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The Star News can not be responsible for currency sent through the mails.____ MEMBER OF THE ASSOCIATED^ PRESS AND ALSO SERVED BY THE UNITED PRESS With confidence in our armed forces—with the unbounding determination of our people— we will gain the inevitable triumph—so help ui God. Roosevelt’s War Message. ” SUNDAY, JANUARY 21. 1945_ TOP O’MORNING A young cleric said to the Duke of Well ington, “you have seen much of India. Tell me, sir, don’t you think it absurd to send our religion there, when the people of India already have so many excellent religions of their own?” “Sir”, replied the old sea dog, “I do not understand your theological niceties. I am a soldier. I am accustomied to obey orders. Jesus Christ commanded His disciples to take His gospel to every nation. That is sufficient for me.”-From The Christian Digest -V Don’t Go Too Far Warning that schools may have to close be cause of shortage of coal is given by Gov ernor Cherry. The coal shortage, which last summer was plainly indicated, becomes more acute. Along with the warning, the Governor asks conservation of fuel by the school author ities. Don’t let the fire get too low. Children are easily susceptible to the effects of low temperatures. Don’t kill a child to save a few shovels of coal. They are helpless; what ever is done to them is done by older, strong er people. If we make the children save most of the coal we may all pay for it in some terrible, tragic way. It's all right to be careful with fuel but a cold school building is a crime. Health author ities should have something to say about con serving coal in schoolrooms, how far to go. It should not be left to the arbitrary, snap shot decision of just anyone. -v Blowing Some Good That ill wind of war is continuing to blow some good to the home-owners of the nation by enabling them to break all records of the past in paying off their property indebted ness, the Home Building and Home Owning committee of the United States Savings and Loan league, emphasizes. In 1945 the commit tee expects a new high in the reduction of nr. aga indebtedness on the nation’s homes to t=ke place, with something approaching $4, 215,000,000 to be sliced off peoples’ encum brances if present indications can be trusted, says Henry P. Irr, Baltimore, chairman. The figure was about $4,090,000,000 last year, this group believes. If continued high level production and high ly paid full employment bears out the predic tion of this new slice off the national home owner debt, it will mean approximately $15, 197,220,000 repaid by this group of consumers since Pearl Harbor. Between a third and a fourth of this year’s home-owner debt payments will be to savings and loan associations and co-operative banks, which on basis of present trends expect to get $1,225,000,000 back from their borrowing mem bers in 1945. Mr. Irr points out that this will be the largest amount they have ever received in repayments in a single year, and that it is nearly three times the 1939 performance. Every year of the war, the repayments on existing home-owner debts to all types of lend ers have been in larger volume than the new loans granted, so that a net reduction of close to $1,000,000,000 has taken place in the past three years although several hundred thousand families have bought homes during that time. Definite gains have been made in the direction of home-ownership, Mr. Irr says, when volume of indebtedness to total property value is taiten mio consiaeration. The committee estimates that at least 190, 000 homes mortgaged to savings and loan in stitutions will be paid completely out of debt this year. Some 100,000 of these will represent liquidation adcording to contract of the loans made by these thrift and home financing in stitutions back in 1933. The customary loan term at that time was between 11 and 12 years and all such loans which have been kept up to date in monthly payments and have not been refinanced or paid off ahead of time, will pay out in 1945, he said. The average size loan made in that depth-of-the-depressior year was $1,891, so that this year’s repayments will wipe out debts for families mainly of verj modest means and on hofnes of unpretentious size. The other 90,000 loans on which savings anc loan borrowers are expected to make fina principal payments this year include some which were obtained before the 1830’s but were refinanced during the depression to make monthly payments smaller and thus give more chance to pay out; and others which have been granted since recovery started but on which the borrowers have been able so con sistently to pay ahead of time since the war that they are getting rid of the entire debt several years ahead of the original plan. -V Proper Principle, But— Representative LeGrand’s bill to allow cred it on state income tax returns for income tax paid to the