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The Star-News can not be responsible for currency sent through the mails.1 _ MEMBER OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS AND ALSO SERVED BY THE UNITED PRESS FRIDAY, OCTOBER 11, 1946 Man Is Not A Bee We Amercans usually speak of com munism as if it were a foreign econo mic organism. But it might be well to remember that communism has been practiced here by various groups for over a century. Robert Owens’ experi ment in New Harmony, Ind., began in 1825, more than 20 years before Karl Mar’s manifesto appeared. There was the famous Brook Farm in Massachu setts, and there were various experi ments by the followers of Francois Fourier. And there was the Amana Society of Iowa, whose whirl at communism lasted longer than any to date. Nelson Antrim Crawford tells its interesting story in the current American magazine, under the title “Communism Goes Broke in Iowa.” The Amana Society, a religious group, adopted communism in 1855 and stuck wdth it for 77 years. Its seven communities were situated on 26,000 acres of Iowa’s richest farm land. Its credo was found not in Marx, but in the Scriptures: “None of them said aught of the things which he possessed was his own; but they had all things common.” Amana followed the text to the let ter. Everything—work, shelter, food— was by and for the community. The only concession was $5 or $10 a month spending money for each family. “A purported divine revelation,” says Mr. Crawford, threatened backsliders with various woes in this world and the next, and served to keep possible doubters in line. The only trouble was that Amana’s communism didn’t work well. It got off on even terms with capitalism. But while surrounding communites thrived, Amana, for all its rich land, lagged far behind. The reason for this was the usual one—lack of incentive. Productivity was low because there was no reward for doing better. As one Amana man told Mr. Crawford: “What communists never seem to realize is that man is not a bee." Amana permitted a few of its brigh ter youngsters to go outside the com munity for high school and college education, on the promise that they would return. But many came back from this liberation discontented with the old life. That, plus poverty, finally forced a change. Communism was abolished in favor of a community corporation with the adult residents as •fcockholders. Farming and industry have been Uourishing ever since. It is estimated that this year the Amana Society, with a total population of 1200, will produce $6,000,000 worth of crops, livestock and manufactured goods. In the lush years of 1928 and 1929, with the same acre age and a population of 1000, the an nual production was only $600,000. Amana was a laboratory test of pure communism in an auspicious environ ment. Amana doubtless was free of some of the evils of private capitalism as it is practiced. But it could not of fer the comfort, health and fair op portunity for the pursuit of happiness which American capitalism, for all its shortcomings, provides. Some Russian economists admit that the Soviet Union really isn’t practicing communism today. But when it does, they imply, Russia will be Utopia. Yet here was pure communism, and it didn’t work. It didn’t work mainly because man’s nature is not changed when someone tells him that it is only right to strive for the general good, and that it is evil to seek individual happiness and com fort. Maybe that theory is right. But man remains a man and not a bee. And communism remains a little less won derful than advertised. The Other Side American railroads are facing a serious financial situation according to competent students of. the nation’s transportation facilties. The pleas of several major carriers before the Interstate Commerce Com mission for an increase in freight rates have been substantially reinforced by data showing a deficit of $42,000,000 by Class I roads in the first seven months of this year. Another example of the graveness of the situation is reflected in the testi mony by officials of the Pennsylvania that their road would show a deficit in 1946 for the first time in its cen tury-long history. The I. C. C. recently granted a 6 per cent emergency rise. The carriers have asked for an additional 19 per cent to bring the general freight rate increase to 25 per cent. They declare that cost increase since 1940 have total ed around 50 per cent in labor and 48 per cent in materials, while there has been a sharp decline in revenue from wartime levels. It is true that the roads benefited during the war years, cutting long-term debt about $2,000,000,000 and boosting their working capital. But a tremen dous program of repairs and rehabilita