less vulnerable than those of the Allies. “The Axis powers have shown no hesitancy to use the most brutal and terroristic tactics. It seems obvious that if they believed that chemical warfare would give them an ad vantage, they would have used it long before this.” The United States division of chemical war fare has let it be known that it is prepared to outmatch the Axis whenever and wherever it resorts to gas warfare. As this informa tion must have reached Berlin and Tokyo, it is not unlikely that the knowledge is exer cising a restraining influence in both capitals. At the same time it behooves the Allies to be on the alert at all times. The unexpected may be expected when barbarians are in volved. -V Stop! Some discussion is heard of replacing stop signs with slow signs and also of substituting slow sign for traffic light. As for the first proposal it may be said that Wilmington’s stop signs as now placed are not effective except where they are at the left side of drivers in mid-street parkways. Elsewhere few can be seen because of cars parked in front of them. But it is not to be doubted that better results would be obtained from painting the word “Stop” on the street pave ment than by painting "Slow” there. Wherever a stop is necessary for safety in traffic it should be indicated in such a way that no driver can be blind to it, and the best way to do that is with paint. Paint may be costly and labor scarce, but the pre vention of a single serious accident by this means would more than offset all expense and trouble. Regarding traffic signal lights, it is true that some influence is being brought to bear against them on the ground that the stops they require cause a waste of gasoline. Cars use more fuel in stopping and starting than in merely slowing down. But it is not easy to believe the gasoline shortage is so great that human lives should be jeopardized to save a few drops. Assuredly we could not well dispense with traffic lights in the downtown district, save only by substituting traffic officers for them, and with a depleted police force this is out of the question. It is possible to station of ficers at principal intersections only for brief UI Peax irattic periods. Without lights or oficers, pedestrians, who are hard enough to control at best, would rush into danger, and many probably would be struck down, at every crossing. If any improvement is to be obtained in the downtown traffic situa tion, it can come only with the stationing of traffic officers throughout the day at most used intersections—not by having them there at stated periods of short duration. The fact that this is the one way for betterment is not lessened by the additional fact that the police department cannot recruh its ranks to the full number provided for by the city. Traffic lights elsewhere in the city are all too few. We cannot agree that any of them could be replaced with slow signs without materially increasing accident hazards. -V Why Taxes Are High Burton Heath, the Central Press writer, puts his finger squarely on the reason why taxes are so high-or at least one of the chief reasons. He puts it this way: The Washingtonian was telling, over lunch, why he was on leave looking for a job in private industry, though he now i* receiving from a government agency, the highest salary he ever attained. “I like the work,” he said, "and I think it is of major importance. It is being car ried out efficiently, intelligently and with out polities. I like my associates and my superior. If i find another job, probably U ’11?volve a reduction in my income. But here’s the difficulty: I haven’t anything to do. Circumstances have chane ^ went to Washington a year ago, ana our agency now can carry out its duties with less manpower. Much of the time I sit around with nothing to do—and I m not old enough, yet, to enjoy that. Last summer I tried to resign. I told my superior why—that I didn't have enough work to keep me busy. He was sympa thetic. But he didn’t want me to leave. , he offered me an assistant.” We laughed. It seemed very funny. tiering an assistant in order to retain the services of a man whose only complaint was lack of work. ‘It isn't as funny as you think,” retort ed the Washingtonian. There was logic m the offer. What he really was doing was offering me a raise if I would stay. "Under civil service regulations, the only way I can get a raise is by bossing my subordinates. One more helper, and my salary could be increased. That is why I was offered an assistant.” "But why,” we asked, “is your superior so anxious to keep you, if there isn't enough work? Is it on the basis of per sonal friendship?” “No,” said the Washingtonian. "We are friendly enough, but not that pally. I suppose he wants me to stay for the same reason that he offered me an assistant— because his status, too, depends upon the number of subordinates