federal government is based on reason but revenue collection isn’t always so based. Governor Cherry doesn’t like it. It will have tough sledding and probably lose. The governor, commenting, said it would mean a great loss of revenue to the state. That it is a tax upon a tax doesn’t count. Also, that the state has a big surplus from overtaxation doesn’t count. It is said that this money will be needed after the war when revenues ire expected to decline. Of course taxing money paid as tax i$ unjust. The federal government recognizes that and allows state income tax payments to be deducted from federal returns. That is a clear ly recognized principle, but in taxation the only principle at times is to get the money. The sales tax is an example. It was called an emergency tax, necessary at the time, and was passed as such. But it has stayed with us. Why? Because it is revenue, reportedly needed. Opponents of its repeal point out— long after the emergency passed—that repeal would cost the state a lot of money. Who is the state? Is the revenue department the state? Money will always be needed. The state could double all taxes, piling up more surplus. That would be a comfortable cushion. But that is not the function of a government. It is not expected to show a profit. Yet, despite all that, it is extremely doubt ful that Representative LeGrand’s bill will get anywhere. He has at least made a protest that is echoed by thousands who willingly pay the enormously increased federal income tax because we are at war, but wonder why the state doesn’t make some move to ease taxa tion in view of that. _v_ Intoxication It appears that the fight against inflation will become more difficult. Officials of the government express concern over a land boom a stock market boom and other factors that make for higher prices. It is natural when anything becomes scarce, commodities or anything else, that it is worth more or people think it is, which is the same thing. When there is added to the scarcity the effect of more money circulating and cir culating at a higher veolicity, the wonder is that inflation has held back as well as it has. But the memory of the American people is short. They forget the collapse of booms, all booms. Some of them are comparatively re cent. They must finally burst, and do. You don’t have to go back and read about it; most of us saw it after the First World war and again in 1929-33. The more unrestrained the spree, the bigger the headache. Inflation is really intoxication. The higher it lifts one, the harder the fall. Nobody has yet found a way to nullify that law of nature. -V wasting weaitn Among the annual reports made to the State Department of Conservation and Dev elopment was that on fire control, a branch of the division of forestry. Forest fires were abnormally increased up to August, butHhere has been a falling off since then. Little space was given to the report, but it concerns one of the tremendously important assets of the state. North Carolina is one of the comparatively few states which has forest wealth in quant ity. This is not confined to any one part of the state-it covers all sections from the coast through the mountains. In mass and in variety, the state is rich in forest resources. Yet, we treat them carelessly. We slash and burn as if they would last forever. They will not. Trees can be grown but that is a slow process and never duplicates nature in full. One of the banes of our state is eros ion; our lands wash easily; rivers are color ed with soil. There is hardly a clear stream in the state. That occurs when forest and pasture land is laid bare to lie victim to rain and floods. There is apparently a lack of certainty and severity in punishment of those who care lessly set woods fires. That they steal from oncoming generations is overlooked. The for est branch has done well with its limited facilities for preventing and fighting fires, but it requires the cooperation of all the peop le to stop this costly, almost irreplaceable destruction. -V-— No Parallel After reading of strikes in various lines oi industry over the most trivial causes, while millions of our boys who depend upon product ion at home battling for their lives, one lake; words to express condemnation of such pract ices. And then one hears the leaders of mer who strike, describe them as “soldiers in th< arm/ of production,” one not the slightes basis for comparing them with the soldiers. To begin with, the worker on the home fron enjoys short hours, high pay and is his owi boss. If he works a minute overtime, he get; timi and a half or double pay. If he wants ti quite and go fishing, he stays away from work If any little thing bothers him, he quits. I xnij uui’u-'xx x k-J-Lx\IV“i one of hie labor bosses can't get what he wants soon enough from duly constituted au thorities for settling grievances, a hundred workers, a thousand workers, ten