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THE Balkans, traditional pow der keg of Europe in which so v Old-World wars have been muled, this week drove a split vo the United Nations that 'wed grave concern over the fu 7,77.H the world peace organization. "T'v Russians vetoed a Security f etfort to create an U-nation . r watch over the explosive 77 :.r. It was the 11th time in U.N. ,777- that Russia invoked the big \ to. The only other veto was ...:e on a minor procedural in June a year ago? ■.vto by Soviet delegate Andrei , 7;. ;;yko killed an American pro 7 i b ..red on an on-the-spot U.N. commission. The commission report cdid, i tr.at Yugoslavia, Albania and Bulgaria. Russian satellite states, v 7 fomenting unrest in Greece. ” t ;e vote was 9 to 2, Poland join ing Russia in opposition. Second Balkan Veto It was the second Russian veto of a Balkan commission. The first was cn September 20,, 1946, when Gro r7ko furred down an American f. insore; resolution for an investi 7- ,n of Greek border incidents. He abstained from voting last December „ ,cn the commission finally was set Up. Her seh el V. Johnson, deputy A,. , 1 :i delegate, termed this 7 vk's Russian action a “simple abuse of power.” A Bricsh spokesman said the veto vr. t.ie logical outcome of a Soviet policy of obstruction in the Balkans commission and “further evidence t live Soviet government is not v rime to lift a finger to solve unrest in tr: Balkans.” After conferences with Secretary Marshall and other top policy makers in Washington, Johnson returned to Lake Success determined, he said, to do everything possible to keep within tile framework of the U.N. But the R • •..an action, he declared, created a grave situation which the U.S. did not intend to let go by default. \\ ild Rumors There was speculation, however, tl..:t if ail avenues for action within the U.N. were exhausted, Greece might invite the nine powers to set up a commission of their own outside the U.N. There were even rumors that na tions. stymied by abuse of the veto, might withdraw, leaving the Soviet bloc with a private U.N. of their own. ■ The U.N. crisis over the Balkans widens but it by no means started the division between east and west. For some time it has appeared that pvestern nations were moving to the [oint where world affairs might have ) be conducted without participa on of Soviet Russia. In addition to the splitting of Eu ope over the Marshall plan, two con irences on German problems and thers on the Japanese peace now are 1 progress without Russia. Paris Assets & Liabilities Delegates of many of the 16 na tions at the Paris conference to map the reconstruction of Europe on a cooperative basis returned to their own capitals this week to work with economic experts on the recovery blueprints of their own countries.' Over the weekend, the conference sen, a 12-point economic question naire to each of the 16 member na ti ns with a request that it be an swered in full and returned before n.iinight of August 3. Answers to the questionnaire will supply the basis for future decisions w. m the international parley’s six technical committees: metal indus tries, food, inland transport, maritime tifnsport, power and finances. Thus the Paris conference, called to implement the Marshall plan, has completed its organization, charted its general objectives and, next week, w.,1 assay all aspects of its members’ individual recovery programs and synchronize them. Rescue A Good Long Rest Five shipwrecked American fisher I men, marooned f 3 days on a tiny, deserted Pacific islet, were back mme this week better off, physically, '■or their harrowing experience. On May 19, their 50-foot motorship fastis was wrecked during a line on the reefs off Clipperton. Capt. William Noble and his crew of Our were safely washed ashore, but ■ fate looked grim. The tiny mand is 1,400 miles southwest of San Pedro, Calif., their home port, and r off steamer lanes in the lonely "artness of the Pacific. Next day, however, the men swam rut to the wreck and salvaged food, ■thing and cigarettes. They found honed Navy Quonset huts on the amj and moved in. In the huts they • red more clothing and food, V'-h luxuries as coffee. In an aban '‘"med LST they even found a shelf of books. do expected to be marooned at : b0 days,” said Capt. Noble, “but ' 43 days the tuna clipper '‘Oooxindie hove to near the island dn'l saw our distress signals.” dupt. Noble said his men suffered "me from sunburn and exposure ,"u‘ "they actually gained weight and ■mi a good long rest.” ■AR Rights Reserved. AP Newsfeatures) -- ------------— HIROSHIMA: Doormat of the Atomic Era I short, swarthy residents of Hiroshima will stand for one min