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North Carolina's Oldest Daily Newspaper Published Daily Except Sunday By The Wilmington Star-News R. B. Page, Owner and Publisher Entered as Second Class Matter at Wilming ton, N. C„ Postoffice Under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879. SUBSCRIPTION RATES BY CARRIER IN NEW HANOVER COUNTY Payable Weekly or In Advance Combi Tjme Star News nation 1 Week .$ .30 $ .25 $ .50 1 Month _-_ 1.30 1.10 2.15 3 Months . 3.90 3.25 6.50 8 Months___ 7.80 6.50 13.00 1 Year . 15.60 13.00 26.00 (Above rates entitle subscriber to Sunday issue of Star-News) By Mail: Payable Strictly in Advance „ Months .-$ 2.50 $ 2.00 | 3.85 8 Months _ 5.00 4.00 7.70 1 Year . 10.00 8.00 15.40 (Above rates entitle subscriber to Sunday issue of Star-News)__ When remitting by mail please use check or U. S. P. O. money order. The Star News can not be responsible for currency sent through the mails. MEMBER OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS AND ALSO SERVED BY THE UNITED PRESS With confidence in our armed forces—with the unbounding determination of our people— we will gain the inevitable triumph—so help us God. Roosevelt’s War Message. MONDAY, JANUARY l,~it>45. ~ THOUGHT FOR TODAY O, Heart be glad! O Hands be clean, O feet, be careful as you tread This fresh, clean, shining day that leads Into the unknown year ahead. -V-— No Cause For Alarm Release of instructions to be followed in case New Hanover county is attacked by robot or rocket bombs should and must not be cause for undue alarm among local citizenry. It is NOT an announcement that Wilmington will be raided. It is simply a precautionary step. Issuance of the rules and suggestions here is in keeping with procedure followed through out the Eastern seaboard. Neither is Wil mington the first North Carolina city in which these instructions, forwarded by R. L. Mac Millan, state director of Civilian Defense, have been published. In making the announcement, Sheriff C. Da vid Jones, commander of county Civilian De fe’ se, stressed the fact that the step was NOT for the purpose of alarming anyone but for the protection of all in case “we should have a robot attack.” Therefore, don’t become alarmed. Remem ber that this action is as precautionary as the many steps taken during earlier days of Ci vilian Defense when the possibility of enemy air attack, or other forms of coastal assault, was considerably great. No one, however, should disregard these lat est eleven suggestions. We believe they are of s.eh importance that to repeat them would rot be out of order. They are: 1. —Air raid signals may not sound. If the signals do sound, follow the rules in which you have been instructed. 2. —Obey the orders of local authority, in cluding Civilian Defense personnel. S.—These bombs may Tall without warning. 4. —If a bomb is seen or heard approaching, dive behind any protection available 'or lie face down and protect your head and face with your arms. 5. —In case of continued bombing, seek the nearest shelter. Get indoors! Avoid the hazard of flying glass. 6. —In case of intermittent bombing attack, proceed cautiously and remain on the alert tc take shelter if necessary. 7. —Do not use the telephone unless you need help. 8. —If near a radio, keep tuned to the local station. 9. —Curb your curiosity. Do not go to the scene of the bomb explosion. 10. —Do r.ot rely upon and do not spread rumors. 11. —Be eaim. Of all these rules, the last—be calm—is the most important. That holds for any disaster and especially so in’ case of the mysterious robot bomb. -V Need No Longer Acute Announcement of discontinuation of security I activities of the Coast Guard here, with ex r eeption of retention of a fireboat and crew, should be received with understanding that need for this service is no longer acute. The action was taken after thorough inves tigation by Vice Admiral R. R. Waesche, Coast Guard commandant. It is part of a national policy to confine such activities to the largest and most active ports in the country, in keep ing with changes in war trends. “You may be assured in this connection that, if future developments rn the progiess of the war should dictate the necessity therefor, the Ccast Guard will take appropriate action to adjust the protection for the Port of Wil mington to the new conditions,” the Admiral said. In bidding these Coast Guardsmen, who have policed the harbor and Allied installations since Pearl Harbor, goodbye, it’s highly ap propriate to pause apd commend them for their excellent work. They have maintained their safeguards well and, in addition, have often gone beyond the call of duty in the interest of community protection. While we do not like to see these fine young officers and men depart, we realize that more important assignments await them elsewhere. Our goodbye includes the best of wishes for them as they continue their service to the country and thanks for their tine work while in our midst. Wilmington And 1945 \ - i