thousand workers or fifty thousand workers walk off the job, regardless of the needs of the armed for ces. During all this time, the worker lives with his family. Compare this to the life of a soldier. His base pay is $50 a month, his hours are anything that occasion demands. His work week is as many days as it takes to do the job. He doesn’t lay off to go fishing. He doesn’t quit his com pany if his officers happen to ruffle him. He doesn’t strike. He doesn’t live at home with his family. But month after month, and year after year, he lives in surroundings which no home front worker would voluntarily accept for a moment. On top of this, his life is con stantly at stake. If a soldier disobeys orders, he is subject to court martial, with imprisonment or ex ecution—the verdict depending upon the of fense. The home front worker, when he dis obeys orders, suffers no penalty, and when he strikes, is in most cases actually rewarded by higher wages or some other device to in duce him to return to work. The least one can say is that the term "sold iers in the army of production” is a misnomer that any honest workman should shy away from, because his activity bears not the slight est resemblance to the activity of a soldier. -V In The Nation ~5 By ARTHUR KROCK In the New York Times WASHINGTON,—The Russian armies are at Germany’s eastern gates, and at her west portals French forces are advancing with those of the Americans and the British. French assistance is limited by several factors, among these the Anglo-American military decision that it cannot divert to the French anything like the number of combat airplanes and am munition and artillery units which they have been seeking and stand ready to employ. But the growing contribution of both these Allied nations is much in the mind of Washington, and interest is very great in what the Presi dent, Prime Minister Churchill and Marshal Stalin may soon decide toward integrating that contribution. The French, it is understood, would also like to play a part in the Pacific naval war and, with equipment furnished for several of their fine vessels, could probably take a squad ron to sea. Whether or not this is arranged, it is clear that the larger the part the French can play in the war against Germany and Japan, the more authority there will be be hind their greater aspirations. The principle that France shall be a partner in the policing of Germany seems to have been conceded. And in the course of the next few weeks it will be known whether General de Gaulle will have the part in the forthcoming meeting of the chiefs of the three great Allied states which many officials in those states think should be his. This sentiment, according to reports, cer tainly exists in Moscow. .And the published statement recently of Georges Bidault, French Foreign Minister, supporting Russia’s territor ial policy toward Poland will surely not re duce it. But the United States and Great Brit ain still recognize the Polish Government in London, which opposes the territoriel changes. And this situation has raised doubt here that the President and Mr. Churchill would wel come the equal Allied division on Poland that would be created if General de Gaulle attends the conference and Marshal Stalin brings up the issue. Without him, though somewhat on a technical basis, the lineup would be two to one against a territorial adjustment to which recognized Polish authorities do not as spnt But there is another expansion of the French sphere of influence and activity in the war which could be made at the meeting without the presence of General de Gaulle and without progress on the Polish question. Allied com bat strategy against the Axis is directed from Washington by the Combined Chiefs of Staff, a military group which is exclusively Anglo American. One obstacle to including Russian representation is that nation's neutrality with Japan. But France is in the same boat with the Americans and the British in both the Atlantic and the Pacific combat areas, and therefore this impediment to adding the French to the Combined Chiefs does not exist. It has been favorable discussed in some quarters since the liberation of France. But it would have to be approved by the President and the Prime Minister before French army and navy men could be added to the group. That, if Russia waists to be included, would seem to require taking both steps at the same time. Some of the President’s advisers, before the liberation of France and the resurgence of her fighting forces, urged him to invite the Rus sians to join the Combined Chiefs. The plan proposed was that the Russians participate only in the evolution of European strategy be cause their nation is not at war with Japan. The objections raised were that this separa tion is not feasible, that the remote control from Moscow would dilute and delay the Rus sian contribution and that until they