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North Carolina’* Oldest Daily Newspaper Published Daily Except Sunday By The Wilmington Star-News r, B. Page, Owner and Publisher_ as Second Class Matter at Wilming ton. N. C„ Postoffice Under Act of Congress of March 3, 1B7P.___ SUBSCRIPTION RATES BY CARRIER IN NEW HANOVER COUNTY Payable Weekly or In Advance _i sior $Ne^s rs i Month f Month. ......_ 15 80 u.00 36.00 (Above' rates entitle subscriber to Sunday issue of Star-News)__ By Mail: Payable Strictlyin Advance ■ mr.l.h. S 2.50 | 2.00 i 3.80 ! Months .- 3 00 4.00 7.70 1 Year *. - - - 10.00 S.00 15.40 (Above rates entitle subscriber to Sunday issue of Star-News)_ WILMINGTON STAR (Daily Without Sunday) I Months-$1.85 6 Months-$3.70 1 Yr.-$7.40 When remitting by mail please use check or oTp. O money order. The Star New. can not be responsible for currency sent through the mails. ___ tlttpmrfr of the associated press ANDALSO STUCVED HY THE UNITED FKESS WH& confidence in our armed the un bounding determination of onrpeople we will gain the Inevitable triumph—a© help " G0d* Rooaevelt’s War Message. TUESDAY, MARCH 6, 1945._ THOUGHT FOR TODAY “When we leave here for the next shore, there is nothing we can do for the ones beneath the wooden crosses, except per haps to pause and murmur, ‘Thanks, Pal’.” , ^ , Closing words of Ernie Pyle s book. They Understand Force An agreement that armed force will be used to put down aggression in the Western Hemis phere has been reached by the United States delegation at the Inter-American conference in Mexico City. It is timely. The trouble makers, once repressed in Europe, will look for new fields. Nothing would suit them bet ter than to stir up trouble on this side of the Atlantic. There is only one language that an aggres sor understands—force. There is only one thing that will stop him—force. The time to apply it is when he starts some devilment, nip him in the bud, prevent a little aggressor from be coming a big one. Talk has been tried and it failed. An aggressorism doesn't pay any at tention to that. He does to bullets. Whoever starts another war should be taken out quickly and suddenly and his career ended before he gets underway. The era of dictators is about over now but it has been costly in lives and materials. They strutted their little day across the face of the earth, ruined it, scarred it, bled it. The lesson is plain. The next one attempting anything should be es corted to the nearest tree and given the rope treatment. -V Retreat From Isolation Comdr. Harold Stassen recently said that, in his opinion, this country has “definitely left isolation behind, and that applies to both parties.” The same evening that the former M nnesota governor made that statement. Senator Burton K. Wheeler delivered a radio speech that may have added some slight weight to Comdr. Stassen's hopeful words. Mr. Wheeler tore the Yalta conference apart. He has done much the same thing with the administration's whole wartime for eign policy, right down the line. He didn’t pull his punches. The Democratic senator from Montana never does. If any American does not know that Mr. Wheeler was one of the most power ful and voluble of prewar isolationists, it isn’t Mr. Wheeler’s fault. Yet it has seemed recently that when Mr. Wheeler has mounted the rostrum to discuss our foreign policy, that rostrum has been moved an inch or so from Its previous moorings. It still doesn t stand very close to tne posi tion of Comdr. Stassen and millions of like minded Americans. But it can’t be overlooked that in this latest speech the senators did say a kind word for the Atlantic Charter. "We must throw our full weight behind the principles of the Atlantic Charter,” he warn ed, “if we do not wish to see our American ways dragged down in the muck and mire of Old World evils and hatreds.” The second half of that statement has an old familiar ring. But the senator does pre scribe the Atlantic Charter as a means of dod ging the perils that he pictures. And the At lantic Charter is scarcely an instrument of isolation. __ If Mr. Wheeler is moving his rostrum ever so silghtly away from isolationism, he is un doubtedly taking his audience with him. Mr. Wheeler has always commanded a considerable following. It is doubtful, however, that this following will go beyond him and demand a more international stand from him whsn the Senate debate on international or ganization finally begins. The senator has a plan of his own for inter national organization. It calls for a "United Nations political council” (without access to the use of force in maintaining peace) which would lead into a “United States of Europe” (in which the United States of America ap parently would have no p^rt). This reveals Senator Wheeler doing business at the same old stand. It seems to refut< Comdr. Stassen’s opinion and our footnote o fai encouragement. Yet there is enougl change in Mr. Wheeler’s attitude to lend hop that so influential a senator is not