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c°^tAoS-sr ti'lNS! - ^ :kby.l OEmocracv , r ! v'~ ..1 f I us. 1 dollar! ^^arrow^A/^/ewsfeofure^^ "•v _ _J " Civil uxjr sure is o terrible thing,yep! Washington Ponders New Foreign Policy CONGRESS is up to its legislative ears in foreign as well as na tional problems. Immersed in such controversial domestic issues 95 tax reduction, revising labor laws, housing and ending wartime price and commodity controls, legislators turned to consideration of an aggressive new foreign policy as enunciated by President Tru man's call for American aid to keep Greece and Turkey out of com munist hands. <¥>-<® There was not much time and the questions were momentous. A March 31 deadline had been set for action on the Presidential request for the S400.000.000 grant because that is when British aid to Greece ends. Republican leaders in the House and Senate doubted a bill could be draft ed and sped through the legislative hopper by that time. There was plenty of Republican backing' for the aid plan—but with reservations. How far would it lead and in what direc tion? Assistant Secretary of State Dean Acheson told the Senate Foreign Re lations Committee this country did not expect to send troops to Greece, Turkey or any other country. “We do not see any need to do so,” he said. “And we do not intend to do so.” Not a Road to War Ache, on told both House and Sen ate committees lie did no± think such assistance would lead to war. How ever, this country will be ready to act, he indicated, if any situation de velops similar to the one in Greece and Turkey. Acheson said he could not specify what form that action would take. Sen. Arthur Vandenberg (R-Mich), chairman of the Senate foreign com mittee, said he regarded that point as "very significant.” The President, by executive decree, ordered a check on the loyalty of all federal employes. Although Commu nists and "fellow travelers” were not specified in the order, it was indicated they were the first targets in the drive. The FBI is aiding in the investigation. Similar probes were being con ducted by many states. In Short . . . Planned: By the U. S. State Depart ment, short-wave broadcasts to the Greek, Turkish and Arabic people in their own languages. Reported: By Sen. Owen Brewster (R-Me), that U. S. airplane production had dropped to 2 percent of its wartime peak. Forbidden: By the Supreme Soviet (Parliament), marriages between So viet citizens and foreigners. Agreed: By Russia in response to a F S. State Department note, to quit the Manchurian port of Dairen and turn it over to Chinese control. Production Key to Europe's Recovery Strong bi-partisan support devel oped in Congress for Herbert Hoover’s prescription for speeding European economic recovery by reviving German industry, pruned of its military poten tial. The former Presi dent, in his third re port on an economic mission to Austria and Germany, de clared that produc tion is “the only path to recovery in Europe” and that Europe as a whole could not recover HERBERT HOOVER without the economic recovery ot Ger many. Hoover proposed that German in dustry be freed of foreign ownership and operated under an Allied control commission, that removal and destruc tion of all except arms plants be halted and that the industrialized Ruhr and Rhineland be left part of Germany. Germany’s exports must be raised, said Hoover, to enable her to pay repa rations and relieve American taxpay ers of the burden of relief, now run ning about 400 million dollars a year. Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy (R-Wis) declared. “If we adopt (Hoover’s) plan, it may indicate we have learned the inescapable fact that we can’t have vengeance and peace. We’ve got to choose one or the other.” Dates Tuesday, April 1 April Fool’s Day. Cancer Control Month begins. Thursday, April 3 Maundy (Holy) Thursday. Friday, April 4 Good Friday. Saturday, April 5 Passover, first day. President Truman speaks at Jefferson Day dinner. Sunday, April 6 Easter. Army Day. WBpgpim? a~J’” ~~ ~ ( MOSCOW: East-West Showdown Looms BEFORE the Moscow confer ence opened, there was a be lief among some western diplo mats that the foreign ministers would do less toward solving the climactic German problems than ■ toward making their divergent views on them clear to each other. That prediction is substantiated by a Big Four coordinating committee of deputies, who are finding about 75 per cent disagreement and only 25 percent agreement in the propositions dis cussed so far. I Kremlin Visits Ernest Bevin, Britain's foreign sec retary, conferred early in the week with Stalin, presumably discussing revision of the British-Soviet alliance, former Secretary of State James F. Byrnes’ proposed 40-vear four-power pact against Germany and current German problems confronting the Big Four. Since Georges Bidault, French for eign secretary, talked with Stalin two weeks ago, Bevin’s visit left Marshall the last of the visiting foreign ministers to confer with Stalin. American quarters in Moscow noted with interest that the Bevin and Bidault visits followed inquiries on their part about a meeting with the Soviet chief executive. Marshall was reported content that his tete-a-tete with Stalin should be delayed until after the German issues ..... uajmMuuumniliW VODKA TOASTS are a traditional Russian acid test of diplo matic visitors. Here Marshal Konev (left) and U. S. Gen. Mark Clark, advisers to the Big Four conference, exchange one. Fedor T. Gusev, Soviet deputy foreign minister, looks on. before the council had reached the showdown stage. Persons close to the American secretary said he stood firmly on recent developments in basic U. S. policy toward Russia. Meanwhile repercussions of the