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Homing £>tar North Carolina s Oldest Daily Newspaper Published Daily Except Sunday By The Wilmington Star-News R. B. Page, Publisher telephone All Departments 2-3311 Entered as Second Class Matter at Wilming E ton, N C.. Post Office Under Act of Congress of March 3, lo<a__ QTTn<?rRIPTION RATES BY CARRIER SU IN NEW HANOVER COUNTY Payable Weekly or in Advanc^ombi. -r;—* Star News nation Tweet _I,* *.•» » 1 Month - 1-50 1 30 2.40 3 Month. - j.50 3-90 J £ 18.00 15.60 28.80 (Above rates entitle subscriber to Sunday issue of Star-News) _ SINGLE COPY Wilmington News Morning Star ---in Sunday Star-News --- By Mail: Payable Strictly in Advance Time Star News 1 Month -$ 11? $ 3 Months - 3.2o 2.25 6 Months --- --- J-jO j.50 (Above rates entitle subscriber to Sunday issue of Star-News) __ " WILMINGTON STAR (Daily Without Sunday) 3 Months $2.60—6 Months $5.20—Year $10.40 MEMBER OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS The Associated Press is entitled excl'jsJ™'Jy to the use for republication of al 'ocal news printed in this newspaper, as well as all At' news dispatches._, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 13, 1947 ___— 1 Star Program State ports with Wilmington tavored in proportion with its resources, to in clude public terminals, tobacco stor age warehouses, ship repair facilities, nearby sites for heavy industry and 35-foot Cape Fear river channel. City auditorium large enough to meet needs for years to come. Development of Southeastern North Carolina agricultural and industrial resources through better markets and food processing, pulp wood production and factories. . , Emphasis on the region s recrea tion advantages and improvement o resort accommodations. Improvement of Southeastern North Carolina’s farm-to-market and pri mary roads, with a paved highway from Topsail inlet to Bald Head is land. Continued effort to attract more in dustries. Proper utilization of Bluethentha airport for expanding air service. Development of Southeastern Nortn Carolina’s health facilities, especially in counties lacking hospitals, and in eluding a Negro Health center. Encouragement of the growth <>t commercial fishing. Consolidation of City and County governments. __ GOOD MORNING What I admire in Columbus is not his having discovered a world, but his hav ing gone to search for it on the faith ot an opinion. —Turgot. Jourt System Under Fire Certain arguments against the present North Carolina Superior Court system, pre sented before the New Hanover County Bar Association by Mr. Fred B. Helms of Char lotte, past president of the State Bar As sociation, merit close public attention. Mr. Helms declared that the custone of rotation Superior Court judges to be “one 'of the biggest millstones about the neck of "lawyers.” He declared that machinery of .the courts is inefficient particularly on the score that it is a century old and poorly adapted to present-day needs. As proof of this, he pointed out that busi ness men are resorting more and move to out-of-court settlements, by which they 'save time and expense. At least 90 per cent of the litigation formerly disposed of by court procedure is now avoided through outside arbitration, he declared. I He insisted that instead of shifting Su perior Court judges from district to district they should be appointed permanently to serve one alone, so that each might have a part in pre-trial processes, such as ruling on demurrers and motions. At present, he noted, a judge spends but «ix months in one court in six years and consequently knows little of local con ditions. The judge, he is quoted as saying, must spend two months in becoming ac quainted with his docket, and only two months in trials. In reporting Mr. Helms’ address, the Star quoted him as saying the judge fears to open other trials during the final two months lest he be unable to com plete them. /\nu ne is aiso quoted as saying tnat a revision of our court system, including standardization procedure in inforior courts, would improve the state’s judiciary set-up from a third to one-half. The state court system has been under attack for a long time. Now it is hoped that a commission created by the State Bar Association, which is studying the sys tem with the view of presenting its recom mendations during the next General As sembly session, and which has the general support of the state’s legal profession, will also win public favor. In the last analysis, .the public would gain most if our court -system were brought up to date. Sensible Action The unionists working in the atomic plant at Oak Ridge, Tenn., made a wise decision when they decided to postpone a strike in definitely. If any one strike could be considered against the national welfare and which could arouse the public’s wrath against or ganized labor everywhere, this was it. With the world bordering on a shooting war—we’re in a cold’ war, whatever that is—the proposed strike at Oak Ridge, had it materialized, would no doubt have brought down condemnation on the work ers from within the ranks of labor as well as without. Apparently one of those ‘conferences’ the general public never hears about was held. Apparently certain union leaders were called in and told the story straight. It’s happened in Washington before and, if need be, can happen again. Certain top-flight political leaders in the nation’s capital have a way of getting re sults. In this proposed strike it is apparent some of these ways were utilized. Some labor leaders know when to stop. What would happen has been made clear to them in times past. The labor leader who would jeopardize his nation at a time like this might well wish he was back at the job at decent pay rather than an out cast from his fellow man. Two Communisms There are two types of communism in the world today. If one is to assume that the word—com munist-means a person who subscribes to the communal way of doing things this would not be true. One is the near-hated Red who would destroy, tear down and deny civil rights to others of his kind. Most of these Reds are men and women who failed in their life’s ambitions and permitted themselves to become engulfed in a burning hate for the things they were denied and for those who managed to attain them. These are the Reds of the Vishinsky group, the Stalin group and the Trotsky faction. These are the dangerous Reds, or communists. If the word communist is to be taken to mean communal, we in the United States can teach a few communal things to the communists of the Red variety. Our post office is a communal affair. Our police is a communal affair and our fire department, just to cite three. Com munal in that all the people pay their proportionate share for the upkeep and service of these services without regard or consideration to which gains the most. All help support the fire department. Yet few need it or ever will. That’s communal. It’s a system inaugurated by the people themselves, not thrust down their throats Few need the aid of a policeman through life’s travels, yet all contribute to the maintenance of the department. That s a communal operation, too. This is to say that when a communist of the Red type smoothes one along with such comparisons as these he is doing two things, trying to claim credit for our com munal enterprise and, secondly, trying to win converts to his theory. There is a differenc. A wide gulf sepa rates the two. Communism is where farmers have to give their grain to a common bin—or else. Communism is where a man works when and for whom and for how much no matter what his opinion might be — or else. Communism would force a sincere religious girl to mix equally, economically and socially, with a depraved ungodly per son. Communism would break down the governments of the world into a tyrany. In short, communism would even destroy it self in time because the people of the world—as shown in France—can be duped just so long and so far. Then would come the communistic recession. Communal practices first saw tne ngnt of day under the Magna Charter. The Scots, considered the first liberals, took it a step farther along the way. Then the United States, with its Constitution and ul timately its Bill of Rights, paved the way for what may be the ultimate fight against world oppression, that is to say, communal peoples against communistic peoples. We’ll take the communal way, we in America. Differences between political parties here, creeds, races and ways of life will dissolve so swiftly, so surely, should there be a communist all-out attack, that Stalin and his fellow party communists would re ceive the shock of their lives. He and they would find peoples of dif ferent, often conflicting faiths and ways of life, solidified so that each could continue his way unhampered The Big Four The Big Four conferences that have both entertained and frightened us, clearly dem onstrate the futility of unanimous govern ment, unanimous in that if one of the ‘four’ disagrees the remaining three might as well go home. That is what is happening in London. That is what happened in the United Nations. Russia said no and thus prevented the majority from carrying on. So, instead of a majority of the nations planning for the future, they, by their very participation in such a set-up, make it pos sible for one nation—Russia in this in stance—to ‘rule’ the world without having to do battle to do so. Russia controlled the situation during the United Nations meetings here. Russia is controlling the Big Four conferences It is as though our system of govermment in Congress permitted one lone congressman to say ‘no’ in the face of a majority vole. People would laugh at that. Yet in the world government they support it and wonder why something concrete does not come out of all these conferences and meet ings. It appears we should go back to the formation of the United Nations Charter. Amend it to eliminate the lone no vote and then proceed, backed with armed po lice force if necessary, to carry out the majority will of the peaceful nations of the world. When that is done Vishinsky can say no all he wishes because then, and not until then, will his adverse opinion come to naught. The Fertilizer Need North Carolina is on the threshold of