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What Manufacture Means To
North Carolina Is Told By State Security Group By S. F. Campbell, Director, Bu reau of Research and Statistics Employment Security Com missioru of North Carolina. Jtfcme than half of the people en gaged in v — k other than agricul ture in North Carolina earn their living in manufacture. Increased emplovm^nt in manufacture is of special importance in North Caro lina, not only because it helps to Slow up migration of its produc tive labor Arum the State, which has been on4. the increase for a generation, I'l't also because it means adding' value to our own natural resourfi es and raw mate rials. In addition, it promotes in creased product ion in agriculture and mining. J.t is of interest, therefore, to learn something of the geographic distribution of employment in manufacture, as '.well as the over all volume and .growth. *■ Two Decades of Progress Employment in manufacture in North Carolina has increased from 286,245 in 1930 to 1125,539 in 1940 according to the U. 9 ■ Census. This represents a gain of 13.7 per cent in ten vears. By 1945 manufacturing naa in creased to 352,306, a g ain of 66,081 workers, or 23.1 per cent during the fifteen year period. This is not an outstanding im'rease, less than two per cent a ye ar, but its significance increases when you consider that total employment in the state in 1945 (estimated at 1, 080,000) was less than in 1930 by 61.129 workers, and less toan in 1940 by 128,690 workers. This, of course, is attributable largely to the fact that in 1945 136,660 veter ans who had been discharged had not been reabsorbed into the em ployed labor force. Agricultural employment has steadily declined from 500,000 in 1930 to 406,000 in 1940 and to an estimated 396,000 in 1945. It is of interest to compare the growth in manufacturing employ ment with the trend in total em ployment and in non-agricvfiltural employment. In 1930 non-agricultural employ ment represented 56.2 per cerat of the total employment. By 1946 it had increased by 21.2 per cent, and represented 66.4 per cent nf total employment, as compared to 16.2 per cent in 1930. Manufacturing employ ment. Which had increased during the decade at a much lower rate (13.V pe~ cent) represented 26.9 per cent of total employment in 1940, as compared to 21.1 per cent in 1930. In 1940 manufacturing em ployment represented 40.6 per cent of the total non-agricultural em ployment. as compared to 44.6 per cent in 1930. . Acceleration Comes With 1940 The picture changed materially between 1940 and 1941. While total employment had declined since 1940 by more than ten per cent, apd non-agricultural employment hid declined by nearly fifteen per cent, employment in manufacture continued upward with a gain of bel’o:’ than eight per cent, and ac co rd for more than half of the no gricultural employment, and ner. iy one-third of all employment including agriculture, forestry and fishing. Geographic Distribution of Manufacture 'The tree physiographic regions of the state mark well defined dif ferences in the industrial compo sition of the areas. It is of inter est to examine the relationship be tween employment in manufacture and total non-agricultural employ ment in these areas. i Figures are not available on 1945 non-agricultural employment by counties and regions, therefore, the data on non-agricultural em ployment in 1940 have been used for the basis of a ratio, and in 1940 non-agricultural employment was approximately 15 per cent greater than in 1945. However, 1945 figures are avail able on total employment covered by the employment security law, apd since this represents approxi mately 95 per cent of the non-agri cultural employment, exclusive of government and non-farm domes tics, a ratio has also been com puted between manufacturing em ployment and covered employment for each county and region. The results are graphically presented on the charted map. For the whole State, employment in manufacture represents 66.9 pei cpnt of all covered employment. In the Mountain Region it repre sents 82.1 per cent of all covered employment, and it is somewhat surprising that the ratio of manu facturing employment to covered employment is higher in this region than in the Piedmont Plateau, where the ratio is 69.1 per cent. This, perhaps, is ac counted for by the fact that the proportion of small firms not cov ered by the E. S. law is greater in the mountain counties, for on a. basis o.f 1940 census figures on the non-agricultural labor force, the ratio is slightly higher for the Piedmont