wholly irrec oncilable. We believe that Comdr. Stassen’s estimat * of public sentiment is about 90 per cent right. Whether that sentiment can translate itself into two-thirds plus one of the Senate when the time of treaty confirmation 'arrives is an other matter. I would be a tragedy of incalculable effect if it could not. We hope that the grain of con cession in Mr. Wheeler’s speech is a symptom of a move toward a truer reflection of public opinion in the Senate. N -V Judge E. K. Bryan Known as one of the most able attorneys divoting their careers to practice in the state’s civil courts, the death of Judge Egbert Kedar Bryan is a real loss to the New Hanover county bar. A quiet gentleman of sterling integrity, he gained prominence among his associates and fellow citizens in his studious, diligent prac tice throughout a long and useful life. Before declining health necessitated curtailment of his activity, seldom was any major civil liti gation brought to trial here or in other sec tions of Eastern North Carolina without Judge Bryan participating. To every case he gave meticulous care in its preparation and to every member of the bar he was known as a fair and rugged con testant, one whose efforts in behalf of his client’s interest were never relaxed. It was these attributes, plus those of good judgment and character, that gained for him the high place he held in the courts, the respect of both friend and opponent. He seldom deviated from his extensive civil practice and cared little for politics. The only public offices he ever held were a Superior court judgeship, to which he was appointed by the late Governor Aycock, and a two-year period as Wilmington city attorney. A lawyer’s lawyer, his career should be an inspiration to those who follow in his pro fession in the knowledge that his fine reputa tion was achieved through daily application of the highest principles of the practice of law in his dealings with all who sought his ad vice and aid. -V Wasted Effort There has recently been issued and widely distributed a “Training Manual for Auxiliary Fireman.” It contains 406 pages, plus cover, is profusely illustrated by photographs, wash and line drawings, portraying destruction in notable fires, and approved methods of fight ing incendiary bombs, with pen and ink illus trations of best ways to lay hose and handle and raise ladders. Following the Foreword some 85 pages are devoted to civilian defense courses (divided into eight long and highly technical chapters): one hundred pages to a primary course of fire man’s training; a second course at much greater length, a third and final, or supple mentary, course, closing with an appendix designated a “guide for training auxiliary firemen.” It's a pretty thorough job, all told, and must have kept a large staff of workers, in addition to the editors, busy a long time and at considerable expense, before it was ready to turn over to the printers, who also has con siderable to do with its production on a per day or per thousand em basis, after whose services the binders took over first sewing the four teen “signatures” and finally glueing on the covers. In fact we have seen no more expen sive piece of promotion or propaganda turn ed out since the war stimulated this person or another to rush into print. And the probability is, although we have not read the volume ver batim but only surveyed the subject matter sketchily, that every line within its covers contains valuable information for the volunteer fireman. But still it seems to represent an unnecessary expenditure in time, effort, and money, on the score that voluntary fire forces, particularly those organized by the Office of Civilian Defense, were disbanded months ago, along with air raid wardens, plane spotters and other home defense units when it became obvious that, lacking the' devil’s aid, neither the Germans or the Japanese would raid our shores. Nor are there more than a handful of volunteer fire units under any other sponsor ship still in existance. Furthermore, despite the thorough manner in which the trade of fighting fires is explain ed in this manual, it may be truthfully added that all of a years’ time would be required by males past school age to master the man ual’s subject matter alone and all of five years additional to become dexterous in hand ling hose and ladders. Were the average busi ness man, though young, to undertake to be come an auxiliary fireman at the standard of perfection set down by the manual he could not hope to achieve the goal on the near side of middle life, and then only with much of the intervening time, properl} belonging to his business or profession, sacrificed to ladder drill. It could be, however, the manual has been issued, not for any immediate value, but with a long-range view. Everybody agrees there is strong probability that we will have another war in a quarter century, and the v/ise pro phets forecast that when it come* the enemy will launch the original attack