acquaint the British and Americans with their military plans much more intemately than at present it must be assumed that they are generally uninterested in joining the board, or find the imDlied obligation greater than the likely ad vantages. At any rate; no Russians are members of the Combined Chiefs as yet, even of a com partmented European division. But despite this fact, and the force of the objections that were offered to the suggestion that they be come members, the topic persists here, in tensified in the last few days by the triumphs of the Russian armies. If nothing comes of the proposal at the three-power meeting, the discussion will subside again. But it seems to have nine lives at least, and it has died only three times. Should the French become larger partners in Allied strategy, the next incarna tion will come quite soon. Senator Vandenberg’s program for the solu tion of current Allied political differences would, if acted upon, seem to insure that both the Russians and the French would be invited to join the Combined Chiefs and that Russia would not decline. He proposed that the United States, by action of the Senate, inform our : allies that, in combination, with them, we will ■ enter upon treaty obligations to demilitarize Germany and Japan, and keep them so. He proposed further that the Senate at the same ; time formally delegate to the President the l power tc use our armed forces for this pur , pose to the extent, on the occasions and in , the ways he may elect. The President has not discouraged the ten • der, and conceivably he might—after discuss E ing the matter with Mr. Churchill an(j M_ NJCjVVO. vv ~ ~ ’_- _ I-“HAND OF DESTINY”__|. WITH THE AEF: Yanks Operate Trains On Luzon: By ELMONT WAITE DAGUPAN, Luzon, Jan. 20.—(A>)— The first steam locomotive running in the Luzon invasion area made a round trip from Dagupan to San Fabian ten miles this afternoon. Lt. Ferdie Rushfeldt, of Grand Forks, N. D., a former Great Northern railroader, put Tommy Star, a Filipino engineer, at the throttle for the inaugural run. Pvt. F. Francis Hall, of Galla tin, Pa., former Pennsylvania rail roader, was the brakeman for the six-car train—a train that symbo lizes for Gen. Douglas MacArthur a quick, efficient method of sup plying troops when they advance as far as the Clark Field area about 50 miles on an airline north of Manila. Rushfeldt, superintendent of mo tive power, issued knives to sever al Filipinos who have been stand ing guard nightly against any pos sible infiltrating Japanese, while repairs to the locomotive were rushed. A single Japanese tried to reach the locomotive one night. He escaped although pursued by bare footed pistol - firing officers. Lt. Col. Andrew D. Chaffin, of the headquarters enginering section, (whose wife lives in Bluefield, W. Va.) said three more locomotives and a hundred additional cars have been discovered apparently undam aged but very near the Japanese lines. They are being guarded close ly until put into service. When two more bridges are re paired it will give 50 miles of rail road to use on the San Fabian Dagupan run southeast toward Ma nila. “Within three weeks we will have a hell of a lot of railroad run ning,” said Chaffin. Although the army is operating the railroad most of the operational jobs will be held by Filipino civil ian railroaders. "We have some oil burning loco motives and some diesels coming from the United States,’’ Chaffin added. "All we found here were older than tlje hills but still running. The railroad track is three feet six inches wide as compared to our American track of four feet inches and the rolling stock here uses British-type couplings which make it difficult to use our cars. "Either we will have to build especially for the Philippines or borrow from Australia.” “Old 171” as she started her first run today had the name plate brightly polished. It said "Ameri can” and the date "1921.” "The supply trains will not only save thousands of army trucks,” said Chaffin, "but will also save the roads. Our trucks hammer up the roads pretty fast you know.’^ Great Britian Prepared To Re-enter Trade Fight By JOHN A. PARRIS, JR. BRISTOL, England, Jan. 20.