tion now faces them. Maintaining and improving operating efficiency becomes [unlikely without higher revenues. A recommendation that the I. C. C. withold a further increase in rates until sometime in 1947, when the “revenue and expense picture is clearer,” was advanced by the then Acting Secretary of Commerce Alfred Schindler. Perhaps Schindler thought he was befriending the public. But holding net rail income below depression-year levels at a time when the national income is the highest on record is hardly good economic pro cedure. The health of the railroads is of national concern. Without needed revenue, they cannot give the improved service they seek and which the public wants. — Sounds Like Mutiny Mrs. Mildred Y. McKay, director of safety and education for the Cleveland Automobile club, has endeared herself to most males by her recent statements at Chicago. There to attend the 34th National Safety Congress and Exposition, Mrs. McKay, a safety expert, said women are lousy automobile drivers. She even con tended that the fair sex knows less about driving than they do about buy ing hats. Many a poor male has long felt that Mrs. McKay is right, but you can rest assured that not one would have dared to have stood up in public and make such a charge. “Give a woman a $1,500 mink coat and she will care for it like a baby,” said the lady traffic authority. “But give her a $1,500 automobile and she will park it anywhere, forget about oil and lubrication and add a garage door to its fender,” she contends. “The average woman hasn’t the faintest idea of what is on the other end of the controls on a car,” we’re still quoting Mrs. McKay. “She pushes and pulls things because she has been told to do so. “If a woman has the intelligence to drive a car, she should have the intelligence to make it her business to learn something about what makes that car stop and go” so she contends. While many a victim of back-seat driving may mumble a non-audible word of praise for the forthrightness of the lady expert’s contentions, we’re willing to bet that she will receive few, if any, invitations to address women’s clubs on her unique views concerning the driving ability of the ladies. As Pegler Sees It By WESTBROOK PEGLER (Copyright, by King Features Syndicate, Inc.) NEW YORK, Oct. 10.—When the Wagner Act was passed in 1936, most of the thirteen million G.I.’s of World War II were too young to realize that they had been trapped into serfdom under the masters ol unionism. Thus, most of them have never known freedom eftd do not know what they lost during their po litical or civic infancy. They were 17 or 18 years old at the highest when Wagner’s law went whooping through under the fraudulent pretense that its only purpose was to safe guard interstate commerce against the im pediment of labor disputes. Millions of them ! were children of T2 or 13 years. Babies. Few of us who were adults at the time perceived that this was a revolutionary slick trick by w hich the union masters, great, pompous tyrants, some with truly baronial privileges, and yachts, racing stables and winter palaces, were granted the power to fix the wages of the people. The stupidly mis taken belief of the mature citizens of the time was that here was a bill whose only intention was the beautiful purpose of pro tecting the right of workers to join unions and equalize the inequality between an enor mous, soulless corporation and the individual workman hungry and shivering at the em ployment gate. We who were old enough to know better were guilty of a disastrous error of careless and emotional thinking. Intelligent, sober study of the Wagner bill would have shown us that this was not Wagner’s intention or Roosevelt’s either, and that congress had no power to regulate relations between the citizen and his employer within a state. Wagner, Roosevelt and their legal counsel knew congress lacked the power to do this. That is why they used the pretext of ex pediting and protecting interstate commerce. They tricked us. 1 Congress does possess the specmc rigm 10 regulate commerce, so they hitched their fascist scheme to the commerce clause of the constitution. Here is the language of the pretext, slightly abbreviated: “It is the policy of the United States to eliminate the causes of certain sub stantial obstructions to the free flow of com merce.” As a means of doing this, however, they would protect “the exercise by the workers of freedom of self-organization and desig nation of agents of their own choosing” for collective bargaining. If those people believed that congress really had the constitutional power to “encourage the practice of collective bargaining,” another phrase in the preamble, why didn’t they state that to be