he has. If i left, he would have to find somebody in my place or he would drop a step in the hier archy, which might have financial implica tions for him.” There are many reasons why taxes are high. Among them is the cost of the war. But multiply this incident many thou sands of times, and there is another rea son. -V War Songs The American Society of Composers, Auth ors and Publishers has risen to the defense of song writers against the general feeling that this war has not produced anything to equal "Over There,” the World War I favor ite. As candidates for high honors, in a trade publication advertisement, Ascap offers "Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition,” “Coming In on a Wing and a Prayer,” "John ny Doughboy Found a Rose in Ireland.” Any prediction as to how long any of these will survive would be foolhardy, but we feel dar ing, so let’s prophesy for the record that only "Praise the Lord” has any real chance of becoming the “Over There” of this war. Ascap does offer one thought that must not be overlooked. "Over There” did not have to undergo the damning repetition with which the radio now kills popular songs. If “Praise the Lord” had not been done to death on the air, its chances of permanency would be many times as great. -V Fair Enough <Cditor'a Note.—The titer end the News accepts no responsibility for the personal views of Mr. Pegler. ind often disagree with them at mnch as many of hit readers. Hie articles serve the good pnrpose of making people think. BY WESTBROOK PEGLER NEW YORK.—I want to use the incident of the indorsement of Matthew M. Levy for the New York Supreme Court by the American Labor Party as an occasion to demonstrate again the utterly cynical and dishonest char acter of this parasitical paper organization. It is, as I have written before, wholly mis named. . It is not American, but European, in method and political philosophy, and it does not represent labor, but is just a political blackjack in the hands of a small group of pushful opportunists. Levy, who formerly was counsel for local 306 of the malodorous Browne-Bioff theater and movie racket, was hand-picked by Alex Rose, the boss of the Hat, Cap and Millinery Workers Union of the AFL, who is also state secretary of the American Labor Party. Levy then received also the indorsement of the Democrats who felt called upon to repudiate their regular nominee. Magistrate Thomas A. Aurelio, because Aurelio had been exposed as a devoted associate of an underworld racke teer known as Frankie Costello. The pretense was, of course, that Levy was a fine man by contrast with Aurelio and that he was a friend of labor. The fact is.how ever, as Rose and David Dubinsky, president of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union, both must well know, that he was a complacent associate of some of the foulest scoundrels in the dirtiest of all underworld union rackets. Dubincky also is a power in the American Labor Party, and some of his unions, as well as some of Rose's, have mani fested the Europeanism of their political in stinct by ordering the members to turn out for political rallies for their candidates under penalty of a fine for failure. Fiorello La Guardia also indorsed Levy, but, of course. La Guardia would, because Levy.had the support of the New Deal and Washington, and was accepted by the New York Democrats under Washington pressure and for no other reason. Now Rose. Dubinsky and La Guardia all must have known very well that. Levy had not only been counsel for a local of the Browne-Bioff mob, but had added his voice to the clamor in defense of Browne at a time when independent newspaper initiative had revealed indisputably that Browne was ruling by terror and preying on the workers as well as on the employers. They knew that, whereas Aurelio's friend. Costello, was just an underworld crook dealing in slot ma chines and crap games. Levy’s gangster em ployer was a brutal enemy and betrayer of labor. Yet to win a political office for their party, these men indorsed Levy as a friend of labor, let nobody tell you that any of these men, or Levy himself, was ignorant of the charac ter of this union at the time that Levy at tended its convention in Louisville in June, 1940, and publicly eulogized its president, George Browne. The criminal nature of the mob had been thoroughly exposed all over the country and Levy, by being counsel to the local union, had a chance to study it. Nevertheless, at that convention there were presented a great outpouring of resolutions of sympathy for Willie Bioff, the old brothel keeper, and Browne’s personal representative, who at that time had been extradited from California to serve six months in Chicago for running a house of prostitution there some years before. And Levy attempted to hearten the racketeers by denouncing as "poison” the expose of his friends. Showing the