ute in silence Wednesday commem orating an historic moment two years ago when they became the first guinea pigs of man’s most potent weapon. It was 8:14 A.M. on August 6, 1945, when a few Hiroshima resi dents saw an American plane high in the sky. They noted, with sighs of relief, that it was only a single plane, perhaps on a reconnaissance mission for the fire-bomb fleets which had put huge segments of Tokyo and other industrial centers to the torch. Hiroshima, they knew from Ameri can pamphlets, was on the list of targets marked for destruction. The only thing they did not know was the timetable. One plane might be an evil har binger of raids to come but in their minds it did not hold the terror of 300 thundering B-29s. Few saw that high-flying plane drop a speck into the sky, then wheel sharply away. But seconds later, a blinding flash of light brought death and destruction, surpassing anything that mankind had ever known. That single searing bomb-burst all but wiped out their city and left 78,150 dead and 13,983 missing. Secret Japanese Photo In Yoshiura, a little fishing village 15 miles across the bay, a frightened Japanese civilian trained his camera on the now familiar mushroom of boiling smoke. His was the only Japanese picture of the explosion and it was confiscated and kept secret by Nipponese military author ities. The picture shows a white cloud boiling up over the city. Its splashy, raindrop effect from radiation prob ably gave Japanese scientists a clue as to the nature of the weapon. Other pictures made after the bomb burst show clearly the angles and distances at which heat and concus sion seared and smashed objects of MAY CONVICTED FORMER Congressman Andrew J. May leaves federal court in Washington after sentencing to a prison term of eight months to two years for war fraud. He is followed by his son, Jack May, also a figure in the trial. THIS SECRET Hiroshima photo was released recently by Gen. MacArthur's headquarters. Taken by a civilian 15 miles away from the blast, it was impounded by Nippon's war lords. Radiation spots almost ruined the negative but undoubtedly gave Japanese scientists a clue as to the nature of the bomb. all kinds. Viewing these, the war lords must have known even before the second atomic bomb struck Nagasaki four days later that a last ditch defense cf the home islands would be futile. The people of Hiroshima needed no photographers or scientists then to Dates Tuesday, August 4 Anniversary (157th), U. S. Coast Guard. Thursday, August 7 Anniversary (fifth), U. S. Marines landed at Guadalcanal. Friday, August 8 Anniversary (second), Russia declared war on Japan. Saturday, August 9 Sixth World Scout Jamboree opens at Moisson, France. Sunday, August 10 Birthday (73rd), Herbert Hoover. International Gold Cup regat ta, Jamaica Bay, N. Y. Spain "Viva Franco!" The Spanish Electoral Census Board formally notified Generalis simo Francisco Franco this week that 92.94 per cent of the votes cast in the July 7 referendum on the Law of Succession were favorable. The new law confirms Franco as chief-of-state for life and empowers him to name his successor. The board reported that of the 15,219,563 ballots cast, 14,145,163 were affirmative and that there had been no protest of the validity of the vote reported from any province. There was no tabulation of the number of negative, blank or nullified ballots. Coal Key to Europe's Fate The United States made two moves this week to contribute directly to Europe’s recovery under the Marshall plan by spurring German coal pro duction, which is the key to the whole continent’s heavy industrial re covery program. One was to complete preparation in Washington for a series of Anglo American coal talks about the Ruhr. Germany and Britain—in the order named—are by far Europe’s most im portant coal producing countries. In deference to French protests that German industry must not be revived to the point where it again could constitute a threat to peace, the U. S. State Department has agreed that the talks be limited to boosting Ruhr coal production. France said it would welcome mining of more German coal but not the use of it for making German steel in Germany for other nations. The other move is a food bonus plan for Ruhr miners, instituted by American and British occupation authorities as an incentive to boost production. Beginning this week, tonnage quo tas have been set in each mine and if miners attain that goal within the next 11 weeks, each will receive a “10-in-one” ration package from U. S. Army stocks—the equivalent of 40,000 calories. In addition, men in the mine boost ing its production highest over the quota will receive an additional 40,000 