against the United States. Only the other day General Arnold, head of our air forces, in urging that we maintain an all-powerful air force after peace, voiced this identical view. If this is correct, then careful study of this manual through the passing years should in all con science find us well provided with an efficient volunteer fire force. On the other hand, if the Brig Three have ac tually hit upon the means of perpetuating : world peace, say, for a century, what shall be i the untimate decision regarding the waste oi : material, labor £nd capital invested in this - “Training Manual for Volunteer Firemen" when, for the most part, volunteer firemer e have been inactivated throughout the country? Two-Way Deal An executive of the Textile Workers of Amer ica (CIO) is quoted as saying that “we will fill the mills” of New Bedford, Mass., tire plants if the government operates these plants without profit to the owners. It would seem, perhaps, that the con troversy in the “guinea pig” labor draft case in New Bedford is over management profit from war business, rather than government assignment, of labor. But if the tire plants should provide indus trial facilities for the government without pro fit, it might seem only fair that the workers draw , the prevailing government wage paid other drafted men in uniform—say, $50 a month. If the arrangement is fair, it ought to work both ways. Fair Enough (Editor’s note.—The Star and the News accept no responsibility for the personal views of Mr. Pegler, and often disagree with them as much as many of his read ers. His articles serve the good purpose of making people think.) By WESTBROOK PEGLER (Copyright, 1945, by King Features Syndicate.) In those days in London, around 1916, we had in our office a precise and aristocratic little fellow named Louis Moore, an Ameri can so long from home that he thought in pounds, shillings and pence and swore in Eng lish. He ran a funny little shoe-string news service for English papers outside London call ed “The Provincials” and could do more tricks with twenty words of telescoped low-rate pig latin than a monkey can on forty yards of grape vine. Reuter’s was the standard service for the British press but Louie’s clients ap parently thought he was something very spe cial and unique and he seemed prosperous. Mr. Moore was very deaf. He had a roll-top desk in a comer and Hal O’Flaherty and I, fresh cubs from Chi cago, used to marvel at English journalism as Louie sat there night after night, dictating profoundly to his typist on the basis of his daily dispatch from New York. According to the English style he frequently started a dis patch with “I learn—” or “I am able to state—.” The perpendicular pronoun was a prerogative enjoyed by only a few of our journalists, then, and those few war corre spondents in France and the Balkans. Of course it was never used on anonymous copy. It seemed to us silly that a dispatch attribut ed, as Louie’s were, to “our special com missioner” or “our New York correspondent,” but without a by-line, should speak in the first person but that was their way. rviici lie lidu uuxie uiwictuug, a udy s wuia which seldom took him more than an hour, Louie and his typist would sort out the flimsy copies into batches, one for each of his cli ents. From that littlec ablegram he would spin out as many as half a dozen of his special dispatches and his method was then to send them down to the censor in Whitehall by messenger after which they went to the telegraph office. When all had been prepared and the copy was in the envelopes, Mr. Moore would tap on the wall beside him and then, but not until then, there would enter our presence a crea ture out of imagination, named Jerry, who smelled so violently that he was kept in the little ante-room. This was a great imposition on our telegraph operator, whose wire was there and it may have shortened his life. His telegraph machine, incidentally, was a muse um piece unlike any that I have ever seen in America, with a big black knob, like a darning egg, for a grip. In sending he would grab this ball and bang it up and down and his sounder clattered like a riveter’s hammer. Even to the lay ear, the accent was coarse and loud. Jerry had no chair but sat or lay on a pile of newspapers. Upon being summoned, Jerry, like most English office boys of the time would grab his gloves, walking stick and bowler hat and then would stand at attention near Mr. Moore awaiting his instructions and scowling like a primitive Bolshevik, for he hated Louie and the detestation was mutual. Sometimes, when he came too close, Mr. Moore, with a sensi tive wincing of his nose, would glare at him and say in a soft but firm voice: ‘‘Stand a little away; you have a beastly effluvium.” And stepping back, would bang his heels and mutter audibly to us but unneard by Mr. Moore: "Stinking old rascal.” Jerry’s stench was honestly come by. His father was a fish-monger in Whitechapel and the family lived in the shop. His