Two developments in recent days assure Wilmington continuation of the high level oi prosperity it has enjoyed since Pearl Harbor through the coming year. First is news of plans to reactivate Camp Davis. Next, is award of contract for 15 ad ditional C-2 ships to the North Carolina Ship building company. Word that Camp Davis would not be placed on the surplus property block but instead faces many more months of real usefulness to the war effort came with the same suddenness that marked first public announcement last year that it would be closed. Continuous ef forts on the part of Col. Adam E. Potts, Camp Commander, and a small but persistent group ol Wilmingtonians to keep it open often met with what appeared to be defeat. Undaunted, however, they pursued every possibility, often through disheartening channels, with the re sult that the War department eventually saw the fine possibilities for its further use. The result is that all work of dismantling vital parts of the installation has been halted and it is making ready to receive more men. It’s too early to compare its status with that of previous days, when thousands were in training there, but we feel sure that it will again occupy an important place in many phases in the life of this community and Southeastern North Carolina. “Rescue” of the camp at the last minute should give Wilmingtonians and others in this section new leases on their thoughts and ef forts of making it a permanent post. Built before the days of shortages of good materials, it is a camp deserving a place in the future training of young men, especially so if the country is to adopt universal com pulsory military training. Antiaircraft has grown from a somewhat haphazard service oi World War I to one of the important arms of the fighting forces in World War II. Be cause of the development of aerial warfare, it should have an even more important place in future defense arrangements. Because of its excellent location, we know of no better place for a training center for this corps than Camp Davis. Award of the contract to the shipyard was pretty much of a foregone conclusion when it was learned the government intended to build mn-o • hips. /. *ine mlunation sound management and good labor, commendation of this yard has ranged from the office of Vice Admiral Emory S. Land, chairman of the Maritime com mission, to the men who sail the vessels it has built. The cadre sent here by the New port News Dry Dock and Shipbuilding com pany has maintained the high standards set by one of the world’s best shipbuilding con cerns. This would have been impossible, how ever, without the conscientious men and wo men of southeastern North Carolina who pitched in from the very start to do an ex cellent job. A highly practical man. Admiral Land gives assignments to those who can handle them best. There's apparently no doubt in his mind about the ability of the North Carolina yard to take an order and deliver it on time. As long as this reputation exists, there is every reason to believe that ships will be built here as long as the nation needs them. The contract, plus work to be done on ones previously awarded, gives the yard a total of 53 ships to deliver during 1945. That means full speed ahead for all hands; another year of a large payroll not only for this city but many other communities in Southeastern North Carolina. We’ve reviewed but two main factors that go to make the local outlook for 1945 a bright one. There are several others to be dealt with later. Meantime, dispell all pessimism that may exist and look forward to the new year as another to lay the foundation for a greater community in the years that will follow the war. ~ -V Overconfident It is too early to pas* judgment as to wheth er any person or group should be censured for the German break-through on the West ern Front. Many facts must be revealed, and they can not under present censorship, before the finger may be pointed at this or that commander. It may be years, until historians have evaluated and listed the reasons, before a really clear picture will be available for appraisal. However, even from this distance, some things are obvious. First, lifting of the news blackout Shade by shade, shows von Rundstedt gave the Allies the biggest scare of the war. For a few hours, he was poised to deliver a blow which»might have delayed the outcome of the war for one or two years. Had he reached Liege, as Wes Gallagher, top Associated Press correspondent has pointde out, he might have destroyed not only the American First and Ninth armies but the British and Canadian forces as well. How did he do this? He gathered his troops secretly on a 50-mile front from Monschau forest south to Trier. He selected his place of attack carefully; he put his bast men and equipment there and Allied intelligence completely failed to detect and evaluate his movements. Remember this failure of intelligence was one of the great est reasons for the German successes. Next, our front line