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for English- Speaking people THE AMERICAS DAILY Published by THE AMERICAS PUBLISHING COMPANY G. A. SAN ROMAN S. SMITH President Vice President FRANCISCO AGUIRRE HORACIO AGUIRRE Vice President and Publisher Editor and Manager Carlos E. Simons Managing Editor . Ralph B. Ross William H. Scharrer Head of Advertising Dept Head of Circulation Dept EDITORIAL A TIMELY WARNING TO THE U. S. IN REGARD TO THE IMPORTANCE OF LATIN AMERICA / To back up what we have been saying recently about the strategic importance of Latin America to the U. S., we are publishing a Washington report * based on testimony given before the House foreign relations committee by Major General G. C. Stewart, director of the military assistance section of the Defense Department, in regard to the military significance of the Latin American nations. Among the several things said by the general during the course of his testimony, one statement was particulary cogent in that it brought out very clearly how vital to the U. S. is the friendship of the Latin countries. Major General Stewart said that a friendly Latin America could be a source of great power, while a hostile Latin America could have and adverse effect on the domestic welfare of the U. S. In order that the full significance of genuine friendship between the U. S. and the people of Latin might be impressed on the people of the U. S., the intent of the general’s statements should be publicized from one end of the U. S. to the other. The American people must be persuaded that ‘their country’s political existence and security are vitally dependent on the twenty other nations of the inter-American system. This must be done so that the country’s policy formulators will take the lesson to heart and act accordingly. Any program designed to achieve such an aim, of course, must be predicated on the notion that such friendship is a two way street. It is up to the U. S., however, to show that it recognizes the need for garnering the well deserved support and co operation of the Latin nations. A friendly attitude on the part of such nations can be easily dissipated by maladroit conduct of U. S. foreign policy in the inter-American sphere of affairs. Not only would such an outcome be unfair to the U. S., but it would also give rise to a situation which, as General Stewart said, might adversely affect the welfare of the country as a whole. The U. S. must realize that the people of the other American republics are its friends and are willing to extend it all kinds of support in the i present world crisis even though the U. S. has not seen fit to extend those countries the sort of econ omic aid which they need to solve some of their more pressing economic problems. Lastly, the inter ests of the American people are best served by ef '■ forts aimed at raising living standards in the Amer icas and at fortifying the basis of friendship ex isting between this country and the twenty Latin American nations of the Western Hemisphere. BEGINNERS' SPANISH BY G. B. Palacin Professor of the University of Miami, Fla. Vocabulary (Vocabulario) INTERROGATIONS OR QUESTIONS (Interrogaciones o preguntas) To form a question in Spanish, the subject is usually placed after the verb or at the end of the phrase. Ex.: iEsta Maria? Is Mary in? iEsta aqui Maria? Is Mary here? When the verb is a compoundtense, the subject is placed after the participle. Ex.: iHa llegado Jose? Has Joseph arrived? Notice that in Spanish an inverted question mark is always placed before a question. EXERCISE Change the following sentences: a) into Spanish; b) into Spanish negative form; c) into Spanish question (interrogative) form. 1 MARY IS BEAUTIFUL a) Spanish: b) Negative form: c) Question form: 2 MR. FERNANDEZ IS A DOCTOR a) Spanish: Spanish negative form: i c) Spanish question form: 3 JOSEPH’S BROTHER IS A STUDENT 4 JOHN’S HOUSE IS IN THE BEACH 5 MARY'S FRIEND IS HERE 6 CHARLES’ UNCLE IS IN THE CITY 7 MARY’S DOG IS SMALL 8 JOHN'S FATHER IS RICH 9 MISS RODRIGUEZ IS A TEACHER 10 MIAMI IS A BEAUTIFUL CITY ■ S\\zsmvmsu Dailii For a better understanding between the Americas RESULTS FAVOR ANTI-BRITISH BELIZEANS KNOW THY NEIGHBOR By ANTONIO RUIZ MEXICO.