presence strongly suggested fish-heads and tripes and there was no reason to suspect that he ever washed. j-iuuie muuie gave aeiry ail allowance iui his bus fare to Whitehall but his usual trans portation was the coach of the Rile Mile or Royal Mail, a big red horse-drawn van. He would wait on the corner at the embankment and then, with his derby down over his ears and deftly managing his gloves and stick would hop aboard the rear springs, and settle himself and great tidings from “our special commissioner’’ or “our New York correspon dent” would be on their way to a palpitant public. My opinion of the English press was not altogether unfavorable and, strangely, the stately papers with their leisurely methods and swollen dignity made a better impression than their “stunt press.” The “stunt press” was trying to imitate American journalism but was imitating only our faults and doing it badly. The big papers were constantly amaz ing us foreigners with their solemn contempla tion of trivialities and I remember, a serious discussion by a number of authorities in re sponse to a letter from a schoolmaster want ing to know how deep angle worms burrow. The best writing of the First world war, it seemed to me, was the rushing, rolling prose of Phillip Gibbs, an Englisman at the British front. There were other excellent writers but Gibbs had the grace of Percy Hammond and a force that rolled into waves of emphasis with the rhythm of a drum. Some of our peope who went to London scoffing succumbed to their habits and never came home except to visit. The idea of all hands knocking off work in the middle of' a Watch to brew a pot of tea in the office fire place and smear jam all over the desks and keyboards was a shock at first, but it was one custom of English journalism that prac tically all of us adopted. But few of us ever were infected by their custom of starting a story “a fortnight since, near Hove, Sussex an extraordinary mishap occurred ’ and lead ing up to six dead in a smashup in the las line, but giving no names. Rub-A-Dub, Dub! | Your War- With Ernie Pyle BY ERNIE PYLE IN THE MARIANAS ISLANDS— (delayed)—No sooner have the B 29 formations disappeared to the north on their long flight to Japan, than single planes begin coming back in. These are called “aborts”, which is short for “abortives.” It is a much-used word around a bomber base. The “aborts” come straggling back all day, hours apart. They are planes that had something hap pen to them which forbade them continuing on the long dangerous trip. Sometimes it happens immed diately after takeoff. Sometimes it doesn't nappen until they are al most there. The first “abort” had a bomb bay door come open, and couldn’t get it closed. The second had part of the cowl flap come unfastened, and a mechanic undoubtedly caught hell for that. A third had a prop run away when he lost an engine. My friend Maj. Walter Todd, of Ogden, Uath, “aborted” on the mission I watched take off. He blew a cylinder head clear off. He was within sight of Japan when it happened, and he beat the others back home by only half an hour. He flew 13 1-2 hours that day, and didn’t even get credit for a mission. That's the way it goes. * * * Those left on the field will idly look at their watches as the long day wears on. mentally clocking the progress of their comrades. “They’re about sighting the main land now,” you’ll hear somebody say. “They should be over the target by now. I'll bet they’re catching hell,” comes a little later from somebody. By late afternoon you look at your watch and know that by now, for good or b.ad, it is over with. You know they’re far enough off the coast that the last Jap fighter has turned for home, and left our men alone with the night and the awful returning distance, and their troubles. Our planes bomb in formation, and stick together until they’ve left the Japanese coast, and then they break up and each man comes home on his own. It’s almost spooky the way they can fly through the dark night, up there above all that ocaen, for more than six hours, and all arrive here at these little islands almost within a few minutes of each oth er. By late afternoon we’ve begun to get radio messages from the re turning planes. A flight leader will radio how the weather was, and if anybody went down over the target. It isn’t a complete picture, but we begin to patch together a general idea. We lost planes that day. Some went down over the target. Some just disappeared, and the other boys never knew where they went. Some fought as long as they could to keep crippled planes going, and then had to “ditch” in the ocean. * * * \ And one tenacious plane load mi raculously got back when it wasn’t in the cards for them at all. They had been hit over the target, had to drop down and back alone, and the Jap fighters went for him, as they do for any cripple. Five fighters just butchered him, and there was nothing our boys could do about it. And yet he kept coming. How, nobody knows. Two of