attitude of union bosses toward one of their partners caught in treason to the workers, resolutions were presented from a dozen individuals and unions, expressing great sympathy for, and confidence in, Bioff. Among muse vvno wired xmoii ms personal wishes for the best of luck in your present difficulties” was Meyer L. Lewis of San Fran cisco, the authorized ambassador plenipoten tiary of William Green on the West Coast. Another who hoped that Bioff would soon re turn to Hollywood, where he was notorious for his racketeering, was J. W. Buzzell. the secretary of the Central Labor Council of Los Angeles. I just mention these indorsements of a his toric scoundrel by way of impressing on you the callous dishonesty of the professional unioneer. It is now possible that even with possession of the facts about Aurelio and Levy, the voters will elect one or the other, rejecting George Frankenthaler, the Republican, the only clean man in the field. That, however, is the voters’ right. -V The Germans understand only force. If we do not assert all our force against them, they will once more interpret our concessions as weakness and will promptly begin to prepare for a third World War.—Prof. Bernadotte E Schmitt, University of Chicago. WEATHER: FOGGIA, WITH HEAVY SHOWERS | Raymond Clapper Says: Freedom Of Air Lanes Essential To America By RAYMOND CLAPPER WASHINGTON — One thing we must nisist upon in con nection with commercial air traf fic after the war and that is free dom for American air lines to op erate anywhere — freedom of transit for planes of all nations. That is what President Roose velt appears to be urging in his discussions with Prime Minister Churchill. The American position is fairly well developed and is supported by the American air lines. The American proposal is not for complete freedom of the air, so-called, in the sense that com mercial airlines could trade any where. The matter breaks down into two elements: first the matter of actual operation of planes, the right of transit, stops for gasoline and service: second, the pickup and discharge of passengers and freight. As to operating freedom, we hope for a standard international practice, so that the commercial planes of any country have the right of transit through any oth er country. With the new long range planes that will come into use after the war, that right of transit will be of enormous im portance apart entirely from whether passengers and freight can be picked up and discharged enroute. For instance, if we wished to open a commercial air line from the United States tu Moscow, whether Russia wanted to allow us to go in there and do business would be a matter of negotiation between Moscow and Washington. The Russians might insist upon reciprocal rights or some other concession. That would be the us ual horse-trading deal between two government. Then if an agree men were reached that an Ameri can air line could fly to Moscow with passengers and freight and bring back passengers and freight the next business would be to ar range fueling stops en route. Under pre-war conditions that meant a series of tedious negoti ations, and often a refusal for one reason or another, to grant tran sit rights. What is hoped for now is an international convention, un der a world United Nations organ ization, by which the granting of transit rights would be automatic on application. Will small countries object to transit air traffic? Reciprocal ar rangements are to their advant age. The Netherlands was one of the largest air line operators be fore the war. Dutch lines would wish transit rights over American territory, rights to gas at Ameri can island fields in the Pacific, for instance. Her interlocking opera tion with British airfelds would perhaps be even closer. This plan, advanced some months ago by Chairman Poque of the Civil Aeronautics Board, and endorsed by most of our air lines, is broad, gives wide latitude for private operation or any other kind, and enables each country to horse trade for commercial busi ness. But fundamentally it keeps the air open for actual physical operation of planes which is the vital things, the one big thing that the air age demands. It must not be lost in a tangle of commer cial air competition. In India war supplies going up from Calcutta to Assam to be flown to China have to be loaded and unloaded several times because of changes in the railroad gauge. Australia has had the same ridiculous han dicap of different railroad gauges because commercial competition started each company's railroad off on its own private gauge. Our prewar commercial planes are midgets to what our postwar commercial planes will be. We probably will be selling them to many other nations — so that no monopoly on type of equipment is involved. The big point is that these huge planes have such range that they must be free to go anywhere — whether