the “policy of the United States?” The reason v;as that Wagner. Roosevelt, the Department of Justice and the union lawyers had in mind the plan, soon to become a reality, through which the workers were not merely “encouraged” to join unions, but driven snd'-hounded Into unions by hundreds of thousands through physical, economic and social terror; were frankly and arrogantly de nied freedom to choose their own bargaining agents and. like the serfs of old Europe, were delivered from place to place in faceless masses; disciplined, ordered and subdued, at wages agreed upon by their union masters. To say that they were "encouraged” to join unions is like saying that a condemned man was “encouraged” to be seated in the electric chair. When I speak of faceless masses delivered from place to place by their union masters I am not tossing you an overripe figure of speech. I saw it done one day in Detroit when an industrial official remarked that he had loaned a thousand men — he had loaned a thousand American citizens as though they were draft horses—to another big manufactur er engaged in war w'ork, to meet an emergen cy. They were his faceless people allotted him by the union and the government in Washington. They had no more to say about their pay or conditions of w-ork than so many head of work stock. All that was arranged between the union masters and the employ ers, under government supervision. It is not uncommon to hear one general in a war say that he loaned or borrowed one or several divisions of soldiers to meet an emergency. But these were civilian work ers. who are supposed to be free men. If you think that was only a temporary condition jou are mistaken. Long before the war, many unions absolutely forbade their members to find their own jobs. No, they must go to the union hall and take their turns in the hiring line and then go where they are sent. They still must. If the union happens to be on good terms with the em ployer the condition of *he individual worker may be the worse, not better, for that. The union master likes to show how efficient he is in ruling the mass of labor assigned to his custody under Wagner’s laws and he makes the faceless man toe the mark. I can tell you, he likes to be a big-shot. He is. Under Wagner’s law, the worst bum is as good as the best man in the local. Better, for that matter, if the superior man has a little spirit and ambition and shows a little of the white-eye of rebellion against this equalization of incompetence with ability, lazi ness with diligence. Even among musicians this is the method of “handling labor” for the benign purpose of removing impediments to interstate commerce. If a cafe or saloon wants a fiddler, the local sends the next fiddler, not a good fiddler necessarily, and the best violinist in town may be walking the streets awaiting his turn In the news paper business the guild wanted the power to send around the top man on the list, even a commuhist, if a paper needed an editorial writer, as though all writers were alike. You all have heard the term “outlaw strike.” An outlaw is a criminal, without the law. Are such strikers outlaws? Not at all. The terms means merely that some group of workers have revolted against the union masters placed over them by Wagner’s law to facilitate interstate commerce. These mas ters may be the most notorious jailbirds and gangsters in town or Stalinist traitors against the United States. But we are *o far gone in our dumb, docile acceptance of this serf dom that by this time we even call men outlaws who merely try to recapture the free dom that W’agner and Roosevelt stole away under a truly historic fraud. Most of them don’t realize that they are really rebelling against Wagner’s law. however. They curse HORN OF PLENTY know what Hit him l s ^ —1 ■■ ^ __ U.S. Children In Germany To Study In Rural School Atmosphere Again BY RICHARD KASISCHKE Associated Press Staff Correspondent BERLIN, Oct. 10—(VP)—It won’t be red, but the equivalent of the little red schoolhouse will pre dominate among the schools set up for the children of American personnel in Germany . Major Mary S. Bell, of th« De pendents School service headquar ters at Frankfurt, estimates that 46 schools will open their terms this month to instruct an anticipat ed 3,000 American children. Of these, she says, 25 will be in small communities with about 25 children each, much like country schools in the U. S. where one teacher is required to teach all eight elementary grades. It was that situation that made Major Bell’s task of recruiting teachers in the U. S. for service here somewhat complicated. A bachelor of science degree is re quired for elementary teachers and a master’s degree for high school instructors. Maj. Bell