the crew were badly wounded. The horizontal stabilizers were shot away. The plane was riddled with holes. The pilot could control his plane only by using the motors. Every half hour or so he would radio his fellow-planes “Am in right spiral and going out of con trol.” But he would get control again, and fly for an hour or so, and then radio again that he was spiraling out of control. But somehow he made it home. He had to land without controls. He did wonderfully, but he didn't quite pull it off. The plane hit at the end of the r --- "■ — runway. The engines came hurt ling out, on fire. The wings flew off and the great fuselage broke in two and went careening across the ground. And yet every man came out of it alive, even the wounded ones. Two other crippled planes crack ed up that night too, on landing. It was not until late at night that the final tally was made, of known lost, and of missing. But hardly was the last return ing bomber down until a lone plane took off into the night and headed northward, to be in the area by dawn where the “ditchings"’ were reported. And the others, after their excited stories were told, fell wearily into bed. --—-1 WASHINGTON CALLING by MARQUIS CHILDS ' HEADQUARTERS, MEDITER RANEAN ALLIED AIR COM MAND — Under this command, which to a casual observer seems outside the main focus of the war, are thousands of planes and hun dreds of thousands of men—More planes than the German Luftwaffe had at the height of its power. The Mediterranean command in cludes Italy, Southern France, the Balkans and a part of the Middle East. It covers a complexity of political as well as technical troubles and, in some respects, seems to me to suggest a working design for the future. In the course of this quiet swing through the European war, I have written a great deal about our air power. There are several reasons for this. One is that, with custom ary thorough organization, the Army Air Forces have made it possible to see their operations in every phase. But a more important reason is my conviction that the future belongs to the air. The future in peace, no less than in war, is in the airplane and we have, it seems to me, only begun to understand the social and poli tical implications of this machine that has annihilated space. Two weapons have come out of this war with profound meanings for the years to come—just pro pulsion planes and rocket bombs. If we allow those weapons, with their astonishing potentialities, to be developed by rival nationalisms for war-making purposes, then our civilization, which may just avert complete disaster this time, will certainly be destroyed once and for all. It is with this threat in mind that I see portents of hope in the air force that has been put to gether in the Mediterranean, for it is truly an international air force. Under Lt. General Ira C. Eaker. , here in this part of the world that was the cradle of our civilization, nine nationalites are flying daily ] missons to defeat Germany. In | Eaker’s squadrons are pilots and i crews from Brazil, Greece, Poland, i France, New Zealand, South Af- | rica, Australia, Great Britain and ( the United States. . Moreover, the command is truly 1 international. Usually in combined operations—for example, between ( British and Americans—two of- i Eicers, one of each nationality, are 1 ¥ assigned to the same task. Here in the Mediterranean, one officer is assigned to do a job regardless of nationality. It seems to work with reasonable degree of har mony. Presumably, when the war is ended, this international compnand will be dismantled. But why should it not serve as a nucleus for an international air force to keep peace? It seems too valuable a prece dent to discard lightly. It offers a working formula for the kind of cooperation that must come if we are to rescue ourselves from ulti-' mate and final doom. Eventually, in peacetime, this international air force could be ex panded to include all nationalities in proportion to their air strength. Here is no less than the pattern for a United Nations air force. To wipe out the start that has been made here would seem to be a tragic waste. Sooner or later, in peace as in war, we must come to (Continued on page Ten) Interpreting The War By KIRKE L. SIMPSOV Associated Press w » .S The thunder of v, , 3'5' charges blowing Rhin the way from" spells the end of the batn "esel Cologne plain. ‘ b le ot th» It well mav spoil Allied hopes of sell eRd <* 1 crossing intact expedite birth aLoeprobRablyedbirdgehe*£ thousands of Nazi' the west bank to dead-, nr "U 0!1 How long the grhn *»■ ness of abandoning lar-,. ' u*i of troops to their fate'°as gI?vPS and Russian troops prL 3* the heart of Germany can , T* without producing a comolet! lapse in Gcrma/army rnSl"1' open to conjecture. There V* increasing signs of impending J? emy military disintegration h»' fronts16 Thfi6ld rep°rts from b«h fronts These signs are backed by evidence that the Nazi effort to mobilize all German citizen™ into a