area. 49.4 per cent, as UNUSUAL OPPORTUNITY -Exclusive territory available in Wil mington and surrounding area for experieneed salesman. Age 15-4U. All around territorial management ex perience necessary. State expereince and present earnings. Do not apply if unemployed at present. Write Box 118(5. Raleigh. N. C. Interview in W’nmii 'rtrn at a later date. For Your “Price Right” Paint Job Dial 7566 CAROLINA PAINTING CO. Interior—Exterior—Roof ' "No -lob Complete « Until You Are Satisfied” 1217 MARKET jJim Rourk -3 Vince Runowich -£rz compared to 41.8 per cent for the mountain region. In the Coastal Plain area, manu facturing employment represents 55 per cent of the covered employ ment, but according to the U. S. Census figures of 1940 it repre sents only 28.7 per cent of non agricultural employment. Here, also the proportion of small non covered frims is much larger than in the Piedmont area. In order to get away from this possible bias in the Coastal and mountain areas, the map has been charted an a basis of the iatio of manufacturing employment in 1345 to the census reported non agricultural employment tn 1940, and gives a clear idea of the im portance of manufacture to each county in the state. The shaded portion of the circles indicate th.e percentage of non-agricultural employment represented by manu facturing employment in the county. Basic Industries In addition, the two leading types of manufacture in the county are represented by numerals, 1 for textiles, 2 for lumber and uasic ximoer products, o ior iurnj ture, 4 for tobacco, 5 for food. 6 for paper and paper products, 6 for chemicals and fertilizer, 8 for machinery, and 9 for mis cellaneous manufacture. It is pointed out that between 30 and 35 thousand workers em ployed seasonally in stemming and drying tobacco, which is now con sidered a process of manufacture, were not included in 1945 manu facturing employment, since at that time they we* classified un der wholesale distribution. Textiles, ore of the three basic industries of the State, leads in the volume of employment in 54 of the 100 counties. Furniture, another basic industry, leads in the volume of manufacturing em ployment in 7 counties, lumber and basic timber products, though not considered as a basic indus try, except as a feeder to the furni ture industry, leads in the’ volume of manufacturing employment in 26 counties. Tobacco manufacture, the third basic industry of the State, is highly concentrated, leads in em ployment only in Durham and Forsyth counties, coming second in Rockingham. What manufacture means to North Carolina can be briefly summed up in the statement that mtore than half of those who do nor;-agricultural work in the State earn their living in manufacture, and one out of every three who do any form of work, including household and farm, are so em ployed. Preliminary figures for the fipst quarter o-f 1947 indicated at the ratio of workers in manufacture is now even higher; tor during that qvtarter there were -390.000 workers employed in North Caro lina manufacture, as compared to 352,306 in 1945. four Conventions IN PROGRESS HERE Beaches And City Attract Many For Annua! Conclaves Four state conventions spot lighted the Labor Day holiday program in the Wilmington area this week-end as the convention season prepared to draw to a close after three other state meet ings within the next 10 days. Carolina Beach was host to the annual conclave of public employ ment offi'pe executives and office workers of the eastern district of the North Carolina chapter of the International Association of a Public Employment Service Fri day and yesterday. The 19th annual^ convention of the Associated Master Barbers of North Carolina begins a full two day program there tomorrow. The North Carolina Hairdress ers and Cosmetoligists association opens a three-day session in Wil mington with a hair dressing con test at Wrightsville Beach this aft ernoon and a fashion revenue there tonight. Balance of the con vention will be held here. Opening last night at Wrights ville, the Saleeby Relief associa tion began its 31st annual gather ing of the clan to last through tomorrow night. The Young Salee by club will hold its third annual convention in conjunction with the association. The North Carolina Feed Man ufacturers association opens a three-day convention at Wrights ville Thursday, with the North Carolina Institute of Scrap Iron and Steel also in session there at the same time Friday and Satur day. Next Sunday marks the opening of the annual convention of the State Association of Superintend ents of