—12P) —Britain advised the economic world today that she was prepared to enter the fight for overseas trade on a big scale as soon as Germany is defeated. Lord Woolton, minister of recon struction, urged at a meeting of Brit'sh businessmen that they seek overseas trade immediately after Germany s fall rather than concen trate entirely on meeting needs at home. He said the government was ready to increase its appropriation for backing export trade from $300 000.000 to $800,000,000 and that some restrictions on exports would be lifted soon. In a plea to businessmen to look ahead, Woolton said that after the end of the war with Germany “there v/ill be a strong temptation to snatch a quick profit in the sell er’s market while trade is brisk.” “The world abroad is also hun gry for our products,’’ he said, “and we must not tempt our cus tomers overseas to find other sources of supply.” Although the British government has pledged “full employment’’ for the postwar period, the minister contmued. the nation now is con fronted with a manpower shortage that is likely to continue for some time after the European war. “We estimate,’’ he said, “that even one year after the war in Eu rope more than haif the labor now engaged in munitions production will still be on war work. Taken in conjunction with the large num ber who will still be in the forces fighiing the war against Japan, this means a substantial continuing shortage of manpower to meet the growing demands of civil industry and the urgent work of reconstruc tion.” Outlining the progress of govern mental contacts with industry on problems of postwar trade, Wool ton said that since last July 1, 512 exit permits had been granted to businessmen for foreign travel. He disclosed that government de partments were making studies of overseas markets and that reports on economic conditions in 26 coun tries weie near completion. “It is our intention,” she said, “to employ a large number of special marketing officers among our official r epresentatives abroad.” -V modification Uf Italy s Armistice To Be Sought ROME, Jan. 20. — (/?)— Alberto Tarchkni. Italy’s new ambassador to the United States, said today that his first task in Washington would be to seek modification of Italy’s armistice terms and acceptance of Italy as a full member of the Unit ed Nations. The terms under which Italy made peace with the United Na tions, he asserted, have made solu tions of the nation’s economic and political problems more difficult. “The United States alone can give Italy substantial help in recon struction after the war,” Tarchiani said, “because the rest of the United Nations will have a big job helping themselves.” Increase In Auto Tag Sales Reported Here Sales of 1945 State license plates in the Wilmington office of the Carolina Motor club show an in crease of 881 over the same period last year, with sales to date equal ing 13,527 as compared with 12,646 during 1944, Minnie A. Payne, local manager, said yesterday. Wilmington’s city license plate sales are 299 ahead of las: year’s, with 3,203 plates sold tc date as compared with 2,904 for the same period last year, she revealed -V NAZI BOATS ARRIVE STOCKHOLM, Jan. 20. — (JP) — Approximately 175 German “Sturmbootz,” explosive laden sur face craft, arrived in Norway two weeks ago and were sent northward by rail, the Norwegian legation reported today The boats presum ably are intended to repel any at tempted Allied invasion Stalin—return with a recommenda tion to the Senate that it carry out Mr. Vandenberg’s suggestion. This would be taken to mean it had be come the official solution of the problems to which it \vas address ed. The next obvious move would be to associate the Russians and the French in Allied military stra teby as closely as the Americans and the British are now. CANADIANS ATTACK SENIO BRIDGEHEAD ROME, Jan. 20—(UP)—Canadian Infantry troops, supported by tanks and self-propelled guns, attacked the German bridgehead on the east bank of the Senio river in the Fusignano area and succeeded in capturing and holding a group of buildings against a stiff counter attack, allied headquarters announ ced today. The veteran Eight Army units rushed the enemy strong point but were forced back by fiercely resisting Germans. Surging for ward again tHey drove the Ger mans out. Today's headquarters communi que said only that “activity on the Fifth and Eighth Army fronts has been limited to patrols.’’ Tactical Air Force planes attack ed enemy communications and road and rail traffic in the Po val ley. Light bombers dropped sup plies to allied troops. Coastal air craft struck at shipp.ng in both the northern Adriatic and the Li gurian seas. Five planes were mis sing from the day's approximately 900 sorties, an air communique an nounced. -V Japs Plan Permanent Plane Raid Shelters WASHINGTON. Jan. 20—UP) — Japan, tightening her internal structure against the growing stress of wrar, announced today a 2,000,000,000 yen ($460,000,000) pro gram to provide permanent under ground air raid shelters for key government offices, and stricter control over the populations of ma jor industrial centers subject to air attack. Japanese Domei agency dis pacthes recorded by the federal communications commission said the cabinet of Premier Kuniaki Koiso, target of increasing criti cism for failure to adopt drastic measures, approved the program , Friday. --V—-— *78 AIR VICTORIES ROME. Jan. 20. — pP)— A total of 478 air victories has been mark ed up for the 325th Mustang group, commanded by Col. Ernes. H. Be verley. Laurinburg, N. C The group has completed ite 400th mis sion. I Interpreting The War By KIRKE L. SIMPSON Associated Press V,ar Analvo The Russian winter offen? lominates the war news 0f"'--' vorld this week end. ' '* Reaching from the Baltic to ft. Danube, it outmodes every p...