troops were apparently overconfident, there was carelessness in pro fessional defense measures. They were too of fensive-minded. The rush through France had been rapid and comparatively easy after the bitter days that followed the D-day landings. The Germans, fighting in territory in which they had years to build up an espionage sys tem, knew more about our movements than we did about theirs. They were well informed r of our soft spots and their local attacks ac companying the major blow on the morning of Dec. 16 often confirmed their previous in formation. Without going into the business of tactics, those are some of the reasons. But of them all, over-confidence was the greatest. This weakness extends today from the home front to the foremost gun emplace ment on the most active battleline. We have under-rated our enemy time and again. And, time and again, we have paid. It is hardly necessary to point out that this is prolonging the war. Our fighting men have done and are doing a fine job. Millions on the home front are also sincerely contributing to the war effort. Eut in too many minds there is the thought that we have the Germans beaten, that from now on out it’s an easy task to crush him. It isn’t. Today is the beginning of a New year. Let’s pause, resolve to increase our efforts to win this war; let’s also give more thought to the strength of the enemy, none to unfound ed reports that he’s cracking up, ready to quit. This frame of mind will assure victory in 1945 more than any other factor. | Fair Enough (Editor's note.—The Star and the News accept no responsibility for the personal views of Mr. Pegler, and often disagree with them as much as many of his read ers. His articles serve the good purpose of making people think.) By WESTBROOK PEGLER (Copyright, 1944, by Kb- Features Syndicate) NEW YORK.—The release from prison of George Browne and Willie Bioff is the fulfill ment of a routine bargain between public prosecutors and criminals who squeal on their partners in crime. They, in their turn, had been betrayed by their old friend, Joseph Schenck. the Hollywood moving picture mag note wnu cuau icteiveu leimy iux mis service to the community. The six Chicago under world gangsters and one member of the Hague New Jersey mob who were sent to prison by the testimony of Browne and Bioff would ap pear to be the ultimate losers as there seems to be nobody whom they can turn in. They lost their appeals only last week. With these two recent developments it might seem to the casual reader that a very bad situation in labor organization had been re formed. That is not so, however, for men who toler ated these two particular crooks still are pow erful in the American Federation of Labor and in the Roosevelt party and are allowed to pose as leaders and defenders of the American worker. And every attempt to enact federal law correcting defects in labor administra tion which made possible their perfidies has been obstructed by the Roosevelt following in the Senate. William Green, president of the American Federation of Labor, used the power of his office to uphold Browne against a group of legitimate workmen in an evil St. Louis case. He sat with Browne in the executive council, or cabinet, of the A. F. of L. long after Browne had been made notorious by independent news paper investigation. Dan Tobin, President Roosevelt’s particular friend, who was host io Roosevelt at the scandalous episode in Wash ington in October when the President made his flippant campaign oration and two young naval officers were beaten up, also sat with Browne in the executive council. I am able to say flatly that Tobin knew Browne’s union was a dirty racket and that, like any Tammany or Hague or Kelly politi cian, he refrained from exposing or opposing Browne in a spirit of live and let live. He let Browne alone because he anticipated that if he molested him, Browne would call attention to some similar characters and evils in Tobin’s union of the teamsters. Browne’s general counsel for the union was Joseph Padway who similarly serves Tobin’s union and the Bartenders’ and Waiters’ union, among others. Padway also is a friend of Roosevelt and has been honored by him. That he could have been unaware of the character of Browne and Bioff, who was, from his youth, a common underworld bum, thief and white slaver, is an assumption which belittles his intelligence. Some lawyers discovered long ago. however, that union law is a rich field of practise and Browne, through his union, was a juicy client. Padway praised Browne lavish ly at a national convention of this racket at a time when Bioff, acknowledged as Browne’s personal representative, had been sent to jail to finish a term of six months for operating a brothel. Incidentally, his status in the jail was aristocratic and he held business conferences with other criminals and with Hollywood busi ness men in a special room with a tub of bottled beer cooling in the corner. adoui me same time, many taitmess bosses