they are ours, British, Russian, Dutch or Swedish. To try to shackle air traffic by I he Literary Guidepost By JOHN SELBY “MY FAMILY, Right or Wrong,” by John Philip Sousa III, (Dou bleclay, Doran; $2). Some of the organizations now so busy firing off books as weap ons of our total war seem to look upon anything less violent than an expose of Nazi undercover work as (almost) a subversive book. Yet a wholly gay, wholly irration al book such as John Philip Sou sa III has written can, it seems to me, do more good right now than another rewrite of the Gesta po horror. Young Mr. Sousa may have im agined most of “My Family, Right or Wrong,” but somewhere he has experienced part of it. The fact that his distinguished grandfather, John Philip Sousa, does not appear in the book indi cates that the grandson is not do ing a job of literal transcription. As he tells it the Sousas halted their world roaming eight years in a California town called Chila pa. This was because Mrs. Sousa thought it would be cheaper to take the family to California than to outfit the lot with winter over coats. Once in Chilapa, Pop had a field for his talents — he ran the police and fire departments, headed all committees. Mrs. Sousa developed a passion for Tia Juana, although she drank nothing but beer and little of that. Her refuge was her bed, from which she called indiscriminate orders to her childran and the servant, when there was one. She was the complete absent-minded woman, and made a virtue of it. The oldest girl tried hopelessly to achieve dignity; the youngest slept winter and summer in a rac coon coat and did exactly nothing. John managed his campaign for Cathy with some skill, and more luck; his younger brother was just a goofy younger brother. And there was Red. who attached him self to the family and ran errands and sometimes ran the Sousa a> fairs as well. These were constantly in a tan gle. Mrs. Sousa entertained two piano movers under the impres sion they were classmates of her husband. Pop defended himself against three small Hallowe’en roisterers with complete success. He and Red built a garage, with less success. Pop ran the tennis tournament, caught a huge jew fish, and went berserk. You’re Telling Me Thirty million pounds of soy beans (from which, it seems, al most anything else can be made) were consumed as food in this country last year. This ought to stop—we can’t eat our post-war world and have it, too! ! ! ! Flat stones are used by certain African tribes as coins. That’s one place where hard cash really is. ! ! ! Having spent the last two win ters on the frozen steppes of Rus sia, the Germany army seems bent on refusing more of the same, thank you! i ! ! In a speech addressed to Nor wegian Quislings, Hitler expresses concern over the security of post war Europe. That’s something new—the cornered burglar wor rying about the safety of his in vestments! ! ! ! The moon, say astronomers, is moving away from the earth. Probably to get a better, over-all view of what’s going on I ! 1 strictly on the basis that this is the era of air power, Zadok Dumkopf picks those St. Louis Red Birds over New York’s Yanks. ! ! ! And then there’s the fellow who continues to insist that this can't really be another world war be cause, so far, he hadn’t seen any news pictures of Zeppelins. ! ! 1 A centennarian says he eats four boiled eggs a day. Gosh, how can he tell when it's Easter9 ! .' 1 Zadok Dumkopf laments that if the war doesn’t end soon he's liable to lose his technique as an ice box raider. ! ! ! A science item tells us that a skunk considers a live hornet a delicacy. We’d like to meet the bold scientist who was brave enough to get so close to either one to find that out. ! ! ! ' After trying to shop at the gro cei s and coming home empty handed, Grandpappy Jenkins says that sometimes he wonders if there really was such a thing as a big butter and egg man. 1 ! ! We wouldn’t be a bit surprised to hear Herr Goebbels, one of these days, announce over Radio Berlin that the Nazis have lost the war—according to plan. ! ! i Neutral Switzerland has taught embattled Europe one thing—a high mountain range is worth more than a hundred non-aggres sion pacts. ! ! ! Post-war world, says Zadok Dumkopf, will be far from per fect unless something is done about long-visiting in-laws, spin ach and eighth-place ball clubs. 