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The Star New* can not be responsible for currency sent through the mails.______ MEMBER OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS AND ALSO SERVED BY THE UNITED PRESS •With confidence in our armed forces—with the unboundin* determination of our people we will gain the Inevitable triumph—so help ns God. Roosevelt’s War Message. THURSDAY, MARCH 8, 1945_ THOUGHT FOR TODAY And though our words be good— Hie little deeds in kindness done Are better understood. Thanksgiving may be given voice In tones that loudly ring. But to show best thankfulness— Thanksliving—is the thing. William Ludlum. --^V Seventh War Loan The goal of the Seventh War loan cam paign has been set at 14 billion dollars. That's a lot of money but we are having a lot of war amid a threat of even greater inflation. Buying bonds is a two-edged weapon against both. The pockets of the people of America are well-lined with plenty of cash. This is a per.od of great prosperity but don’t expect it to last forever. Instead of indulging in all kinds of useless luxuries, people would be wise to in vest some of their extra income. And there is no better investment than War bonds. Nobody knows what the future holds. “Post fwar” is a sort of magic word—everything is - supposed to be lovely in that vague era. Ev erything will not be lovely. There will be plenty of troubles, and the person with a nice nest egg of War bonds will certainly be fitted better to meet them than one who spent all. Money isn’t everything but the lack of it is terrible. Save through bond purchases and . avoid the terror of being broke, maybe with out work, certainly without the fabulously priced work based on war-time needs. Lots of people are blowing bubbles. Blow yours with a solid core of War bonds against the day that the bubbles burst. ---—V Get Wainwright It is easy to conceive the thrill with which General MacArthur saw the Stars and Stripes rise again over Corregidor after nearly three years of Japanese occupation. Eut we suspect the Pacific commander also crowded back a lump in his throat because his second in command, General Wainwright, was not pres ent to take part in the ceremony but was instead a prisoner of the Japs recently re moved from the Philippines to Japan or the Asiatic mainland to prevent his liberation by the returning Americans. By any yardstick, General Wainwright oc cupies a position among the top heroes of this war, regardless of theater, even in the humiliating experience of surrendering when further resistance was useless and sacrificial. txrv.,, ♦ i _ u_i_i__3 _e i.:_ __ What lettle has been heard of him since the Tokyo took over administration in the islands confirms the general high opinion of the man. He has borne confinement, abuse, disease and hunger with the same fine spirit that char acterized his leadership up to the surrender. MacArthur has done a great job in the advance from Australia to Manila, but no sin gle campaign will be so great, no act so laudible, as the release of Wainwright from Japanese captivity. Don’t Let It Happen Again The serious error of France's failure to lift her hand against Germany's demilitarization of the Rhine—the first major step toward the war we are now fighting—was brought out in a dramatic manner in a United Press dispatch yesterday: The short article said, in part: "Nine years ago today, at 12:30 p.m. German troops entered Cologne, ending the demili tarization of the Rhineland. "Then the Nazi papers jubilantly reported: "Today Cologne saw the first gun of the Gc rman army within its walls.’ "‘German troops passed in review before the town hall.’ ‘Adolf Hitler himself visited Cologne on March 28, 1936. He said In a speech that No vember 1918, did not finish the physical life of the German nation. "Today, newly arrived American troops were consolidating the U. S. First Army’s grip on Cologne, a day after the richest single prize of the war in the west fell.’’ • It has taken nine years to rectify the error made by the French. Perhaps, if they had op posed this bold, gambling stroke by Hitler, his army would have been thrown out of the 4 Rhineland in nine day* and the world would be peaceful today. But that Is hindsight, al ways better than foresight. The United Press dispatch offers a powerful lesson. To err once, as France did, is natural. But toaallow the same mistake to happen again is foolish. And it will, in all probability, un less Germany is made powerless and kept that way—to fight another war. This should not be an exclusive assignment for France. Whether the German army ever marches again is the concern of the whole world. How well it takes up this responsibility will determine whether another generation of young Ameri cans will have to smash the Hun off his well worn and brutal path of conquest. -V Protection The free advisory service offered by the Wilmington Community Chest and Council to residents interested in checking the reliabili