of California unions were sending Bioff tele grams of sympathy and expressions of faith in his conduct and character. And Padway’s praise of Browne went into the record of the proceedings along with Browne’s own praise and defense of Bioff. Another union lawyer who was receiving large fees at the time and who attended the same convention without raising his voice against the frightful betrayal of labor and ex ploitation of the workers for loot by an under world gang, was Matthew Levy, of New York. Nevertheless, two years ago, another group of professional New Deal union operators and politicians hand-picked Levy as a candidate for the supreme court and had the effrontery to present -him as a “labor” candidate. Here again, as in the case of Padway, to excuse Levy’s association and his failure to utter some slight reproof to criminality and under world power in unionism, would be no com pliment to the acumen of the man. The presen tation in court of the detailed evidence on which E'rowne and Bioff were convicted and sentenced to eight and ten years, respectively, for extortion, had not yet occurred, it is true. But Padway, Levy and Green all certainly had been put on warning that there was cor ruption in the union and the situation was one in which any man pretending to the title of leader or friend of American labor had a moral duty to disassociate himself ;f not to take the initiative and campaign for reform. The discouraging fact is that not a single leader or boss of the American union move ment took the initiative or any action against these men. Green, on the contrary, selected Browne to investigate racketeering. And when finally, there could no longer be any pre tense that Browne was a victim of punishment without trial, the A. F. of L. did not have the decency to throw him out of the executive council by positive action but eased him out by abolishing the vice-presidency which he held. Many remedial laws have been proposed : none of whr.h, by any stretch of the imagi “' “CHILD OF DESTINY”_ WITH THE AEF Where Were The Tanks? By KENNETH L. DIXON IN BELGIUM, Dec. 29.—(Delay ed)— (.p) —Every day's circuit on this critical front produces many little dramas about the Doughboys on defense. Here was a four-story mystery. The outfit commanded by Lt. Pier re M. Stephanian of Newton, Mass, was being fired on directly by tanks. The question was: ‘'Where were the tanks?’’ They could see everything in front of them. That's why the Ger mans had been unable to move those 41 hulls of wrecked, burned out tanks and assault guns. Hud dled out there in the snow-covered no-man's-land. their steel guts were cold and empty. They pro vided grim evidence of how well the Doughboys had been able to see that terrain every time the enemy Panzers struck. All 41 were useless and empty. Patrols had been sent out to be sure that none were workable or occupied. Crippled beyond repair. They lav there people only by the dead. The wind drew a freezing curtain back and forth. Darkness settled and all during that night direct fire came from the "phantom tanks’’ somewhere out ahead, al most at point-blank range — an eerie barrage. Next morning, an unidentified soldier had a brainstorm. Rearing cautiously out of his foxhole, he stared across the clearing as the dawn's fog lifted. It looked just like it did the day before — or did it? “Hey!” He yelled suddenly, “count those tanks again!” Sure enough, there now were 43. All looked alike, covered with snow, but the two which slipped in through fog or darkness were fully manned and workable. The last act was explosively ex ploratory. so to speak, but when the curtain dropped all 43 enemy hulls were wrecked and burned out. The drama enacted by Combat Engineer Company C was strictly ad lib. However, the critics prob ably would have been pleased. They had a river to cross. In fantry wanted a platoon posted on the heights beyond the 300-foot stream, which was frozen over. However, the first thing the com pany commanded by Lt. Carl S. Cran of Kearney, Neb., learned was that the ice was not quite I strong enough to support a column of infantry. So they began breaking it up in order to construct a standard, floating footbridge. But when a half-dozen frozen GI’s began breaking the ice, they didn’t dare try to bridge the stream in day light, under clear observation. It was a long, tiresome task. Such necessity promptly mothered new invention. “If these floating bridges hold men up on water, why won’t they spread weight enough on the ice?” someone wondered out loud. This was translated into action. Before dawn, the platoon of in fantry had cross the “floating” footbridge which was resting neat ly atop the ice, and the outpost was established. This story should end here, but it doesn’t. The Germans attacked again today and drove the platoon off the ridge. They had to retreat across the river. But when the Germans reached the river, the bridge was gone. They aico discovered the ice wasn’t strong enough to support attacking