greater things through crop diversification, if— North Carolina is on the verge of lesser things, unless— That seems to be the situation today, what with diversification of crops seen as the only solution to the shrinking tobacco , markets. But the state itself is not in a position to carry the full load, to turn in the right direction. I It’s up to the federal government. Fertil izer is needed here and hadly. Europe seems to need it, too, or so we are told. But it would appear North Carolina, and the entire South should have an equal pri ority with the other nations of the world. At least that is what some of our state’s representatives in Congress think and they are backing their thinking with demands to the proper congressional committees to see to it that our farmers are able to switch from tobacco to other crops. North Carolina farmers can in all prob ability find new markets, some of which may be more lucrative than have been the tobacco markets, and at less cost in pro duction. Situated, as is the state, mid-way on the coast, it has perhaps more large industrial centers within a few hundred miles than any other state. And industrial centers do not eat tobacco. They demand diversified foods that come from diversified crops. But to meet these new markets the farmers must produce A-l products. This cannot be done without earth refreshened and that’s why the fight is being waged in Washington. Farmers and the people in the cities, too, might find it to their mutual advantage to urge our representatives not to cease this fight until all the chips are down and the fight is won for North Carolina farmers. What Can They Tell? By ANNE O’HARE McCORMICK LONDON.—An interesting feature of the Council of Foreign Ministers is the pres ence of German reporters ut the news briefing given daily by t he four dele gations. There are ten of them, two each from the American, French an d Soviet zones and four from the British. Not only are these correspondents the only repre sentatives of Germany at a meeting on which the fate of their country depends: they are the first Germans to attend an Allied conference since the war. It took six months of top-level discussion before the American military government decid ed on this step, with the result that other occupying authorities promptly followed the United States initiative. American zone reporters axe ui. xuuv Reger of Tagespiegel, published in Berlin, and Hilga Brockhoff, representative of the Dana news agency in Bad Nauheim. Reg er, a veteran journalist of pre-Nazi days, makes a daily broadcast to Germany on the highlights of the conference. Since American and British news agen cies serve newspapers in “Bizonia,” the German reporters here confine themselves to comment, features, and background stories and general impressions. These im pressions seem to be mixed. In contrast with their own stripped, stagnant, and iso lated land, London is a place of abundance, freedom and animation. Dr. Reger says he looks below the surface to the strain and hardships of the people, but for Fraulein Brockhoff, who has never been out of Ger many before, the first plunge into a com paratively normal world is an exciting if somewhat painful experience. Both are a little shy and self-conscious in the crowd of American correspondents, but they listen more intently and anxiously than any of us to the reports of the arguments over Germany batted back and forth to no end across the conference table. They do not appear as anxious as the Americans, how ever, about the effect of Molotov’s propa ganda on the German people. Reger is con vinced it will take more than words to convince the population, especially of the Soviet zone, that Russia desires German independence. The German reporters here, hand-picked though they are by the military govern ments, are none the less a sign of evolution in the attitude of the occupying powers in all zones. For the first time the momentous debate over the future of Germany is be ing reported to Germans by Germans. Ger man people will not fail to be impressed by the fact that the first door through which they can look into international coun cils is opened to representatives of the press. This is sure to increase their respect for the mission and importance of the press. For other observers the handful of Ger mans here serves as a reminder that Ger many isn’t merely the paper problem it often seems as the foreign ministers wrangle over phrases in their search for a formula they can accept as a basis of dis cussion. The easiest thing of all to forget in these conferences is that real people are waiting outside for verdicts that the whole course of peacemaking to date operates to postpone. Soviet tactics of delay patently designed to keep arguments going until de velopments outside decide the issue take no account of what happens meantime to human beings left dangling on the edge of chaos and despair. It is infinitely preferable that the weary ministers at Lancaster House keep on rather than break off their talks, but be hind piles of paper and the fog of words it isn’t easy to see the real Germany. This is still