Public Welfare. This will continue through Monday and Tuesday at Wrightsville. Young Democrats To Hear Hooey; Folsom Is Slated RALEIGH, Aug. 30 — (JP)—Win, field Blackwell, 32-year-old Wins ton-Salem attorney and former Slu'c representative from Forsyth county, will make the keynote address here Sept. 19 at the open ing of the convention of the North Carolina Young Democrats. Rep. W. J. Bryan Dorn, South Carolina Democrat, of Greenwood, will make the banquet address that evening. Sen. Clyde Hoey, North Carolina Demrcrat, will speak at the business session Sat urday afternoon, Sept. 20, and Gov. James E. “Big Jim” Folsom of Alamaba wil] address the con cluding Saturday banquet. I lational Clothiers, Snc. HEW FALL TWEED SUITS__S~cnl $39.50 Vl9 No. Front Street Dial 2-1518 I WHAT MANUFACTURE MEANS TO NORTH CAROLINA _, _h.. . EMPLOYMENT in MANUFACTURE'1945 s**mo * v—Uf mmtmmrt +*m**cn,*<** Wm.4M*0r *t ** T9JM IMMMMMftMt EMPLOYMENT SECURITY COMMISSION NORTH CAROLINA tmmm* »’ «» mwmm m» tf*fwne« ' - * ' maosmm imwtto »» k«w i T«>IKU «*•»»*« * »«*» MiitM tw»«r («**'> •' i »*> »«** "M*" V > >»•»«# > muMnnw< * Wl« «**«»M* * MMU «*• W»>U*M« » MAfetMMMtt v * «r«<» It Takes 500 Workers, Strange Machines And Six Years To Produce Hybrid Seeds By ROST 'MILLER NEA Staff Correspondent EL PASO, 111.—This i«5 the story of the love life of 37,000,000 stalks of corn. Two hundred and forty teen-age girls from northern Illinois are playing an important part in pro ducing hybrid seed from those stalks. Right now the girls are part of a force of nearly 500 persons rid ing through the corn fields near El Paso, 111., on 40 strange rigs, yanking the tassels off 4523 acres of corn. They must finish the job in lees than three weeks or there’s no hybrid seed from those acres. It has taken the Pfister family, presently represented by Lester Pfister of El Paso. 27 years to produce his strain of seed which is proving successful on Illinois farme. Pfister has invented an ingen ious four-row picker, special seed ers, mammoth spraytrs and a ’ '. " '• lyMK.'. Hand pollination: tester Pfister demonstrates first step in prodd ing hybrid seed corn. most important de-taseeling ma chine. He’s operating 40 of these ma chines now. Each carries 12 per sons in standing position. As it moves slowly along the rows workers snatch heads off the corn talks. The first year the stalks of corn are hand-pollinated. This inbreed ing process stresses the best qual itie of the selected corn. For the next five years it must be per mitted to cross-pollinate. And here's where the girls come I in. When the pollen-carrying tassel is removed the stalk becomes a “female.” The tassels must be re moved during a three-week peri od each year, in time to prevent the pollen from dropping into the silk and the stalk from pollinating itself. ^ 12 Girls, 12 Rows A dozen girls on a Pfister rig can work 12 rows at a time. The tractor pulling it moves one-half mile, an hour while the girls re move each tassel in a row. The seed from these row's is re?plant ed for five years until the desired product is achieved. The next four rov/s are allowed to remain as "males,” 6D 1hat they can pollinate the silks in the detasseled row's. Corn from these rows is ueed as feed. Pfister uses small paper bags I j .■■ x-T-.t-.iw.rw.r"77r*.r»■•■■■> which are placed over ear and tassel in the first year hand pol lination. Part of the silk is cut off the top of an ear and a bag placed over the ear to prevent any pollen from being blown on it from another stalk. The bags are left on 24 hours. When the bags are removed the silk has grown about 1 1-2 inches. A second tas sel bag on the same stalk cap tures pollen, which is poured onto the silk. The ear is bagged again, to fend off other pollen. This bag covers the ear until it is picked in the fall. For five years it is replanted and cross-pollinated un til the proper strain has de veloped. Pfister’s activities provide an annual payroll of something more 'than $400,000 a year for this town of about 1600 persons. But it real ly is a community project, requir ing the cooperation of farmers and farmhands and women and girls from the surrounding coun tryside. Farmers wuthin a radius of five miles supply the land and tend the crops, but when it comes time to plant, de-tassel, spray or pick, Pfister’s own forces go into ac tion. With a trained crew of super visors, help from farmers and seasonal labor brought in from Chicago and Peoria, the job is done quickly. De-Tpsseling: Jean Myers, 16, shows the proper grip for snatch ing off tassels. Twelve Girls on a Rig: This machine