infantry columns. j. The engineer company had found roll up the “magic carpet” bridge it sufficiently strong for them to behind them. The Literary Guidepost By W. G. ROGERS “Mission of the University,” by Jose Ortega y Gasset (Princeton University; S2.) This is a thin little book that weighs lightly in your hands, but may weigh heavily in your thoughts. Ortega, born in 1883. has been called “father of the Spanish re public,” and he was influential politically in the thirties. After study at home and in Germany, he occupied the chair of meta physics at the University of Ma drid for a quarter century, except for a short time when he resigned in protest at the curtailment of academic freedom. During the Civil War he was opposed vio lently to both Fascists and Com munists, whom he accused of making Spain a battleground. Se riously ill when the fighting start ed, he left Spain for Paris and aation, could be said by any hon ;st man to threaten any right or .nterest of the rank and file work sr. Some of them would, however, mpair the powers and stop the graft of union bosses and might :urtail the fees of union lawyers who pose as labor leaders and spokesmen for the workers. Every me has been defeated by the Roosevelt element in Congress al :hough two reform bills did pass :he House of Representatives. Browne and Bioff are low things who will now be on probation un ier Judge John C. Knox, a shrewd rnd strict man who knows them ;horoughly and doubtless would ;hrow them back into prison should they resume their racket eering. With the other gangsters safely put away, then, it might seem probable that conditions would improve. Unfortunately, however, there ire other crooks just as evil still >perating notriously in the A. F. of j. all to the detriment of the rank ind file and the whole labor novement. And "there has been no :ign that decency has dawned in he higher councils. lived subsequently in Holland, Portugal and Argentina. The adequate university, he claims, should consist of the "higher education which the or dinary man should receive” and under which he is to become cul tured at, in Ortega’s phrase, "the height of his times.” The sub jects are to be phyhics, biology, history, sociology and philosophy. The university will give a man his profession but ought not to try to make out of him, the au thor argues, the abstract scientist or research worker. Howard Lee Nostrand, transla tor, writes an introduction to the essay and divides the brilliant scholar’s sometimes criticized ca reer into five different parts: teacher, essayist, publisher-edi tor, philosopher and statesman. Nostrand describes the “philos opher’s loyalty to a many-sided truth that satisfies no partisan mind” and his "fearless readiness to show his contemporaries the error of their ways.” Ortega urges those planning the ideal university to ‘‘renounce that rest ful light in which all cats are gray.” These noble phrases sound as much like the definition of the good book reviewer as of the good university. Or so a reviewer might imagine until he came upon Ortega’s definition of jour nalist as “one of the least cul tured types in contemporary so ciety.” -V A TAPPING GUY CONOVER, Dec 31. — (ff) — Sheriff Ray Pitts today charged John W. Benfield of near Conover with having tapped the Conoverr water line for several years and stealing water valued at $500 or more for two or three of his hous es. The yak, beast of burden in Tibet, gets down icy mountain slopes by drawing its hoofs together and sliding, always landing right side up at the bottom. JAPS CLAIM 16 VESSELS BAGGED By The Associated Press The Japanese news agency Do mei Sunday (U. S. time) broadcast a Japanese communique claim that 13 more transports and three additional cruisers had been sunk or damaged by Nipponese airmen in continued attacks on a United States convoy carrying reinforce ments and supplies to American forces on Mindoro Island, Philip pines, Tokyo’s radio reports of the past two days, piling up a total of 33 American convoy craft sunk or damaged, were heard by the Fed eral Communication Commission. They have not been confirmed by American sources, so far as the asserted losses are concerned. But Gen. Douglas MacArthur in his communique Sunday (Philip pine Time) said eight Japanese planes were shot down the preced ing Thursday night while attack ing a United States convoy off Panay Island, southwest of Min doro. Japanese headquarters commu nique listed a total of 18 trans ports, two cruisers and one PT boat sunk; nine transports, two cruisers and one destroyer “hea vily damaged.” Four Japanese planes were listed as missing. Domei said that “at present on ly 14 battered warcraft and trans ports are observed in the Mindoro sector” out cf the 30 transports es corted by around 20 cruisers and destroyers reported by an Im perial Headquarters communique to have formed the original con voy. --V BERLIN CLAIMS SIX SHIPS LONDON. Dec. 31.