truer of Austria, where all the words have been repeated and all the figures re viewed to no avail. Dr. Karl Gruber, the Austrian Foreign Minister, is still here hop ing against hope that the last sentence on Austria has not been spoken at this confer ence. Deputies on the Austrian settlement are likewise hanging about unwilling to be lieve their months of work are completely fruitless. Nobody really thinks, however, that the Austrian question will be reopened at this meeting. This postponement is cruelly hard on Austria, burdened with four armies of occupation four years after the first Foreign Ministers meeting in Moscow solemnly agreed to treat it as a liberated country, to be restored to independence as soon as hostilities ceased. While some members of the American and British dele gations are beginning to feel that until the big power impasse is resolved it is wiser to keep the armies in Austria than with draw them and expose it to the fate of Hungary, the Austrians chafe bitterly un der continued occupation and argue that the country.is being drained so rapidly un der the present regime that a definition of German assets will soon be wholly aca demic. Dr Gruber points out that his govern ment is the stablest democratically Elected administration set up in Europe since the war. The Peoples party and the Socialists work as a team; the Communist element remains less than 5 per cent despite pres sure, and the police force has proved com pletely reliable. But how long can this gov ernment hold if people who support it are given no assurance of evacuation and peace? How long can Austria be counted on to cling to its perilous position straddling the dividing line of Europe? What can the Foreign Minister tell his people when he returns from sterile conferences on which all their hopes are fixed? _ New York Times. “LOSS OF FACET §3S§6 Strategic Partnership By JOSEPH ALSOP LONDON, — In tracing the de velopment of th e Anglo-Ameri can relationship since the end of the war, the role of Lieutenant General Curtis E. LeMay is not the least interesting problem to consider. The tough, hard-faced young general, who brandishes a cigar like a club, now has his headquarters in the small Ger man city of Wiesbaden. From Wiesbaden, although Britain in 1947 is certainly no holiday re sort, he makes fairly frequent ♦rips to London. Here is a mist ery, which must afflict the chief of the Soviet intelligence ser vices like a throbbing tooth, and should interest any one who wishes to understand British or American policy. General LeMay after all, is probably the greatest younger fighting leader who emerged in the American air forces in the second world war. He con tributed vitally to the tactics of our heavy bombardment of Ger many. He led the crushing grand assault against Japan. He com manded the 20th Air Force when the bombs were dropped on Hi roshima and Nagasaki. And now he has been plucked from the key post of director of air re search and set down at WiPsba de in command of the pitifully small American air force in Ger many, succeeding an officer of lesser rank. Why has this ex traordinary thing been done? It does not take a very power ful mind to guess the answer. General LeMay is engaged in on the-spot tactical and strategic planning, of the if, as and when kind that may never bear fruit, but is none the less essential to preparedness. As his trips to London clearly indicate, he is working fairly closely with the British Air Staff and, one suspects, with the Imnerial Gen eral Staff as a Whole. At the same time, despite the small ness of the forces under LeMav’s command, his mere presence in Germany is no doubt also in tended to serve as a mild deter rentto Soviet military planners, with an inclination to be too venturesome. There is nothing official about the foregoing speculations, and the conclusions are likely to be vociferously denied Yet the bet ting is apDroximately 9 to 1 that these conclusions are correct. Furthermore they are entirelv in accord with the other known facts about the military-stra tegic aspect of the Anglo-Ameri can relationship. As to this there is no need to speculate. It can be stated on th ehighest possible authority that the war time frankness and intimacw, the close war-time partnership, between British and American strategists and planners has now been revived in these times of peace that is not peace. Behind this state of affairs, there is a curious and important history. Not very long after V-J Day, when the British were prime targets of the Soviets’ po litical and propagandistic drive, London formally proposed plac ing the Anglo - American com bined chiefs of staff—the formal link in the Aglo-American stra tegic partnership—on a perma nent peace-time basis. It was an old idea of Winston Churchill’s, which he had both sold to the Cabinet and discussed in public. The Truman administration, then bemnqed by the great, phony "back to normalcy” cam paign in the United States, re acted to London’s overture like a nervous sea anemone being poked with a sharp stick. Officially, the combined chiefs were then only kept in being be cause certain areas