signed up 120 teachers from 34 different states and the District of Columbia. In general they average eight to 10 years ex perience. Their pay is $3,700 an nually with a guarantee of travel STAR Dust DEMOCRACY IN ACTION Two G.I.’s passing through Hyde Park in London in a jeep, stopped to listen to one of the open-air orators. They felt a bit surprised when the police took no notice of an attack on the monarchy as "a decadent remnant of an outworn feudalism,” but felt something was bound to happen when the tub thumper went on to denounce the police as "paid hirelings of a capitalistic society.” Something did happen. The con stable on the outskirts of the crowd walked over to the jeep and said to the G.I.s: "Please turn off your engine. The poor chap can’t make himself heard.”—Answers._ their union masters, not the law that made them masters. To G. I. students in college and G. I.’s in veterans’ organizations, I suggest this: Clip this column and take it to school or to your veterans’ meet ing . There are a lot of vicious fakers teaching something that they call social science *in college nowadays who have been taking a dirty advantage of the inexperience and ignorance of students too young to know the answers, to teach them fascism disguised as democracy. There are similar propagandists in veterans’ groups. So I say, bat them between the eyes with the statements made in this essay on the Wagner Act and its fraudulent professed purposes and its notorious results. You may rely on the absolute truth of every statement made. Get out the con stitution and the text of Wagner’s law. Argue it out. Don’t let them bull you around with ideological jargon or shift the ground, as they will when they see you know your stuff. Don’t lower your eyes and bow your head when they mention the name of Roosevelt. Pin their ears back and one day you may recover the freedom that he stole from you when you were too young to know. " expenses both ways. There prob ably will be about 15 more engaged, and that’s reckoned enough to start the first American school year in occupied Germany . There will be schools in Bremen and Berlin as well as throughout the three Laender (states) com posing the American zone. The smaller schools will be in the zone. The five high schools will be in Berlin, Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Er langen and Munich. Berlin’s school will be a consolidated one, with high school and elementary grades in the same building. By mid-Sc-ptember about 25 teach ers had arrived at Frankfurt to start work on courses of study. The others were on the seas en route or awaiting passage at U. S. ports. Maj. Bell said new textbooks for elementary schools had arrived from the U. S., along with plenty of school supplies. It is planned to have a library for each school and in addition a mobile library to supply schools in the zone. German will be taught by Ger man teachers supervised by an American. That’s the only course in which Germans will be employ ed. Maj. Bell says Russian will be taught if there is sufficient de mand for it. "The plans look fine and pro spects excellent and our teachers are a superior group,” she sum marized. Maj. Bell, whose home is Huron, Religion Day By Day BY WILLIAM T. ELLIS ONE MORNING’S MAIL There is no predicting what the morning’s mail will bring to a newspaper man. Here are two let ters from Seventh Day Adventists who call me names because I wrote about the Christian Sabbath. One covers the point that all the great Christian churches have al ways observed the first day of the week by saying that they were filled by the Devil! Because 1 spoke a good word for The Holy Name Society one cor respondent dubs me a hireling ol the Church of Rome, which he terms ‘‘The Harlot.’’ But there are other letters, so kindly, so understanding, so com mendatory that I would blush to quote them. One, sweetly reason able and sincerely religious, is from an eminent Roman Catholic, approving my concern for the Sab bath. Curious, isn’t it, how most of the ill temper letter that the postman brings to me are from my fellow Protestants? Of course, the cream of the morning’s mail is the letters from generous readers (two of them men of national distinction) who have read so much of themselves into what I have written that they have been moved to express their appreciation. What a kaleidoscopic picture of real life daily passes through the postoffice! We are grateful, O Lord, for all the people who publicly express themselves. May the number of these witnesses to what they be lieve be multiplied. Amen. S. D., was dean of women at Coe college, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, when she joined the Army in the summer of 1942. _ McKENNEY