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The Wilmington morning star. [volume] (Wilmington, N.C.) 1909-1990, August 24, 1945, Image 8

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Why Germany Lost Atomic Bomb Race
By HOWARD W BLAKESLEE, Associated Press Science Editor
(Fourth of u Series)
NEW YORK, Aug. 23.—VP)—The
Germans failed in the wart.me ra«
for the atomic bomb mainly
fause of their way of life and its
effects on scientists. .
They erred also in concentrating
on the wrong end of the alphabet.
On the “V” Instead of the A
b°Gerrnany had the bomb principle
first and exclusively, when the
mathematician, Lize Meitner,
made the calculations of the im
mense energy in splitting Uranium
Tzl Her chief, Otto Hahn, realiz
ed the importance of her work.
Both were in the Kaiser Vilhelm
Institute, Germany’s top Physical
science laboratory. In alnaos* ^
other country this secret ^ ^
have been guarded by the scien
tists themselves.
But Dr. Meitner, a Jew, left
Germany because of the mistreat
ment of Jews. So did Dr. Otto
Frisch, who was the first person
to split the Uranium atom, the
experiment that led directly o
producing the bomb. So did other
German-Jewish scientists.
Not all the scientic emigres
yere Jewish. But all left Germany
because of the Nazi way of life.
Had Germany inspired the loyalty
of her scientists as do the Demo
cracies, Germany probably would
FORMER CARRIER !
TO PRACTICE LAW
WASHINGTON, August 23^
Charles M. Galloway, formerly o.
Columbia, South Carolina, who has
been counsel to the Comptroller
General of the United States for
the - 16 years, is leaving the
government service at the end of
the current month by operation oi
the retirement law.
Mr Galloway was appointed to
this position July 1. 1929 by the late
Comptroller General J. R. McCarl
and has continued to serve under
succeeding Comptrollers General
Fred H. Brown and Lindsay C.
Warren. Before his appointment j
Mr. Galloway had engaged in pri
vate practive of the law in Wash-1
irgton for a matter of ten years, j
after resigning September 7. 1919 j
from the position of United States
Civil Service Commissioner to
which he had been appointed by
President Woodrow Wilson June 10,
1913.
Mr. Galloway came to Washing
ton March 4. 1909. as secretary to
the late Senator Ellison D. Smith
in which capacity he served until
his appointment as Civil Service
Commissioner.
Prior to his graduation from the
University of South Carolina with
the degree of LL.B.. Mr. Galloway
was engaged in newspaper work
on The State of Columbia. South
Carolina and held the position of
News Editor from September 10,
1904 to March 1, 1909 when he
succeeded William E. Gonzales,
who became editor on the death
of N. G. Gonzales, the first editor
of that newspaper.
In 1909 Mr. Galloway served as
clerk of the South Carolina State
Senate Committees on Education
and Railroads.
Following graduation at the Uni
versity of South Carolina, Mr. Gal
loway was admitted to practice
law by the Supreme Court of South
Carolina June 11, 1907. He is also
a member of the Bars of the Su
preme Court of the United States
and all lesser courts of the District
of Columbia.
After a month’s vacation in the
mountains of North Carolina. Mr.
Galloway plans to return to Wash
ington and resume private practice
of the law.
Mr. Galloway lias a Norm Caro
lina background. He was born on
a farm near Moores Creed Battle
ground. August 15, 1875, in what
was New Hanover County, now Pen
der County, the latter county hav
ing been authorized bv act of thp
General Assembly of February 16,
1875. Pender County was named in
honor of General William D. Pen
der of Tarboro who was killed in
the fighting around Richmond in
1864.
Mr. Galloway’s father, Charles
M. Galloway, Sr., was elected the
first clerk of the Superior Court
of Pender County the first session
of the court being convened July
12. 1875. at the temporary seat,
South Washington (now Wath.a).
Judge A. A. McKoy of Clinton pre
sided and W. S. Norment was so
licitor.
Two years later an election was
held to choose a permanent county
seat, with the following result; Bur
gaw (so named for the Burghaw
Washington 1124, Rocky Point 225,
Indians) received 1,144 votes;
South Leesburg (now Willard) 126,
Asheton 91, Lillington 72, Point
Caswell 1.
At the age of 14 Mr. Galloway
was stationery clerk for J. R. Ken
ly, then assistant geeneral manag
er of the Wilmington & Weldon
Railroad, in Wilmington.
Mr. Galloway's uncle, Rufus Gal
loway, was for years a represen
tative in the lower house from
Brunswick County. A cousin, the
late Capt. Swift Galloway of Snow
Hill was a circuit solicitor and
member of the lower house for
years. Dr. Walter G. Galloway al
so a cousin, was a state senator
from Greene County In the early
nineties.
Mr. Galloway was a carrier boy
for The Star (1886-1887) and he did
not overlook Daniel L. Russell’s
figs as they hung out through the
picket fence at Third and Dock
Streets of the Governor Dudley
home. Mr. Russell himself was
elected Governor in 1896 by a fusion
pi Republicans and Populists. I
have sewed up the bomb secret.
She might have perfected the
weapon without knowledge of her
enemies.
Picking the V bombs evidently
was costly to Germany’s atomic
bomb progress. For these bombs
equied pobably more manpower
and more scientific effort than
they proved to be worth.
Even in the United States, there
was not enough manpower to de
velop simultaneously all four ways
of making a successful atomic
bomb that were reported to Presi
dent Roosevelt by Dr. Vannever
Bush, head of the Office of Scienti
fic Research and Development.
Americans, British and Cana
dians concentrated on what seem
ed to be the best phases, often
choosing those that interfered least
with other war work.