ty of national and international philanthropic agencies asking contributions is much more than its name implies. It is, in fact, real pro tection against many a war-borne flourishing racket. “While the majority of philanthropic organ izations are sound,’’ E. L. White, president of the Chest, said, “intermingled among them are a number of substandard agencies and quite a few outright rackets. Because it is difficult for a layman to sift good from bad organizations appealing to him throughout the year, we are glad to provide this professional advisory service to givers without charge." In establishing this function, the Chest is filling a need that has existed here from the start of the war. Numerous appeals have been made and the majority have been worthy but there have been questionable cases. There is no longer any cause ior a generous wuming tonian to be victim of a racket. If in doubt when solicited, just call or write the Com munity Chest before giving. Its officials can tell you whether your donation is going to a sound cause or into the pockets of some thiev ing individual attempting to take advantage of your generosity and patriotism. --V Schooling in Germany It now appears that the eradication of the military training conducted by the Nazis in Germany almost from the cradle to well into adolescence for so many years preceding the outbreak of war does not constitute the chief educational problem when the Allies take over in that benighted land. It will be among the gravest problems and will not be solved easi ly or quickly. Nazism and all its accompany ing evils have been too deeply instilled in German youth to be overcome readily. But more serious even than this is the problem of educating the German masses in primary and fundamental subjects and to teach them to do their own thinking, at least in a moder ate degree. An American educator who was traveling in Germany when Hitler moved against Poland and precipitated this war, and had used his eyes and mind to good effect, has just re vealed to this desk some of his observations while in the Reich. As he made his escape after the fighting started with the connivance of anti-Nazi friends it is inadvisable to men tion his name, or name the city where he made his most careful observations. Suffice, that it was a city of half a million population. Its high school had an enrollment of only 500 pupils and but 50 of these were girls. The pupils, he found, had been carefully selected for former achievement in the city's equivalent of our grade schools, but the re quirements were so great that boys and girls o' average intellignece had no chance to en roll. He says that he mingled with all classes of citizens and found that the great majority of them had gone no higher than the German equivalent of our sixth sradp rtiVpn timp anrl plenty of paper they could add simple sums, or subtract, multiply or divide, if the amounts v-ere not large; could write their names and compose simple letters. But very few, he de clared, had more education than th’s. and fewer could think any simple proposition out for themselves. He appears quite right in concluding that this lack of general education accounts for the centuries-old German herd instinct — the willingness of the masses to follow the lead er. We say this seems to be a reasonable de duction, granting the premesis is right, on the score that a people of average education could not have been so easily fooled or led astray by Hitler’s fanaticism and allowed him to lead them into a conflict from which they could hope to emerge only in defeat. If the Germans, whpm the Roman emper ors sought as unsuccessfully to appease as Chamberlain at Munich, are ever to be cured of their superman fetish, the education of the German people to a point where they can reason logicallymust become a primary un dei taking of the Allies during many years of occupation. -V SO THEY SAY We flushed them along the west side of the beach through pillboxes and underbrush, and at night we stood up in our foxholes on the front lines and fought off their counter-attacks with bayonets, grenades and knives. — Gun nery Sgt. Earl M. Heacock of El Centro, Calif., at Iwo. * * • The problem which society faces in deal ing with runaway girls who have fallen into bad company has become acute. These minors are not hardened crim'nals and we should not deal with them as if they were. —- Sen. Fred A. Young and Assemblyman MacNeil Mitchell in New York State Legislature bill. Fair Enough .. —----*1 (Editor’s note.