On BRIDGE ——-j VK106 t ♦ KQ1094 + 643 + Q974 | +10 63 ' 2 ! VJ73 ! V 952 ♦ A65 + 8 +AJ10 9 + K 7 5 2 ij Lembeck + AKJ V AQ84 ♦ J732 + Q8 Tournament—Neither vul. South West North East 1 ♦ Pass 3 ♦ Pass 3 N. T. Pass Pass Pass Opening—+ 4 11 BY WILLIAM E. McKENNEY America’s Card Authority In addition to winning the na tional amateur team - of-four championship, Charles Lembeck and Lawrence Blum of New York finished second in the President’s Pair event at the recent summe* nationals. Eighty-four pairs en tered the event, establishing an all-time record. Lembeck played today's hand very well, and it is one on which most players would slip up. He played the eight of spades from dummy on the opening lead and East put on the 10. Now should South win with the jack? If he had, it would have cost his con tract. When East got in with the ace of diamonds, he would have shifted to a club and cashed four club tricks. However, Lembeck false-carded Doctor Says— BODY REQUIRES MANY MINERALS By WILLIAM A. O’BRIEN, M, D. From 3 to 5 per cent of body weight consists of the mineral salts — calcium, sodium, phosphor ous, iron, Iodine, and small amounts of sulphur, potassium chlorine, copper, manganese, ,nj others. The part which these minerals play in the economy of the bod- ,, not entirely understood, and i0r that reason self-styled food expert make extravagant claims for their mineral products. Calcium and phosphorous art fc.und in the greatest amounts ia the bones and teeth, where they add to the strength of these struc tures. The body also uses calcium to help regulate the nervous sys tem. Convulsions may follow reduc tion in the calcium present in the blood. This does not mean, how. ever, that convulsions can be treated by the administration of calcium, or that extra calcium will necessarily prevent convulsions. Calcium is needed in the iarg. est amounts by pregnant and nurs. ing women and by growing chil dren. Good sources of calcium in the diet are good quality pasteur ized milk, cheese, green leafy vegetables, beans, and peas. The amount of calcium in the body is affected by parathormone, the secretarion of the parathy roid glands, which are small struc tures located near the thyroid glad in the neck. When these glands produce too much parathormone as a result of a growth (adenoma) in one of them, the extra secretion takes the calcium from the bones, leav ing them thin, fibrous structures which fracture easily. This con dition is treated by removing the enlarged gland from the neck. Calcium is also used by the body in the clotting of the blood. Blood clotting is a complicated process in which many elements participate. A deficiency of any of the required substances may result in a tendency toward hem orrhage. Phosphorous is closely related to calcium, and most of the cal cium and the phosphorous in the body are together. For a long time people have taken medicines containing hypo phosphites as a tonic for their nerves, simply because phosphor ous is found in large amounts in the brain and spinal cord. The effect of hypophosphites is psycho logical, however; in cases of ner vous exhaustion there is no evi. dence of organic disease in the nervous system. The idea that fish is a brain food grew out of the same concept. While fish is an important item in the diet, it does not help people who are suffering with disease of the brain and spinal cord. Vitamin D assists the body in depositing calcium and phosphor ous in the bone, but other factors are necessary ss well. Vitamins A and C assist in the development of cartilage, vitamins C and D assist in the formation of dentine in the teeth, and thiamin is necessary for the development of bones in the long direction. Secretions of the pituitary and thyroid glands also aid in bone formation. The well-balanced general diet permits the body to solve this problem. One should not rely on extra doses of calcium alone. QUESTION: Is infantile paraly sis caused by flies? ANSWER: No. Infantile paraly sis is caused by a virus (a form of germ). The virus may be spread by flies, but we have no absolute proof that it is. and won the spade trick with the king. Then when East got in, he decided to try to knock out another spade stopper. Lembeck won with the ace and cashed the four good diamonds and four good hearts. » * * Little plays like this are what count in bridge. Look your hand over carefully before you play 10 the first trick. Do not just reach for a card because it looks 1*® the natural thing to do. WHY WE SAY by STAN J. COU.INS 111 JUW5W* ' ‘'.RACKETEER* This modern slang word traces its? origin to Enghbid of the 17th CenturyJ where pickpockets would start a RACK ET on the streets in order to attract a crowd and then victimized the group.