calories. ciicxii me mipuii 01 me weapon. They need none now. They know from personal experience. Mayor Shinso Hamai is one of the bomb’s lucky victims; he recovered from radiation sickness. As assistant mayor two years ago, he was inside the four-story concrete municipal building, one of the few which sur vived the blast. Rebuilding Slow Under his guidance reconstruction has proceeded — but slowly Two years of toil have resulted in only 20,000 rebuilt homes and shops. They are tiny, makeshift, unpainted struc tures. Hiroshima has been given no special priority on scarce materials. The city population has increased from 130,000 after the bomb blast to more than 210,000. Children attend school in temporary buildings. Water, telephone and electricity have been restored. None of the atomic casualties re mains in Hiroshima hospitals. Despite wild rumors and speculation, there is no trace of freak human, animal or vegetable development as a result of the bombing. No Resentment The people of Hiroshima, says their mayor, show no resentment toward thousands of Allied scientists and visitors who have flocked to their city since the holocaust. They have an awareness, however, of their role in history as hapless victims of man’s first atomic bomb and they have a terrible conviction that another war would blot out civilization. Citizens have started drives for a monument at the epicenter of the bomb blast and for a library on atomic energy. They plan a museum for preservation of some of the fright ful atomic souvenirs. Next Tuesday the city will hold a three-day “peace festival,” on the second ann versary of their agony. Said Mayor Hamai in his proclama tion: “This epoch-making weapon of the century has taught us the great les son that mankind must foresake war forever.” Quote Roy Huffman, 54, of Buckeye Lake, Ohio, struck by lightning which ripped his shoes to shreds, singed his legs, tore his trousers and broke three toes: “A green flame enveloped me. It felt as if thousands of red hot needles were sticking me.” Cars Crippling Shortages The automobile industry, one of America’s big mass production lines, is still struggling with supply short ages. Prospects for an eaVly rise in passenger car output look anything but bright. Thus far this year the nation’s manufacturers have produced ap proximately 1,955,000 passenger cars and 705,000 trucks. Truck production has been far above normal levels, because trucks require considerably less sheet steel than passenger ve hicles. Industry experts predict completion of about 3,700,000 passenger cars and and not many more than 1,000,000 trucks by the end of the year. This falls far short _of the 5,000,000 pas senger vehicle goal set for 1947. This volume of production will make scarcely a dent in the accumu lation of unfilled new car orders and the day of prompt delivery from dealer sales rooms still will be in the indefinite future. Congress Committees Ready to Tour Globe 'T'HERE is a recess but no vacation for most members of the ranv J- bunctious. President-duelling 80th Congress which wound up its first session this week in the superheated Capitol. Never before in the nation’s peacetime history have legislators mapped such an off- ~ time itinerary. A rollcall of their stops would read like a global sign post: London, Berlin, Paris, Palestine, Cairo, New Delhi. Shanghai, Duffy, Baltimore Sun Hot Shots • In Syracuse, N. Y., the American Bible Society reported a man paid for $42 worth of Bibles with a worthless check. • In Rome, Italy, an Amherst Col lege professor rented a sixth-century palace for the summer and discovered its cellar was dripping money. The seepage comes from a fountain into which for centuries tourists have tossed coins for good fortune. Some of the coins date from the time of the Emperor Hadrian. 6 In Columbus, Ohio, maimed World War II veterans, eligible for new cars under federal law, may park in “no parking” areas without fear of traffic tickets. C In Maplewood, N. J., a 76-year-old retired jeweler admitted to police he shot and killed his son and seriously wounded his wife, daughter-in-law and dog because a new apartment development was “fencing in” the cottage he spent 30 years in beauti fying. Three-in-One James V. Forrestal, who will be the United States’ first Secretary of National Defense, declared this week that unification of the Army and Navy under a sin gle department is the most decisive step in military policy since forma tion of the republic. The square-jawed Navy secretary is the. last member of the late President Fcoosevelt’s cabinet still in office. Ap pointed by F.D.R. seven years ago, FORRESTAL rorrestat nintea tnat nis tenure as Secretary of Defense