last ditch people’s an™ . proving largely a futile gestune/ ,J,he ,W1J1. to fl§ht has been no. tably lacking m such units on. the Wehrmaht troopers were mill ed out. The citizen soldiers show little disposition to sacrifice them selves in battle-to-the-death rear guard actions, the function appar. ently reserved for them by the Nazi commanders, once the fear of Wehrmacht guns at their back's is ended. J.nat is a highly significant in. dication of the growing defeatist mood among the German people as distinct from the Nazi policed German army. It implies that a cracking strain is developing with, in Germany that will certainly limit sharply the extent and seri ousness of guerrilla operations after organized resistance ends if it does not lead to something like the internal revolt against con tinuation of the useless laughter that terminated the last war. With Allied troops on the lower Rhine from Bonn to Arnhem in Holland, and Russian forces now manning the the Neisse-Oder lie virtually from the southern Sude ten mountains to the Oder estuary the final two-front breakthrough's cannot be far away. With all Rhine bridges destroyed by the Germans as seems probable if not already accomplished, it may take time for General Eisenhower's armies to bring up all the equip ment they will need to force that last Nazi western defense moat. Eastward, however, there seems every reason to expect immediate Russian renewal of the direct drive at Berlin. The operation that split Pomerania apart to the Baltic seems to have fully set the eastern war stage for just that. Assuming that Allied and Rus sian operations now are intimate ly related in timing, scope and direction by day-to-day staff in terchanges, it seems logical to expect the next major phase of action in the east. The Russians have completely eliminated dan ger of a flanking attack from Pomerania. They have reached the lower Oder within sight of Stettin. They have also set the White Russian army up to now facing northward to guard Marshal Zhukov’s right flank free to turn westward and join in a climatic attack that would reach all the way from the Sudetens to the sea with no wide or deep river to cross. __-V DailyPrayer FOR SOLDIERS’ LOYALTY Silently we name in Thy holy Presence, O God, the dear ones serving our Flag and Thee, for whom we covet the best gifts. And with them, we link all our Allied soldiers and sailors and war work ers everywhere. Keep them all steadfast to their truest vision and highest duty, whatever else befall. Grant to them and us soon, the felicity of knowing that peace has been won and the world redeemed from ruthlessness and selfish pow er. Amen.—W.T.E. -V- J MANNERHEIM ILL ! STOCKHOLM, March S.-f Marshal Baron Carl Gustaf Mao nerheim has been forced to gi'e up his duties as Finland s pres- . ident temporarily because of r,;s . health, it was reported from Hel sinki today. His duties are being handled in the interim bv F re ntier Juho Paasikivi. -V Use higher grade eggs for eat ing; lower grades as ingredmtJ n cooking. _ The Literary Guidepost By W. G. ROGERS “Wars I Have Seen,” by Ger trude Stein (Random House; $2.50). If Gertrude Stein writes it, I [ike it. Don’t ask why. Or yes. ask if you want to, but understand that it is impossible to crowd into this column all the literary and personal reasons which have piled ap over the years. ; Some of the reasons are in this i iook. In the first place there is :he author’s extraordinary knack j •°r accurate reporting. No one < ells such revealing stories about ' he French, no one ouotes them ; >o significantly. I You’ll enjoy particularly the 1 armer who says it isn’t Hitler < ‘lone, but all Germans: “It is not 1 heir leaders who are to blame, hey are a people who always 1 '■noose some one who will lead 1 hem in a direction in which they t lo not want to go, it is their in- v tinct for suicide, the twilight of he gods.” ^ f The enless circle of war and o leace and war and peace is shown t< n what might be called the para- n le of the girl and the chewing v *um. Miss Stein warns the child lot to swallow the stick, given her iy an American soldier But tr.e :hild already knew; her mothe. lad told her; some one had toil ;he mother when she, in turn a ittle girl, and been given her first ;um by an American soldier w ; Yorld war X. I You will respect, too. Miss Itein's utter honesty, as in he iebatable opinion about Pet?-n. fou will delight in the occasions ;raphic description, for instance if Miss Stein walking with her vhite dog in the moonlight, igainst the rugged backdrop f,r he Alpine foothills which for years lave been the summertime home f Miss Stein and her friend, Alice !. Toklas. , Of course the controversy about Jiss Stein is the style. The Pu0‘ sher, who by the way printed lis book handsomely, claims It rill all be intelligible to children. The book seems to me to re ect admirably the bruised spir* f a country which, while nv'men >us global decisions are being lade, must sit in a corner and ait.