— Ufl —The Berlin raido claimed today that Nazi U-boats sank six Allied trans ports, aggregating 25,600 tons, off the British coast in the last few days. Most varieties of hard cheese are made from whole milk. Interpreting The War — BY ELTON C. FAY Associated Press War Analyst The Allies may find that the last disturbing chapter of the other wise favorable war history of 1900 has its bright pages. In coping with the Nazis’ year end offensive in the Ardennes, the Allies may have done more damage to German military pow er_and at less cost to themselves —than could have been done in a frontal assault on the Seigfried Line. This seems to be the thought of some thoroughly conservative mil itary men. The 15 to 20 divisions that Mar shal von Runstedt shoved through his West Wall fortifications and out into Luxembourg and Belgium have given a target for the Amer ican First and Third Armies and the Allied Air Forces to shoot at. They have destroyed perhaps a thousand or more tanks (enough to equip more than two amored divisions), more than three times that number of vehicles and taken tens of thousands of prisoners. The toll of German dead and wounded will exceed the prisoners many fold. The cost of the Allies has not been cheap. Casualties to the Am erican armies will be heavy. An immense amount of ammunition has been expended. Tanks, guns and vehicles have been destroyed in quantity. (A German-controll ed radio broadcast claims about 1,000 Allied tanks have been de stroyed, ten American divisions “smashed”, and 40,000 prisoners taken.) some military uuiiners in mgn places, perhaps with a tinge of hindsight, are beginning to believe that destruction of the same amount of German armor and men during and after a penetra tion of the Siegfried Line would have tapped Allied resources far more heavily. The Allies would have had to deal with the same fresh, crack divisions they now are battling in the breakthrough salient and that after an extensive push through the deadly maze of fortifications along the German border. This brings up the question of how much was known about the existence and intentions of the powerful Nazi force behind the Siegfried Line. That question has been debated publicly, outside of official quarters, on both sides of the Atlantic. The London press, remembering Field Marshal Sir Bernard L. Montgomery’s vic tories in North Africa and France, suggests that General Eisenhow er’s duties are too heavy and that he should share them. It hints of impending regrouping of Allied commands. These reports lacked confirma tion in London. In Washington, the official attitude was express ed recently bv Secretary of War Stimson who said it is too early to pass judgment either on indi viduals or commanders. Since then, there has been a disposition in high quarters to write the whole thing off as a for tune of war and spread any blame throughout the whole upper level of the Allied Command—in the field, in London and in Washing ton. This would seem to discount the likelihood of a major shakeup. And in this now well-earned les son, military men see a text for the war in the Pacific in 1945. The Japanese, by and large, are an unknown factor. The United States and Britain have yet to come to grips with the main forces of Japan’s land army. The Asiatic enemy has been punished heavily in the air, but within recent weeks he has started putting up fighter planes re: orted to show perfor mance at least equal to any Amer ican planes in that theatre. Jap n’s losses at sea have been huge, but there has been no word that her modern battleships and her latest aircraft carriers have been put into battle. -V 11T _ a _ wearner Bureau Warns Small Craft In Gulf NEW ORLEANS, La., Dec. 31 — (UP)—The U. S. Weather Bureau here today issued a small craft warning for the Gulf area from Brownsville, Tex., to Pensacola, Fla. with a forecast of winds 23 to 30 miles per hour, shifting nor therly on the Texas and extreme west Louisiana coasts. The warning follows: Small craft warnings indicated Brownsville, Tex., to Pensacola, Fla., winds shifting to northerly on Texas and extreme west Louisi ana coasts this afternoon, reach ing 25 to 30 miles per hour. Fresh to strong southerly winds east of Morgan City, shifting to north Monday eastward to Pensacola. -V River Is Raised Four Feet To Float Boat Off Ground COULEE DAM, Wash., Dec. 31. *UP)—When a 3,700-horsepower Navy tugboat hauling gasoline up the Columbia River to the Pasco Naval Training Station ran aground her skipper expected that a lot of water would pass under the bridge before she was refloated. It did. The War Dpartment, not sty mied for a minute, simply notified reclamation officials at Grand Coulee dam 25 miles upstream to open the floodgates and raise tho river level four feet. Three day* later the additional flow reached the stranded tug and lifted her gently off the rocks. -V William Henry Harrison, ninth President of the United States, was the oldest man ever elected lo the office. He served the short est term, one month ,and was the first President to die in office.