—The Star and the News accept no responsibility for the personal views of Mr. Pegler, and often disagree with them as much as many of his read ers. His articles serve the good purpose of making people think.) By Westbrook Pegler (Copyright, 1945, by King Features Syndicate.) General deGaulle’s petulant rudeness and the demanding attitude of his France toward the United States will be all for the best if they cure us, finally, of the juvenile crush which has controlled our relations with this irre sponsible people. In that case, we would see, France and the French very much as their continental neighbors and many of the Brit ish saw them, not through the calf eyes of a rich, young, extravagant and geographically distant nation which regarded even her vil lage manure-piles as fetchingly quaint and the innate larceny of her merchants as a some how lovable foible. The plain fact of the matter is that France quit cold in this war and later was rescued by the Americans, the second time in a quarter of a century that her life was saved by the United States. Her conduct in the brief fight ing war in 1940 was not comparable to that of the Russians when their homeland was attack ed a year later nor to the tenacity of the Nazis in recent weeks. Reporters who covered the rout wrote that French army units were in timidated by the mere noise of the Stukas and that the soldier of 1940 was no worthy son of the father who held Verdun in 1916. Her Com munists, now so officious and patriotic, were saboteurs in the war industries and traitors in the army. Her politics and her press were corrupt and it is no thanks to France that Hit ler failed to push on to England after Dun kirk and wind it all up in a hurry. In that case, France would have been completely Hitlerized and the nimble Communists would have joined the Nazis in hating and probably, in fighting us. Some of her late communists already have been executed for collaboration with the Boche. Our popular attitude toward rranee is me erroneous impression derived from the writ ings of a lot of indolent Americans who were charmed by a favorable rate of exchange which enabled them to live on a little income better than they could have lived at home, were indifferent to soap and water and en joyed posing as worldly, intellectual, and superior fellows. To them, France always came first, nothing that the United States ever could do would bail us out of her debt and the meanness and avarice which American visi tors encountered were not considerable faults but amiable manifestations of a peculiar vir ture called “individualism.” During the interval between the wars, some times called the long armistice, the attitude of France toward the United States was that of a spoiled and perfumed sweetheart toward an infatuated and too-generous suitor. The French nation was a feminine concept in our psychology, pretty, vivacious, erratic, unrea sonable, but, altogether, desirable. French politicians, stout, practical and shrewd, re alized all this and laughed at our gullibility for they knew themselves and their own people. It must have amazed them that they could get so much propaganda and the mater ial benefits of this unreasoning good will from entitled essentially undistinguished Americans to a little red ribbon or rosette in their lapels. Meanwhile, Americans were hooted in Paris for being Americans whose country now and again would send in a bill for a little payment on the debt of World War One. The history of France is not that of a peace loving, unaggressive nation, although, for that matter, none of the great powers got that way through fair and gentle methods, and the ex tension of France up to the Rhine after this war will be a repetition, in reverse, of Alsace Lorraine, with consequences which some future generation will have the privilege or misfortune to observe. Lost provinces always pine for rescue as every Frenchman knows and inevitably knights go warring to release them. There is no reason to dislike France or the French but neither is there any excuse to maintain the fictitious concept that has embar rased us in our thoughts and dealings all this time. They have their excellent virtures which we may appreciate without that sophomoric rapture in the contemplation of a toothsome co-ed which has distorted our relations. It was no fault of the United States that Hit ler overran France or that he started the war at all. Some historians will hold that France, herself, could have stood him down had she marched across with just a threat of force when he remilitarized the Rhine in 1936. The inner sickness of France was the result of bad politics, greed and a parliamentary system which couldn’t govern. Meanwhile she was pretending to be an empire and a great power and now she is more assertive and a little more unappreciative than ever before. The way to be a power is to be one, not to play capricious and you-chase-me among the powers that really be. It seems a little too much to ask that in the midst of a war in which Americans landed in the face of German fortifications on the French coast, chased the Nazis out of Paris and, fin ally, are smashing into Germany, the rescue party should also give and deliver to France rolling stock to replenish her railroads, feed and clothe her and rearm the army which, in 1940, gave up its weapons without a creditable fight. Americans may prudently remember also that for a long time an