Con gressional hearings in Washington over America's proposed new policy toward Greece and Turkey were felt in Moscow. Kremlin planners pondered the tes timony of Acting Secretary of State Dean Acheson, whom Marshall calls his "deputy chief of staff." Acheson told the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that all of the proposed $150,000,000 loan to Turkey would be for military aid and that he did not know any country other than Russia which could be identified as a “po tential aggressor as far as Turkey is concerned.” Bullitt Heard in Moscow William C. Bullitt, former ambas sador to Moscow, told the House Com mittee on Un-American Activities that he believes the Soviet Union intends to make an “ultimate assault” upon the U. S. and that if Russia had the atomic bomb it already would have been used against America. Observers at the Big Four confer ence foresee the showdown stage as not far off in the flatly opposing east west plans for a new German govern ment. Essentially, they say, the proposals by Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav M. Molotov would build the German government from the top down via a strong central government which Rus sia hopes to control. The American and British plans seek to build the govern ment from the bottom up through a series of federated states. The Big Four decided to let other nations in on the German peace pact after the 1946 pattern set in Paris but disagreed over the number. The U.S. and Britain ruled out a seat for Al bania, suggested by the Russians. U.N.: The Soviet's 10th Veto THE first Russian veto in six months marked the first anniversary of the United Nations Security Council on American soil. The veto was invoked by Andrei Gromyko, Soviet delegate, to kill a resolution sustaining British charges of mine-laying against Albania. Russia’s 10th use of the veto was on an amended British resolution which declared that Albania could not have been without knowledge of the laying of a minefield off her s> coast which damaged two British destroyers and killed 44 seamen last October and that the laying of mines in peacetime without notification was “an offense against humanity.” It wfas the first resort to the veto in the council since last September when Russia vetoed the original proposal of the United States for an on-the-spot investigation of the Bal kan situation. The call for a Balkan investigation was offered again in the council and finally on December 19 it was approved unanimously. Meanwhile in Washington, President Secrets Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam A score of long suppressed clauses of the Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam agreements were disclosed at Wash ington with the assurance that they were the last of the secrets from the wartime meetings of the Allied Big Three. The<bfficial texts bared an agreement at Tehran by President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill and Marshal Stalin favoring Turkey’s entry into the war before the end of 1943. Acting Secretary of State Dean Acheson told the Senate Foreign Re lations Committee earlier in the week that Turkey’s neutrality aided the Al lies by barring the way to Axis 'expan sion into the oil-rich middle east. Turkey eventually did declare war on Germany and Japan, less than three months before V-E Day. In addition to the Tehran reports, sections whose texts had not been pre viously published included: A Yalta conference agreement ten tatively setting a figure of 20 billion dollars for consideration regarding German reparations, and authorizing payment from current production and use of German manpower. A Potsdam agreement to divide Ger man navy and maritime ships equally among Russia, Britain and the United States. A Potsdam agreement that the Mon treux convention governing Turkey’s control of the Black Sea straits should be revised. . ,.ii»:::i*S!fjSSaffiiS888SSRti5i»Sa Truman declared that the United States in all its acts sought to add strength to the United Nations and up hold the principles and purposes of the U.N. charter. His announcement took on more than routine significance because of the proposals pending in Congress to aid Greece and Turkey di rectly in resisting communist aggres sion and a feeling that such action might in effect by-pass the U.N. Warren R. Austin, American dele gate, clarified the point still further in a statement to the Security Council on the Greco-Turkish situation. Hot Shots • A bowling alley with automatic pin setting machines is being constructed in the White House basement as a birthday present for the President who will be 63 on May 8. • In Roxbury, Mass., six housewives were fined $'10 each for playing poker on Sunday. The complainants were their husbands. • In Woodstock, Vt., there was a fire Sunday in the basement of the home of Wendall Walker. Monday his fam ily extinguished flames under a stair case. Tuesday a fire started in an up stairs partition. Wednesday the jittery Walkers moved out. Thursday fire de stroyed the house. • In Waukegan, 111., a long line of war veterans filed application for the new state bonus but three exservicemen, veterans of World War I, found they were late by nearly 20 years. The dead line for applications in the first war bonus was September 9, 1927. • In Newcastle, Del., Patrolman Francis J. Hewlett, the city’s one-man night police force, telephoned Dela ware State Police barracks five miles away. “Two guys just broke into a grocery store right across the street,” he said. “They can see me, so if I make a move they’ll scram.” Hewlett stayed put for 10 minutes till he saw a police car glide up, then sauntered across the street and the burglars ran out the back way—into two state cops waiting