might not ex ceed a year. “I hope it won’t be too long,” he said. Forrestal believes the new setup of a separate Army, Air Force and Navy under overall control of a de fense secretary will save money in the long run although unification, he said, would cost more to set up in the beginning than operation under the old system. THREE CARTOONIST SLANTS ON THE WORLD SCENE ___ < ™Hutton, Philadelphia Inquirer JOEY-ONE-NOTE Russell, Los Angeles Timas FROM THE FRYING PAN INTO THE COFFEE POT Page, Louisville Courier Journal POLICEMAN? Pearl Harbor and Alaska. More than a score of Senate and House committees (comprising more than half of Congress itself) will head overseas to inquire into foreign policy and military affairs or hit the road for various sections of this country to study domestic problems at their source. The inquiries will cost more than $2,000,000. House Democratic leader Samuel Rayburn of Texas calls many of the trips “junkets” and a blot on the “economy record” of the Republican dominated Congress. GOP leadership retorts that the expenditures now will save millions of dollars in years to come. Emphasis Abroad The top item under Congressional scrutiny will be foreign policy with both Senate and House committees probing global problems in anticipa tion of new requests next year for foreign aid funds. Other committees will not be idles even though they do not travel so far.' There will be inquiries into housing, labor, agriculture and un American activities. A special com mission was granted $750,000 to plan reorganization of the executive branch of the government and its various agencies and departments. Former President Herbert Hoover is . expected to be named chairman. The Senate War Investigating Com mittee has been making headline* from coast to coast with its probe into the $40,000,000 plane contract award ed Howard Hughes and Shipbuilder Henry J. Kaiser. A Riotous Session Probably few sessions have been watched more closely by the people, for there were widespread predic tions at the start that it would be a duel between the White House and the first Republican-controlled Con gress in 18 years. Despite some bitter fights, vital work was done. While dissension de veloped on domestic issues, it was notably lacking on foreign policy. Congress bucked the President tooth-and-nail on tax and labor legis lation, running into vetoes each time. It overrode a veto to make the Taft Hartley labor bill the law of the land. Both the tax and labor issues will become primary planks in the 1948 election campaign. Congress approved the President’s $400,000,000 aid to Greece and Turkey and it authorized $332,000,000 of his request for $350,000,000 for relief to needy nations after the end of UNRRA. But Congress didn’t act on . his request for standardization of arms in the western hemisphere or the entry of 400,000 war refugees into this country. It also laid aside for future con sideration universal military train ing, minimum wage boosts, health insurance, broadening of Social Se curity coverage, a federal employe loyalty check program and a bill to outlaw poll taxes. China Jurisdictional Quarrel A short-lived strike by Shanghai police, resulting from a pitched gun battle with gendarmes in which seven persons were slain, ended this week under provisions of China’s new “total mobilization” order banning strikes. City officials said six policemen and a Chinese bystander were killed in the clash at a downtown movie theater. Uniformed police walked off their jobs in protest, leaving the city of 4,000,000 virtually without pro tection. The gun fight developed from a dispute at a theater when three Chinese, with two tickets among them, were told by an usher only two could enter. Uniformed police arrived to straighten out the dispute and a few . moments later a detail of plain clothes gendarmes. The argument over jurisdiction between poliee and gendarmes soon overshadowed the original dispute. It wa3 culminated, authorities said, when the gendarmes opened fire, killing six policemen on the spot. Police Commissioner Schodern Yu said a full report of the gun battle would be sent to Nanking. It was expected Generalissimo Chiang Kai shek would look into the matter personally. In Short ; : : Fined: By a federal court in San Diego, Calif., Mrs. Alfred Wesley In galls, $2,500 and placed on five year’s probation, provided restitution of $6,000 be made to Negro maid Dora Jones whom she was convicted of en slaving. Exploded: A nitrate-laden freighter in Brest, France, killing 20, injuring 417, doing $1,670,000 in damage to the port. Established: By Indian 'Moslems, their temporary Pakistan capital at Karachi under i’s own Islamic green flag.