The Germans had other trouDies,
stemming either from their mis
treatment of Jews, or from the dis
gust which a good many scientist^
felt for the Hitler regime. In
1942, when the Allied atomic bomb
program was just getting under
good headway, the Germans trans
ferred A. T. Bombke, one of their
good men on atomic bombs, into
Radar research. Bomke had been
an associate of Lord Rutherford
in England when the latter used
the alpha particles of Thorium C
to produce the world's first man
made atomic disintegrations. The
German backwardness in Radar
was partly due to the way of life
that cramped Germanic science.
Even so the Germans made some
brilliant progress. The heavy
water which Germany tried to get
from Norway, the world’s only
production plant, was prospjective
ly useful in two ways. It could
be used to make an atomic tea
kettle, which in some ways might
do a more efficient job than the
pile of graphite bricks that United
States scientists used as an oven
to produce atomic fire. There is
also a remote possibility that the
Nazis wanted the heavy water be
cause it might be useful in pro
ducing atomic power to drive sub
marines.
While the German scientists
scattered to other countries an
spread information about atomic
bomb principlethe Allied scien
tists did just the opposite. They
became close-mounthed two years
before the United States entered
the war. More than a year before
Pearl Harbor, they did still better
by clamping down a voluntary
censorship that resulted in suspen
sion of publication of airticles on
the bomb, atomic power, or related
discoveries.
In the end, Hitler tried to kid
nap Niels Bohr from Denmark, and
other scientists to do his forced
atomic bomb research.
In contrast, American, British
and Canadian scientists were not
urg§d. In fact at first they had
to io their own urging. This
sta^W in March 1939, when Dr.
Geolfe Pegram, head of the phy
sics department of Columbia Uni
versity, sent Enrico Fermi, emigre
from Italy and now an American
.citizen, who in some ways is the
pioneer of the bomb, to Washing
ton to confer with the Navy! The
Navy replied that it would like to
be kept informed.
That same year, in July, Ein
stein, himself an exatriate of Ger
many, and a number of other
scientists, including some foreign
born, went to Alexander Sachs of
New’ York, who knew President
Roosevelt. That fall Mr. Sachs
talked to the President, and also
resented a letter from Einstein.
The President took action. The
start was a small grant of $6,000
from the Army and the Navy in
the spring of 1940. That was the
money American scientists snow
balled into $2,000,000,000 and the
atomic bomb.
(Tomorrow: The eternal fires—
atomic articles and their potentiali
ties.)
ONE KILLED, MANY
HURT IN BLAST
PORTLAND, ORE., Aug. 23.—
{JP)—An explosiqn that knocked
housewives from their chairs 50
blocks away and damaged the
plant of the Iron Fireman Man
ufacturing company today, kill
ing one and injuring an undeter
mined number of workers.
Police reported a workman,
Michael Heck, was killed.
One hospital admitted five men
shortly after the blast, and an
other said it was expecting 17
casualties.
Oil stoves in the basement were
ignited. \
The tremendous blast, in a fur
nace in the heat treating room
set off alarm clocks in distant sec
tions of the city and lifted a 100
foot square section of corrugated
metal roof into the air. It fell
back again, exactly in place. j
The main section of the plant
was not destroyed, but operations
were helted today. Iron Firemen
nas been manufacturing aircraft
parts. !
GIVES 50TH PINT
NEW ORLEANS— (U.P.) —The
“One-man Wesley L: Whitlow, of
the police force—recently donated
his 50th pint of blood in 13 years
of service.
MALARIA
CHECKED IN 7 DAYS WITH
LIQUID for
MALARIAL
SYMPTOMS
Take only as
directed
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16 RID POINTS PER LB.
SUNNYFIELD CREAMERY
BUTTER
IN QTR. LB. PRINTS
“ 49°
TILGHMAN
SILVER
HAKE
CANNED FISH
- 21 °
Grade A Veal
CHOPS 6 Red Points
(HOPS.lb. 38c
GROUND 4 Red Points
VEAL.lb. 30t
VEAL 2 Red Points
STEW.lb. 20c
VEAL 5 Red Points
ROAST.lb. 27c
N. Y. DRESSED Not Rationed
FRYERS.lb. 48c
LARGE SOUTHPORT Not Rationed
SHRIMP lb. 43c
CLAPP’S
Strained Foods Can 7c
Chopped Foods Can 9c
DRY CEREAL OR
FRESH TENDER ^
GREEN BEANS.2lbs. 25c
NEW GREEN
CABBAGE.2lbs. 7c
SWEET ;
POTATOES.21bs. 19c
In Hull
ENGLISH PEAS.2lbs. 37c
NEW WHITE U. S. NO. 1
POTATOES.10 lbs. 37c
CALIFORNIA
BARTLETT PEARS.2lbs. 28c
JUICY All Sizes
LEMONS.lb. 10c
Daily Dated
Oatmeal, 2 25c
P. D. Q.
CHOCOLATE FLAVORED
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Jar
PLAIN FLOUR
PILLSBURY
10-Lb.
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RED HEART
Dog Food, pkg .... 10c
HOLSUM PEANUT CRUNCH
Peanut Butter :jat 30c
Wheaties
p£ 11c
1 ANN PAGE
jT Ketchup . . 15c
| JB ¥ MONTEREY
#% f Grape Juice Punch . . . «• 24c \
P ( V-8 Cocktail ....30c \
| 1 POINT FREE—BORDER \
y f Grapefruit Juice . - 29c j
£ KADOTA /
E \ Fig Bits.~"23i )
_ % RIVERSIDE J
Li vSoy Beans ■ ■ ■ ■ 3 ^ 10c j
SUNNYFIELD T
BREAD X CORN FLAKES /
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