of combined military interest, such as Italy, were still garrisoned by consid erable Anglo - American forces. After about a year, however, these forces were reduced ma terially: the target of the main Soviet attack shifted to the Unit ed States; and the British gov ernment became alarmed by its own left wing’s constant amo tion. London, in turn, now indi cated to Washington that since there was no desire to maintain the combined chiefs on a per manent basis, the agency might as well be liquidated at once. In the interval, fortunately, the Administration in Washington learned about a few of the hard facts of the post-war world. Washington was horrified by London’s new proposal. Where the pleading had emanted from London the year previous, it was now from the other end of the cable wire that the pleading came. Washington’s pleas were suc cessful. The combined chiefs again survived this new danger in their rather Perils of Paul ine-like peace-time history. They Rail Passenger Service An Editorial From The Rail Rail Passenger Service Greensboro Record The Norfolk and Southern Railroad Company is applying to North Carolina and Virginia state authorities for permission to abandon its passenger train service between Raleigh and Norfolk on the ground that such service is being maintained at a great loss. Meanwhile the Southern Railway System seeks permission to curtail passenger service between Raleigh' and Goldsboro, on the old North Carolina Railroad. It has also applied to Virginia authorities eliminate passenger service be tween Danville and Norfolk. This is in line with a trend which has prevailed for the last several years on branch line railroads in this section of the country. Most people are using bu sses or private automobiles for the shorter journeys. Mean while passenger business or? some of the main lines of this region seems to be picking up. The Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad an nounces it will put on a new, faster time passenger train, “The Old Dominion,’’ between Washington and Richmond on December 12. On that same date the Seaboard Air Line Railroad is putting on a new New York Florida luxury train, the “Silver Star.” If the branch line passenger services were improved, would they not pay, also, as the im proved mam line services are doing in most cases? A few of th transportation experts be lieve the railroads are by-pass ing a good opportunity by aban doning instead of improving their short - line passenger ser vices. For example, Board Charman Robert R. Young of the Chesapeake and Ohio Rail road says the railroads have themselves to blame almost en tirely for their losses in passen ger business. In proof of this, Chapman Young cites cases in v. > his road has turned losses in. ) profits by modernizing and speeding up passenger train*. are now, unofficially but in fact, on almost the kind of perman ent basis which Churchill envis ioned. As is suggested by the presence of General LeMay at Wiesbaden, the combined chiefs by no means carry the whole burden of Anglo-American stia tegic liaison. There has also been a good deal of what one highly placed military leader oddly, on the side, described to this correspondent as 'healthy hanky - panky” through other channels. But the pattern of the Anglo - American partnership is far less important than the fact of t h e partnership’s existence. What matters is that in the field of strategy, Britian and the Unit ed States are collaborating with the closest int’macv. International good will is, on the whole, an extremely rare emotion amoung soldiers, sailors and airmen of any nation. Cer tainly British and American soldiers and sailors and airmen are not working so intimately to gether because they love one another’s company. They are doing so, rather because their hard - headed, professional as sessment of the world strategic situation imposes upon them this School Method, Undei* Assail BY ROGER w 'b.Rca WELLESLEY, .v” ^°N’ -The other night I attei 11 men’s club of a local On the program w„< .^Vch, the high school giee , ®lnS by students. I, w,***«l oc. After the m,...»». gested to one of tm su!> that it would be more ,1^ mg to the businessmen n.st* -most of whom were ers-to put on demonstrati y* spelling and in mental 2? ^ tic. The teacher replj^** sarry but it would be a L 1 "> Note there is „, high schools having a'w ' f'" bands, hockey teams8 1lub! why not also give exhibit spelling, arithmetic and the other things in whTch^ businessmen are ah,, ,nt' We especially would £ «* the school teachers then£w give such an exhibition! I am very serious in this suggestion. Yet if v km* a reader pass these though!!! along to your high school „ ■ 15 pal he tvill paj a laugh. He does not rec0f2 that you and others are his salary Voting f more "* ey for schools will accompli ittle: ,Tt CVe" ma-v hasten £ breakdown of our entire ecowl my through overtaxation all communities appear to be l this unbalanced predicament Do not think that Wellesley ti any different from other place. Most teachers all employ the same nonuseful systems which are taught at the normal schools. Too many businessmen