— Sheltered by wood ed mountains that flank the high plateau and ideally situated on the sun bathed slopes of a lush, semi tropical valley was Cuauhnahuac, a quiet Indian community and the ancient capital of the Tlahuicas. It was the favorite resort of the reigning Aztec nobility. When it was attacked in 1521 by the in vading Spaniards in their tide of conquest, the natives offered fier ce resistance, destroying bridges over the deep ravine that border ed their town. This natural barrier proved of no avail and the sturdy defenders were put to flight. To Hernap Cortes fell the place as a prize, one of 30 such grants award ed him by the Spanish Crown in recognition of his successes, and it became a part of his vast esta te. Enchanted by its benign cli mate and charming surroundings, he established his favorite residen ce there and built a palatial home. In 1529 he arranged for the found ing of the Franciscan Monastery. The massive, fortress-like church, later to become a Cathedral, was built with the help of native crafts men who were permitted to incor porate freely many of their Aztec designs. In 1716 Jose de la Borda, the famous French miner who had amassed great wealth from his silver mines in Taxco and Zaca tecas arrived and built a sump tuous mansion set among beautiful gardens. This lovely place with its cool vistas, shady paths and ornate swimming-pool was chosen by Em peror Maximilian and Empress Car lota as their summer home. At the nearby picturesque village of Aca patzingo, the Emperor established a lodge and retreat which still stands, although it is partially in ruins, reminiscent of an unwritten chapter of the private life of this good, but ill-fated man. * * Today Cauhmahuac is no lon ger known by that name. It was too difficult for the Spaniards to pronounce, so they changed it to “Cuernavaca”. During the colonial period the village grew and pros pered and finally became a thriving city and state capital. The passing of time has not altered its charm nor its quiet, undisturbed way of life. Today, as in ancient times it is still a popular resort. Despite modern improvements, the colonial atmosphere prevails. Narrow stre ets, many still paved with cobbles tones and lined by lovely old homes with balconies blanketed by rich hued vines and flowers, which ser ve to transport the visitor from modern times to centuries-old past The Cathedral, with its weather beaten, rose colored facade and towers stands like a sentinel, ever watchful over the spiritual and moral welfare of the passing ge nerations. Flanking one side of the main Plaza is the Palace of Cortes, now housing government offices and exhibit rooms. The walls of one of the verandas are covered by murals painted by Diego Rivera. The "Borda Gardens”, still a very charming place, are open to the public. Located a short distance from the railway station is an archeological find, the pyramid of Teopanzolco, the last vestige of the Tlahuican capital. About 30 miles from the city are the ruins of Xochicalco, a city that flourish ed about the year 1000 A.D. and believed to be of Toltec origin. Spanish Version Pag. 3. BETANCOURT NOT LEAVING C. R. o San Jose, C.R. (U.P.) Former Venezuelan president Romulo Be tancourt, who has been exiled here for. several years, denied rumors published by Venezuelan news papers saying that Betancourt is planning to leave Costa Rica in order to avoid possible internation al complications that might be caused by his presence here. OFFICIAL OF P. A. SANITARY NAMED o WASHINGTON. (UP.) Doctor Carlos Luis Gonzalez of Venezuela, the former head of Venezuela's Health Department, has been appointed deputy director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau. The appointment was approved by the executive committee of the Pan American Sanitory organ ization and is to become effective I around May L , MIAMI, FLA., SATURDAY, MAY 1, 1954. Incomplete returns show overwhelming victory for the Peopled United Party o Mpst prominent PUP leaders elected —c- BELIZE, B. H. —(UP)— Incom plete returns from Wednesday’s elections in this colony show that the People’s United Party (PUP) which advocates complete inde pendence from Great Britain has won overwhelmingly. The PUP won the three legisla tive seats corresponding to three electoral districts for the capital city of Belize. First results from an inland district show that the PUP candidate won there also. A total of nine legislative seats all told were at stake in last Wed nesday's elections. The six remain ing seats of a 15-member legisla tive council are to be held by members who are either appoint ed by the governor of who are go vernment officials in their own right. The