“' ius operation of this or any o-'i var in size, power and speed’W It holds uncalculable peter’-i; ies despite official Allied rel-"' ;ance to ascribe to ii ye-L oilities for bringing an early :o the war in Europe For th-t reason it overshadow? even •'IV impending new Churchill-R00* velt-Stalin meeting, or the air.az ing spectacle of Japanese fail'.r’ for many days to muster rn",e than token resistance to Mac A r thur's power-laden invasion 0f ' zon of to react effecivtly to Adrao ral Halsey's surface and E sweeps of the South China Se Even the formal recapitulation c-f < the battle of the Belgian bulge bv General Eisenhower's headquar. I ters, disclosing that the Nazi ganJ, ! ble “has not seriously affected our own plans and preparations for fq. j ture operations,’’ took a secondary i news rating against the back ground of the Russian drive to end uic wcu. Whether the Nazi high command had sought to evade a total dis aster in the east by a quick and deep retreat in the face of the Red army onslaught in Poland or been caught to extended to check the Russian juggernaut was still uncertain. There was no doubt at the week end, however, that every eastern gateway to Berlin from the upper ~ Oder valley to the Baltic coastal I plains was being menaced by the I Russians some of them like the f Breslau and Pozan passes, at pe.. ; ilously close range. Day by day the victory guns of Moscow boomed f ear-shattering salutes to new Red army successes. Nazi evacuation of the Slovakian hump was reported by Berlin a; the Russians drove beyond captur- > ed Krakow to »ever its communi- i cation life lines and outflank the 1 vital industrial heart of German j Silesia now in sound of Russian guns. It was already outflanked I from the north by Russian capture of Czestochowa. There seemed lit- | tie prospect that the surging Red ( armies on the southern wing of the offensive could be brought to fc a stand short of the Vah and Oder | rallies, if there. a week the two main Russian Vis- I tula bridgehead drives had been I welded into a single massive sal- I lent reaching clear across Poland, I Northwest of recaptured Warsaw I other Red forces were sever.- I league botting their way down the I Warsaw-Danzig railway and flank-1 ing highways toward a trio of cr'-M ical German communication hubs* upon which contact between East® Prussia and the rest of the Heidi ■ depends. ■ In the west, crushing losses in- 1 flicted on the Nazis in the Bel- m gian bulge battle as revealed by I Eisenhower's headquarters went I far to justify the indicated belie! I of his staff that the foe had bee:; I stripped of the means of renew- I ing his counter attack anywhere I on a major scale There was del;- I nite confirmation, too, of the a;- I sertion that while the German I gamble in Belgium had bought a I little time at shcoking cost in cas- t ualties, it had not materially de- I laved British-American plans for | renewing the assault on the Sief- | fried line to match Russian pres sure in the east. -V PKEm rKtfcuUM STEPS ADVANCED NEW YORK, Jan. 20 — itTP: First steps have been ’skts ® | ward greater press freed® throughout the world in the a' herence by 12 foreign govern- 1 ments to the principle of “freem" of the news”, Hugh Daiilie. dent of the United Press, sal- ■ tonight. Baillie discussed means e. y couraging a maximum flow of ne'-'S among nations in the r.:< yj series of programs thled "be- - , victory” which are being broaden- 1* by local stations from c coast as a presentation r,f y y.f: world wide broadcasting :our.d*-U and the Carnegie Endowment 'nternational Peace , He described the practical sk g by which "freedom of tr.c- ne g could be encouraged “As I see it.” he said “freed® to compete in gather:; p'y!.| erywhere and freedom : com?^ in distributing that nev 3 want it calls for four basic c litions. First, news sou res ? ■ ^ icularly otficial sources, competitively open to a!! aerV;;li, second, transmission facilit es co-_ oetitively available to a: *'• 'i-,': rates. Third, a minimum ■ - regulations of the flow o: y... tself. Fourth, ail newspaPy hroughout the world to ■ '4 :ess to all possible sources tews.” . , He explained that th s :Jes •- -7, lew, that it is someth rig ‘the United Press has ‘ , since 1907, when the UP * ■ yy n-ganized. At that time- :-.e y( ribution of news th- r vorld was controlled by 7 ,‘i >f agencies. This gre Reuters of Great Britain -y ^ he French agency, md Germany, and their deporute- j^B >r Allies. Twice the l" 'cc„.‘. -t vas invited to join this ' >ut declined both time; '-»e ’’ erred to go it alone. ' Shakespeare, intimately r ' .1 .i *d with the theater for f. | lis life, never saw an ac' cause female parts were ?■“ iy acotrs.