have employees who are high school graduates and who car neither read nor write correctly, T;e manager of a large sized gro. eery chain had occasion to use high school help Friday after noons and Saturdays. This help was hired at headquarters and sent out to him. About one in ten of those who were sent to him had to return to the school because they either could not read his writing, or he could no: read theirs. As for simple ad dition, subtraction and multipli. cation, they were impossible. l suggest that readers contact some old grade teachers and sec what they will say Many be lieve the present day system o! emphasizing nonessentials will not stand the test of tire. Don't blame the - teachers. They must teach as their superiors order, When you finally trace down why your graduates are so in efficient you will find that tilt fault is with the school commit tees. They are looking for vote) and hence make courses to please the children and avoid courses in which the children of their voters might fan. Another serious defect in r school system is that school committeemen rate teachers by the percentages of failures in any one class, _ necessity, which most of them, probably, find rather disagree able. It is all the more signifi cant therefore, that the same closeness of Anglo-American col laboration is not to be found in the political and economic field, and that this gap in the part nership may well upset «■ * best laid plans of the strategists. Copyright, 1947. New York Herald Tribune Jor ___ More Aid To Britain STAR EDIT PAGE - MOMAID TO BRITAIN WASHINGTON - The secret of how much ^ # is scheduled for Great Britain will be 1 billion over the will show that the British will want nea fce jn ,he natur« next four years. Requirements from the U. • th anti South of $5.8 billion. From Canada and the rest of 'l tn t0 furnish America, $4.2 billion. The U.S will probably be aske.i dollars for a large part of this latter amou ’ _ sed the ongma' Senate and congressional leaders, wh PI ; ^ figures on $3.75 billion loan to Britain, are laying for the <* ^ mUC„ new British requirements. They have char.g the drain, of the first loan was wasted and allowed to g ^ Orfof If cuts are made in the Marshall Plan f°r that reduc political reasons, the critics of European a < tions can be made in the British lions shaie r,.vealed Exact amounts for British requirements , : ,.'entSi supp°rt’ the President’s message and State Departme j ■ j ^ Congre!,‘ ing the long-range European Recovery Prog. «■ . fi c0.0perat* They will give country-by-country estimates to. ing European nations and Western Germany. . ,rv.bv-coufr In the initial Paris report of the 16 nations. ^ > "operation* try breakdown was given for only the *1” ' ‘ .RU.ats for S#;* under the Marshall Plan. Of total estimated -■-i ■ ^ grjtaini billion worth of imports from North and Sou i - . share was given as $2.63 billion—roughly 28.b I >• per cent The French share was given as SI. <6 billm , 1 ‘ cent. Itaij'* Western Germany’s share was $1.15 billion, ot ...e5 wouii share was $930 millions, or 10 per cent. Those o •> ( grit® thus account for 70 per cent of all the aid tin * share is over a third of this. ( ut estimate* Why have the British have so reluctant to a y ‘ vears ha* on their requirements for second, third anc. 1 .' up anti* puzzled many Washington observers. Fear o! British sentiment may be one reason. estimates i* * One reason given for not releasing 1949-; overy jolt desire to present the Marshall Plan as a Europe^- - - ,-mpressioB covering the whole continent. It was hoped to av - ■■■ ,Q jj tt that the plan was for scattered and unco-orciiru. tions individually. .... .. the pR* Another factor was the difficulty in predu supply and political situations would be so lar at.-« The Europeans did'present totals for those .■ "(he,. ntf-’ Unless those totals were simply pulled out of Vinuld nceJ. have been based on estimates of what each eoun . ,nur yea'* Unofficial estimates of the British share . ;;cu:e-■ vary from 30 to 40 per cent. But taking the lo-'' ,.nts ft** 28.5 per cent of the total as the basis for Britisn n North and South America, the figures break down. lotal rr°n j From From Rest of . , <yondneD' Year United States American Continent Am* (billion) (billion) 1948 -$1.71 $0.92 1948 - 1.50 1.10 1950 - 1.36 1.08 1951 - 1.23 1.10 TOTALS ."$5.80 $4.20~ : ,vcatii^; Because of price changes up or down, good ' ^ niay van congressional cuts and world upheavals, final ‘ aS lo*v 85 * considerably. They may be as high as $15 billion o • biHion. . .right pf. Part of the total will be on a loan basis, part an c 75 But it should be noted that repayment of the orig* ; s js ca* , loan is not due to begin until 1952. Repayment in y • (he d' for, with interest at 2 per cent when the British *'<'■ lars When they can’t, interest is waived ,. 11 plan 1* | Terms on repayment of loans under the M“:'10 1* yet to be written and approved by Congress. ,ain ba''*,u_aD In the best possible light, future advances to byy _ (he) considered as investments to keep the British g0),’g eventually pay off their debts by the year 2000 A. V.