1 ! ! Tn Arabia, according to Facto graphs, the average adult drinks 30 cups of coffee a day. What a swell spot in which to open a donut shoppe. arbitrary regulations would be a crime against progress. Keep the planes free to fly. Then we can haggle at our leisure over what they shall carry, and at what rates, and from where to where. -V Canada sends the United States out 64,000 tons of bacon in nor mal yeans. Interpreting The War By ELTON C. FAY Occasionally Dr. Paul Joseph Soebbels lapses into the truth. The Nazi propaganda minister told the German people yesterday .Sunday), in talking about Allied air raids, that “we must reckon upon severe setback in the fu ture.” Raids during the past few weeks, he said, have slackened because of adverse weather. Improved weather is only one of the factors which will make the Doktof's prediction come true. First among the others is the steady day-by-day, week-by-week growth of Anglo-American bomb er power. Along with that factor (and in a large measure because of it) there is a corresponding de terioration of the Nazis defense against attack from the skies. The pounding that the ground de fenses take from the British and American raiders blast away \ ti-aircraft gun positions, destroy aircraft dedector units and para lyze fire combatting systems. And in the air, the heavily armed bombers, sometimes escorted by long-range fighters, take a grow ing toll of the enemy’s fighter plane strength. Air bases from which big raids can be launched are being pushed closer to the war plants and trans portation routes of the Nazis’ in ner fortress. While England-based' raiders give the western and cen tral enemy-territory continuous poundings, new bomber bases ap pear in captured Mediterranean islands and follow the armies north along the Italian peninsula. The expanding Allied bomber power, the diminishing German air UCiClibCS aii\A m*. wwomg of bomber bases are existing fac tors which Goebbels must reckon with, even if he prefers to invoke only the weather in his explena tion to the herrenvolk. Perhaps he should give some at tention, too, to recent reports from London concerning a forth coming American - British-Soviet staff discussion in advance of the three-power diplomatic meeting Any meeting of spokesmen i«. the high military commands of the three great powers is certain to. include discussion of use and dis position of that formidable arm of war, aviation. The question of fundamental air war policies must be involved. The Russians to date have ex hibited no extreme enthusiasm ov er the value of the Anglo-Ameri can strategical bombing. It hap been suggested that this attitude is explained by the fact that the Soviet aviation problem is some what different than that of Rus sia's western allies. Russia, like Germany, originally built her air force mainly for the purpose of tactical bombing — the hammering of the enemy's actual fighting line and the sup ply routes at and not very far back of the front. Aviation, used that way. is super-long-range ar tillery, assigned to the primary task of aiding ground forces. Germany, unlike Russia, howev er, departed at one stage from the fundamental policy of tactical air war and built bombers for th® specific job of blasting English cities and morale. The bomber branch of the Luftwaffe blasted cities for a time but failed in the morale reducing enterprise. When the blitzkrieg phase of the war in western Europe ended (because there was no more territon f> blitzkrieg with armored farces covered by an air umbrella' Ger many still needed tactical aviat 1 for the war in North Africa and. much more urgently, for the op erations on the eastern front. And since the Allies opened their all vu'1 a11 ^uznuarament of ivazi war plant cities, the Luftwaffe finds fighter plane defense even more vital than tactical operations with ground forces. Russia, however, has adherred to a basic policy of tactical avi • tion, making comparatively fe ’ long distance forays. Except f one instance, the good targets f strategical bombing have been f; • removed from Russian bases. The exception is Rumania and its o ! fields. American bombers recentiy battled their way over enemy ter ritory to the Ploesti fields whet'1 they knocked out 72 per ecu' the refineries, but at heavy K-y to themselves. It seems possible, therefore, that when the Anglo-American it..' itary chiefs sit down with the So viet army men there may be s " disposition on their part to inn if Russia might consider ador of a strategical bombing progi, -V Daily Prayer FOR THOSE ABOUT TO DIE As battle rages reaping a bar est of young lives, our torn hco.ts turn to Thee, O Father mighty, in behalf of those who to day must die. In loyally ana c rage they have fronted a pagaa foe. In the name of Country and God, they have surrendered the " all to this conflict Now the c: d has come; a hero’s grave on a foreign shore. We pray that h Thine infinite mercy Thou ' take them to Thyself, for gre >’r rewards than earth may bes* Let all their sins be blotted by the limitless love of Thy S who Himself once died that might live eternally. As Thou given these, our beloved ? a and brothers and husbands, courage to fight, so give ther, grace to die. Save them f physical anguish and grant tla an entrance into Thy preset there to await reunion with their loved ones of earth. S' death as in life, may Thy na:.*e be glorified. Amen.—W.T.E.