was invented by Tester Tfister to speed de-tasseling the 4523 acres of seed corn he plants each year. Rig m oves at speed of one-half mile per hour. De-\asseling must be completed within three weeks. __ Craig Sings Today At Wrightsville Methodist Church Curtis Craig, graduate of Mrs. J. B. Finley’s Conservatory of music here, will be featured solo ist at services scheduled for the Wrightsville Methodist church to day. Craig will be accompanied at the piano by Miss Anne Andrews. He will sing “Ninety and Nine.” Gastonia Bank Staff Holds Beach Outing Twenty-six officers and mem bers of the operating force of the Citizens National bank, of Gas tonia, are the guests «f A. G. Myers, president, at a Labor Day week-end gathering at the Ocean Terrace hotel, Wrightsville Beach. Myers arrived Fiiday aboard his airplane and others joined the group yesterday. They will re main at the beach through Mon day. The party is an annual cus tom and is usually held at one of the North Carolina resorts. APPEAL DECISION MOCKSVILLE, Aug. 30—(U.R)—A Cooleemee tavern operator sen tenced to prison for the fatal shooting of an after-hours cus tomer announced today he would appeal his conviction to the State supreme court. SAVE With SAFETY Each Individual Account Insured Up To $5,000.00 Start An Account Today —WITH— THE INSURED PEOPLES Bailding & Loan Ass'n ffm. M. Hill, Secy-Treas. 112 PRINCESS ST. HAIR STYLIST’S CONTEST TODAY Wrightsville Beach T«» Scene Of Hairdresser’,' Demonstration A hau- styling contest r.,h , models on the sands ■ • Lumina at Wrightsville Beach** afternoon will feature th. ^ of the North Carolina HaS*11® ers and Cosmetologist cres! tion's annual three-d, tion. ■' c°nven. Beautificians from \y • wUl vie with one another W honors as national nevvsreei r °P eras grind out the coiffure ‘J ^ individually designed for beauty. - -uaay, The “Atomic Bomb " w, , . ing-Do,” and others of Z „as:' styles are to be whipped the blondee, the brunettes ,! ,? redheads us chignons, vJ**"! Waves are deftly done bv ? hands of experts. One of the judges will be EV Greco recently judged one 0f *! seven best international h-i-Hv TV ers at a New York show* A style and fashion revenue *, night at Lumma will be hrhli»' ed by a public wedding. The m test winner will be nam°d a- -i time. Association members w 11 down to the business agenda morrow morning at the Comm mty center in Wilmington dance and banquet has been ■■ ranged for the evening. A trade show and open form, will be on _the program Tue^a' with entertainment in the ever.r bringing the convention to a cloo AFL FIGHT HIGH POINT. Aug. 30 - (U.PJ The latest flare-up in an API jurisdictional fight over boarder at 12 local hosiery mills brough hints today of a possible jtrik by the United Construction Wo-k ers (AFL). Roaches! Roaches! KILL YOUR ROACHES WITH SHEPARD’S GUARANTEED ROACH KILLER MANUFACTURED Rl JOS. C. SHEPARD WILMINGTON, N. C. On Sale at These Stores: Saunders Drug Store Futrelle’s Drug Store Lane Drug Store Jarman Drug Store Padgett Drug Store Carl Marshburn H. L. Herring Grocery Store Paul Marshburn T. W. W’ood and Son Mayhan’s George’s Grocery Store W. D. Mills L. L. Mills Open Air Market Batson Gro. Store, Sunset Park Ketchan Drug Store, Jacksonville Bunch Drug Store, Carolina Beach Seashore Drug Store, Carolina Beach Lewis Gro. Store, Kure Beach Bane Grocery, Carolina Beach Finley Carr, Wallace Warsaw Drug Store, Warsaw Joe Brown Grocery Guarantee Food Store, Southport Berkenhagen Grocery. Winter Park A. A. Hobbs Jot-Em-Down Store, Leland Wilbur Southerland, near Monkev Junction Davis Soda Shop, Maffitt Village Food Center, Market St. Road Roberts Grocery, Wrightsvlile Beach Ellis Meares, Whiteville, N. C. W. E. Powell, Whiteville, N. C C. D. Dutton & Co., Whiteville, X. C, Los Angeles Is Tragic Traffic^ City Highest Toll Editor's Note: The National Safety council report; that Los Angeles had the highest traf fic death toll during the first six months of 1947. The follow ing stories tell what Los An geles is doing to improve its record, and what Norfolk did.) LOS ANGELES, Aug. 29.