for them. (All Rights Reserved, AP Newsfeatures) Quote Walter Audisio, Italian under ground leader and reputed execu tioner of Benito Mussolini: “Mus solini died a coward. He stood against the wall, shaking with terror, babbling ‘But, but, but, but,’ ” Science A Homegrown Protest One of the arguments once ad vanced for internationalization of atomic research was the assertion that scientific genius recognized no nation al boundaries. This week scientists, themselves, cracked that one. The Federation of American Scien tists urges that German scientists ALLIED AGENTS snapped pic tures behind Nazi lines with "matchbox" cameras like this. brought to this country for military research be sent back home as soon as possible and that they be denied cit izenship and jobs in U. S. private in dustry and education. Meanwhile the Office of Strategic Services disclosed that cameras small enough to be hidden in a man’s hand aided Allied agents behind enemy lines in World War II. The “matchbox” cameras produced half-inch square pictures that could be enlarged many times. A “vestpock et” darkroom, manufactured with it by an American company, had chemi cals in pill form, enabling agents to develop film in a small glass with a single jigger of solution. The camera made 30 exposures on a 16-millimeter film. Author Realism, Plus A Hollywood mystery movie writer, famed for his realism and tough dia logue, picked up authentic background by actually working as a gunman and thief, according to the FBI. Ernest G. Booth, 48, who wrote the script for “Ladies of the Big House,” is charged in an indictment with con cealment of $250,000 in securities stolen in Seattle in 1943. Two of Booth’s novels, “Sirens Screaming” and “Stealing Through Life,” were reported sold recently to studios. The FBI said Booth started writing in 1926 “while serving time in Folsom Prison.” AERIAL: Leviathan in Labor The $20,000,000 Gamble The Senate War Investigating Com mittee will probe into Howard Hughes’ huge experimental flying boat that al ready has cost the government $20, 000,000 and never has flown. Sen. Owen Brewster (R-Me), com mittee chairman, said the mammoth craft -was supposed to have been com pleted four years ago. “We are determined,” Brewster said, “to find out why this contract was let after it had been rejected by every body in the Army, Navy, Maritime Commission and the War Production Eoard.” The decision for public hearings, which may begin in another week, was reached at a closed committee session. Brewster said the original contract was for $18,000,000 but the “government — . .. .11.— ... - dumped in another two or three mil lion dollars.” Hughes, plane manufacturer and movie producer, testified sometime age at a closed committee meeting and he was quoted by Sen. Brewster as saying the huge craft “will fly or sink.” The contract for the eight-engine flying boat went originally to the Kaiser-Hughes Corp., formed by Henry Kaiser and Hughes. Kaiser later withdrew from the flying boat contract, which was then carried on by a subsidiary of the Hughes Tool Corp. Sen. Brewster said the ship was con structed of plywood and materials not required for other aircraft. He said it weighed about 400,000 pounds, wa* four times larger than any other air craft when started, and was expected to carry about 700 troops. GIANT FLYING BOAT is almost ready for water taxi tests at Long Beach, Calif. Howard Hughes, recovered from recent crash in another experimental ship, may take the controls. « ■RiMT* li t f s JBHKffVI Russia Near Atom Secret A GERMAN scientist, who says he was abducted for atomic research in Russia, claims the Soviet Union is on the threshold of developing an atomic bomb. Escaping from Moscow on a ruse of recruiting other German sci entists for work in Russia, the nuclear physicist bared his tale to American and British military intelligence. His identity kept secret, the scientist said he hope., to come to the U.S. soon. Russian efforts to probe atomic se crets are “relentless,” he declared, and Soviet scientists are “sweating blood” night and day. He fled Russian custody and now lives in fear of his life because he feeli that the “atom bomb in the hands of the United States is the only means of securing world peace and the freedom of scientists to continue their work liberty.” Hunt for Pitchblende The German said that some 12,000 engineers and miners, both Russian and German, are hunting pitchblende —the source of uranium—in utmost se crecy in Russian-occupied Germany. At least 200 former Nazi scientists and technicians, including some of Germany’s foremost nuclear men, now are working for the Soviet govern ment. Their laboratories and living quarters are a virtual peradise in Mos cow, southern Russia, Siberia and be yond the Urals. German scientists are treated equally, if not better than Rus sian physicists, he said. Every Russian general in Germany, the expert said, strives to send nu clear scientists back to Russia. The German expert said he believed atomic energy could be harnessed easi ly in Russia with its “great spaces like the United States, with men, mate rials, money and government power.” When he returned to Germany, the physicist said he found great secrecy surrounding Soviet efforts to get uranium from the Erz Mountains di viding Saxony from the Sudetenland. “People there told me,” he said, “that every day freight cars piled high with little boxes roll out of the area. The Russians spread the rumor they are getting pitchblende. But unless all German experts are mistaken there is no pitchblende there.” Across the divide, however, near the Czechoslovak town of St. Joachimstal, he said, extensive mining is underway where Marie Curie obtained pitch blende for pioneer work on radium.