island outpost of France was a dangerous point off our own coast necessitating a close watch and the diversion of naval strength and consider the desirability of eliminating this risk in the future. Fortunately, the Monroe Doctrine could do the trick. Spain had been eliminated from the off-shore islands of the American Atlantic coast so that Hitler could not operate from Cuba, but there was an anxious period in which France was not reliable. True, the situ ation did dissolve and deGaulle came into his own in France but it was a close call and the decision might have gone the other way. The idea of being paid for reading a book one wants to read still fills the occasional re viewer with the sense of innocently cheating the world. My acquisitive instinct accounts for many of my reviews. — Dr. Joseph Wood Krutch of Columbia U. * » * Even if we temporarily lose control over events we still have a chance of regaining it. But we shall only have that chance, even in hopeless situations, if We continue to bear arms. —Goebbels. * * * That damn volcanic ash would not let the vechicles move. The only heavy equipment 1 saw moving were bulldozers and it was a t.u° of-war for them. — Lt. Pete Zurlieden of Cleve land, O., at Iwo. Road To Man Delay __ Your War- With Ernie Pyle IN THE MARIANAS ISLANDS— (delayed) — Major Robinson, the airplane commander of '‘my” crew has been leading his boys through almost two years of training be fore they came overseas. ‘‘That means a lot to have been together so long, doesn't it?” I asked. "It means everything,” one of the sergeants said. ‘‘We’re a team.” So far the crew has been lucky. They're all intact except for the bombardier, who had his leg al most blown off. and is now back in Hawaii in a hospital. To show how they feel about their being a team, the enlisted men asked especially if I would put the bombardier down as still part of the crew, even though he isn't here any more. They'd been together so long, and they liked him so much. He is Lieut. Paul O'Brien, of Dayton. Ohio. My crew has a superstition, or rather just a tradition. They ail wear the same kind of cap when they start on a mission. It’s a dark blue baseball cap, with the figure ”80" on the crown in yellow numbers. They got the caps a couple of years ago in Minneapolis when they were there on a week-end trip for winning some kind of merit prize. The ‘'80" was their unit number then, and although it has long since ceased to exist, they insist on keep ing it. Once in a while Major Robinson used to forget his cap, and the enlisted men would send somebody back after it before the mission started. But they’ve lost two of the caps now. One was Lt. O'Brien’s, and he took it with him when he was evacuated. The other was Major Robinson’s. His cap got so bloody from Lt. O'Brien’s wound that he had to throw it away. My crew lost meir ±hs>l ywuc right on the field when a Jap bomb got it. It was named “Battlin’ Bet ty” after Major Robinson’s )jdfe. so now he’s changing the name of his newly inherited ship from “Small Fry” to “Battlin’ Betty II.” * Major Robinson carries a movie camera with him on every mis sion. He has already taken about 1500 feet of color movies, but can’t have them developed until he gets back to America. He’s got them sealed up in moisture-proof cloth for safekeeping against the tropical climate. The other night when he came into the hut after a 14-hour mis sion over Tokyo, he held up his movie camera for me to see. and said, “Now I’m satisfied to quit. I oot the picture today that should end it. “There was a Jap fighter diving at the squadron .ahead of us. He apparently didn’t see us at all. for he pulled up and turned his belly to us and just hung there, wide open. Every gun in our squadron let him have it. He just blew all to pieces. And I got the whole thing. So now I’m ready to lay it aside.” • • • One of the most vital members of a bomber’s family is the ground crew chief, even though he doesn’t fly. But he’s the guy who sees that the airplane does fly. A good crew chief is wprth his weight in gold. Major Robinson says he has the finest crew chief in Ibe Marianas. I could believe it after seeing him. He is Sergt. Jack Orr, of (3737 Normandy St.) Dallas, Texas. He’s a married man, tall'and good-look ing and modest. He is so conscien ;ious it hurts, and he takes a mis sion harder then the crew mem- them, jumping up and down like a bers do themselves. puppy dog, shouting and hugging Major Robinson said that on one them, and they could hardly get trip they had some trouble, and him stopped, he was so happy, were the last ones in, long after the Major Robinson says he was sort others had landed. It did look kind of embarrassed, but I’ve heard him of bad for a little while. ' tell it two or three times, so I Sergeant Orr was waiting for know how touched he Was. There them at the “hard-stand.” Major is indeed a fraternalism in war Robinson said that when they got that is hard for people at home to out of the