—(U.R)— The Los Angeles police depart ment has been fighting a losing battle against the law of averages in its attempt to cut the ciy’s high traffic death rate, Deputy Police Chief Bernard R. Caldwell said today. Figures compiled by the Nation al Satfety council show that Los Angeles had 22.9 traffic deaths per 100,000 persons during the first half of this year. This was the highet rate of any city of mere than 200,000 population. Caldwell said that part of the high fatality rate would be attri buted to he fac that Los Angeles is one of the nation’s most spread out cities, with more than 5,000 miles of street. Approximately 34,00) automobile accidents last year killed 505 per sons two thirds of them pedes trians and cost the citizens an esti mated S22.50O.OOO. To parol its highways and trim down the death rate, the city has 175 motorcycle-mounted traffic of ficers spread over three shifts. “That works out to albout 100 miles of beat for each officer on each shift, and it takes some mathematical figuring to put them in the right places at the right time,” Caldwell said. Caldwell said he looked forward to the time when every driver in the nation will know it is unsafe to commit even a, minor traffic violation in Los Angeles. NORFOLK, Va., Aug. 28—(U.R)— This seaport city has a reputation of being one of the safest traffic cities in the nation because of its “cradle-to-tne-grave” safety pro gram, city officials said today. Norfolk, which has one car for every 6.4 persons, as compared with one for every 2.9 persons in Los Angeles, which has the highest traffic death rate per 100, 000 population, holds a record of more than 250,000,000 man days with a traffic fatality. No pedestrian or motorist died in a traffic mishap from Nov. 23, Norfolk’s record for the first six months of this year was 4.3 deaths per 100,000 population, the lowest of all U. S. cities of 200,000 per sons or more. , City officials said this low fa tality rafe did not “just happen.” They attributed it to the “three e-s — education, enforcement and engineering, — ‘‘a program which •has been conducted here for 10 years. The long-range program did not begin to show results until after the war. The department of public safety handles the enforcement, the de partment of public works Band ies the engineering through a trained traffic engineer, and the schools carry on a safety educa tion program. The entire program is coordinated by the Tidewater Automobile association. There has been little fanfare for the program and few trick stories from any of the groups involved. Rather they act as a group of individuals accepting their responsibility and working job, city officials said, together in an effort to do a good The director of public safety is conducting a “selected enforce ment plan,” under which police concentrate on eliminating the worst offenses. The traffic engi neer gives his full time to acci I dent prevention through traffic pedestrians. In the educational neia. every child from the first grade through high school receives safety train ing in the form of specially pre pared lesson sheets, safety post ers and safety patrols. High schools receive driving lessons in dual control automobiles and are given text material stress ing sportsmanlike driving. All of these activities are co ordinated through the automobile club, headed by its presiden;, G. Leslie Hall, and the board of di rectors. TO TALK PLANS BLOWING ROCK, Aug. 30.—(JP) —How the Moses H. Cone Me morial hospital to be built in Greensboro can cooperate with the University of North Carolina medi cal school and teaching hospital to be constructed in Chapel Hill will be discussed at a meeting here tonight. _ —FOR— CORRECT TIME Call 2-3575 —FOR— Correct Jewelry VISIT fj] Box \2f~TlOVN. FRONT STRUT Wilmington's Largest Credit Jewelers _ In 42 years of reporting, Howard W. Blakeslee’s coverage of scientific topics won a Pulitzer prize ... his stories on atomic energy de velopments were acclaimed widely The most widely published fi nancial writer’s byline in the nation is Victor Eubank's. .. . An AP man 26 years, he writes a daily financial review. Sports editors have featured the byhne of Gayle Talbot for two decades-Assign mentshavetaken him through out the United States ... to fcurope and Australia. Whether It’s about atoms or autos, the “know how” to re port and background news de velopments on such specialized subjects comes only from years of experience. Associated Press specialists have the “know how” ... and die experience. These veteran reporters and writers typify the comprehen sive . . . dependable coverage provided by Associated Press members. DeWitt Mackenzie’s “The World Today” column reflects more than 37 years’ experi ence in 50 countries reporting ... interpreting international affairs. A member of the Washington staff 34 years, D. Harold Olives Is an expert on na tional politics...White House sna Congressional affairs. David J. Wilkie watch ea the automobile industry grow from infancy in his 45 years with AP ... and his weekly automotive column is a widely read feature.