plane he was all over comprehend. I WASHINGTON CALLINGT by 0-f\ | MARQUIS CHILDS ROME— Almost every Ameri can and British officer with whom I have talked about the plight of Italy uses one word to describe the situation. That word is “hopeless.” The Italian people have been on a 22-year political debauch. The hang-over from Fascism is terri ble. It will not be cured in a day or a year or decades. The government of Premier Bon omi represnts next to nothing. There seems to be no force with in the country that can make it self felt. Prominent Italian anti Fascists who survived both inside the country and in exile have said to me that, if Italy ultimately goes Communist, as many fear it will, it will be by default for lack of pro per direction from any other sour ce. That seems to me to be a cogent appraisal of the existing situation. The Bonomi government makes many plans, but most of them nev er get beyond the paper stage. Re cently, after much prodding from the Allied commssion, the govern ment announced a series of urgent reforms that included abolition of the black market, raising of .wages and taxes, and the confiscation of all wealth in excess of tfhat was owned in 1922, the latter measure being based on the assumption that increased riches must have come as a result of Fascist con nections. No one, however, has very much confidence that these re forms will be carried out. The machinery does not exist to take such steps, many of them essential if the Italian economy is to be rescued. And so the Allied commission has had to do some more prodding. During nearly a year, tnat con> mission has been trying to make some kind of sense out of this Fas cist-ridden, war-weary country. The same thing has happened over and over again. It’s been a little like trying to restore a sick octo pus to life. Repeatedly, the commission has told the government that it must take steps to carry out food dis tribution rather than rely on Allied officers to do the job. The govern ment agrees and then promptly falls into prolonged cabinet wrang les. The result is exactly nothing. “Black Market” is a loose term but, used in the broadest sense to describe transactions outside the theoretical price and ration con trol, it would cover perhaps 70 per cent of the Italian economy, ac cording to informed sources fami lier with the long struggle to get the Italian system restarted. Today everyone takes the black i market for granted. Only a few i weeks ago, rail service from Rome i to Naples was reopened for civil- j ian passengers. The price of the ] journey was fixed by government i decree at 125 lire, with the lire ' equal to one cent at the official ] rate exchange. That's a reasonable ] price, but Italians with whom 1 have talked have shrugged their ] shoulders and said inai, wiuuu a month or two, you would have to go to the black market to get tic kets and pay two or three thousand lire. Those who attempt to analyze the Italian situation always add. of course, that nothing can be final so long as northern Italy remains in the hands of the Germans. Fro*n Northern Italy, particularly from Milan, in the past came the politi cal forces that gave direction to the entire country. In the north, too, is the greatest concentration of industry, and therefore also skilled and politic ally conscious workers. The south, which we inherited by conquest, has been traditionally a poor house and a museum for tourists. In the German-held north today are many prominent Fascists who escaped at the time of the Allied sweep up the Italian peninsula. They were effective operators with in the Fascist framework and they have left behind an administrative vacuum which appears to be diffi cult to fill. In this connection, in talks I have had with Allied officers. They al most invariably shake their heads with something like despair, and say that, after all, Mussolini did do “some good for these people,” and how else except through dic tatorship can you make anything of such a country. Then they add interpreting TheWar° By ktrke t, s,,IDc. Associated pre<' „■ 'PJ°N' Despite a news blacU, ,Analys‘ Army operations m die Bn Fir* logne sector on the RLBonnTo. may cover an immedk pVhici> can ttempt to force a riv„ Amer“ mg, the center of g* "£? ct0« European war seemed ^ ih‘ shifting from west to east m‘ie!y That was the implicatil again' German official *4 °n ct » that Marshal Zukov's&!«* sian Army the cutting Ze RuS' Russian sweep from the vm i the Oder, was on the mo? fS:» the Russians, paced bv a 4 1sail1 gun barrage, were striking S'-' at he Kuestrin and Zehden C bank redoubts that guard the i tical span of the middle rw! 1 and 30 miles respectively from g^ That represents at least » -a mile-wide assault from a point t east of Berlin to an even 1“' range attack due northeast at 7 ” den. It also indicates Russian selec' t1.0" of 4he,most vulr>erable se-tor of the Berlin siege perimeter'f the initial effort to breach th Oder line because of the flat land*, lying west of the river. There is no natural obstacle of any consequence beyond the Ode confronting the Russians except, few minor streams and the stem, beck hills, a low cluster lying be! tween Had Freienwalde and Stra i" uerg. As usual Moscow, ignored thi Berlin report. It is not apt to sav anything of operations there until objectives have been attained and consolidated; but the scene of ar. tion as outlined by the Nazis suffi. ciently indicates what that objec. five must be. There is ample el. bow room west of the middle Oder for establishment of a wide and deep bridgehead from which to launch the final march on Berlin from the east and northeast under more favorable terrain conditions than in an approach from the southeast across the Neisse-Oder tin. With all central and western Po. merania cleared of the Nazi toe, Zhukov has nothing to fear on his right flank. On his left, Ukrainian armies have pulled up abreast of the Oder front along the Neisse and are in position to widen the fi nal attack perimeter three-fold if they have not already struck. And width of assault front is a vital element in Russian tactical deploy ment. The wider it is the thinner drawn must be the ranks of the dwindling German army to oppose it and the easier the achievement of a breakthrough to Berlin itself. The. very silence of Moscow as *o developments on the middle Oder line is significant. With the right flank situation cleared up by close investment, of Stettin at the Oder mouth, Moscow turned far to the south for an official report on a Red Army victory. It told of a surge northward in Slovakia at a point 80 miles east of Bratis lavta and the capture of Banska Stiavnica. The town lies due north of Budapest of a through rail and road connection leading direct through Jablonka pars to the south side of the Moravian gap through which Russian forces have been slowly edging toward Vienna from the northeast. The Russian advance northward at that point in Slovakia is the first definite indication from the south of an attempt to seal off. the Nazi bulge eastward in the Carpathians. LEGION MEMBERSHIP RALEIGH, March 7 —1«- The North Carolina Department ol the American Legion reported a mem bership of 29,001 today, the largest in its 26-year history. Department officials expect to exceed 31,000 before the end of the year. -V The name “comet” is derived from the Greek and Latin words for “hair,” from a fancied resem blance between the tails of comets and long hair streaming in the wind. that “Mussolini went too tar, ,hat that was his mistake. One can understand their p«s* mism in dealing with Italy h;1 think their analysis fails to go de.o enough. A dictator can never stop at given points. Power breeds c ^ rupt, and corruption feeds on • self. A dictator must go on to sen destruction, and he puSs trie cm try down with him. Thafds the g object lesson of Italy tod a 3 (Copyright 1945 By United I fu ture Syndcate, Inc.) _ The Literary Guidepost By W. G. ROGERS "Apartment In Athens,” by Glenway Wescott (Harper; “All this -happened to a Greek family named Helianos”. . .so this book starts, somewhat casually, on the tone of an essay more than a novel. The author’s attitude is cool and seems detached. It’s the clas sical manner, as befits a novel about Greece. But the material is fiery hot. Here are hunger, want, debase ment, humiliation, insult, anger raging hatred, torture, death as gruesome and bloody as the most lurid atrocity. Father and mother Helianos lost a son early in the war, have a sec ond son and daughter left. A Ger man officer quartered in then apartment treats his hosts like slaves. After a short furlough in Ger many, he_ comes back greatly changed. His family has been wip ed out, he confides to Helianos, and in grief and despair he longs for peace. Unintentionally he al lays Helianos’ mistrust to such an extent that the incautious Greek voices an indirect criticism of Hit- 1 er and Mussolini. Then tragedy piles up dramatically. Wescolt has no mercy on Ger mans. The spokesman for the Reich says: what if we do cl now, there’ll be victory tor us sou l day. Helianos in his last if !er ^ dares: “For if we all continue to take our cue in world-politics from Germans as we have done ^ reckless appreciation of : . when they are on their S00 havior, only fighting , : choose to fight and pityinS_ ' whenever they ask for P- ^ ; j er or later they will they want: a world at their cy.” Except for one brief reiaf■ < Wescott’s German characters • painted black. . .and they are vincing portrayals. Their ••■ ■■ , have these alternatives: : ,Ve to the more brutal ones. >■ £| more subtle ones, but in e -fc‘ the end is death. The author of “Gooo consin” and ‘‘The Grandmo is an expert craftsman: ne __ bines sensitive phrasing w’l ( usually keen perception oassion in cbaracctrs and Pir,r lions, so stirring in l*1C11•? lad managed more genera . ^ ireak through the him a ^. ,'elope, this might have bePI p;! lest war novvel, instead ot iur best.