three most prominent PUP leaders, who ran as candi dates in the capital city area, were all elected. Party secretary George Prize won by a 3 to 1 margin over Independent candi date John Smith. Philip Gold son, who is secretary of the Ge neral Workers Union, which is closely associated with the PUP, defeated Herbert Fuller, presi dent of the Belize city council. Leigh Richardson, who is editor of the party's press organ, the Belize Billboard, received a lar ger number of votes than did this opposition National and In dependent party candidates com bined. Enrique de Paz, an official of the People’s United party labor affiliate, won over Rebre S. A. Me- WORLD SUGAR PACT RATIFIED BY U. S. SENATE AFTER HOT DEBATE . Decline of world sugar prices might threaten stability of the governments in sugar nations WASHINGTON —(UP)— By a 60 to 16 vote, the U. S. Senate has given its approval to a world sugar agreement. Since the agreement amounts to a formal treaty the votes of two thirds of the senators present were required to ratify the pact. The ratification followed on the heels of adoption of a motion In troduced by Senator Everett Dirk sen of Illinois whereby the U. S. agreed to join the sugar pact on condition that any amendment to the treaty would first have to be ratified by the Senate before any such modification would have binding force as far as the U. S. is concerned. Dirksen's motion was approved, 74 to 2. The main opposition to ratifi cation of the sugar agreement came from senators who represent states which have large confec tioneries and candy manufactur ing firms located within their bor ders and from isolationist sectors New Company to Develop Papaya Growing in Cuba o VICTORIA, B. C. —(UP)— A new company has been incorpo rated here to develop papaya growing lands in Cuba, it was an nounced. The company, Cuban Plantations Limited, will take over operations started by George Campbell of Vancouver, who died recently af ter he was convicted on a fraud charge. The company was authorized to issue 1,000,000 shares at a par value of $l.OO. Campbell operated the service realty and tropical products limit ed. He died with an appeal pend ing against his conviction earlier this year under the security frauds prevention act. He was fined $25, 000 and sentenced to six months in jail. Campbell sold ownerships in Pa paya land to about 300 Vancouver residents who contributed about half of $300,000 and promised by note to pay the rest. Each unit sold for $750, and the company undertook to develop the acreage for investors. Campbell was found guilty of unlawfully ac tin'! as a broker and security is -1 suer. Kinstry, former chief justice of the colony’s supreme court, by a 4 to 1 margin in the first of in land districts for which partial re turns are available. Prize, who was introduced by a party speaker to an enthusiastic crowd during the election cam paign as “perhaps the future pre sident of this country", told a meeting that the PUP would keep on striving for colonial self-go vernment. The recent election was the first to take place in the colony in conformity with a recently passed law permitting universal adult suf frage. Voting in the capital city was so heavy that eight polling booths originally provided in that area to be expanded to nine. A hearse towed by a team of horses slowly made its way down the main street of Belize with a joyous, shouting crowd of people following in its wake. Inside the hearse were coffins decorated with red plumes on which were written the names of Herbert Fuller, Fred Westby. Lionel Francis, John Al bert Smith and McKinstry, candi dates for the National and Inde pendent parties who according to returns so far available, were de feated by PUP candidates. PUP leaders said that they are readying other coffins for remaining Inde pendent and National party candi dates who the PUP expects will also have been defeated when fin al returns from inland districts i are available. which are generally opposed to U. S. participation in international agreements. In a strong plea for prompt United States ratification, chair man Alexander Wiley of the sena te foreign relations committee said the agreement was designed to avert collapse of the world free sugar market. Any such collapse, he warned, would have “far reach ing economic effects” abroad particularly in Cuba, the Philip pines, and Caribbean natiorfs. “Sugar is the life blood of Cuba,” he said, “and plays a vital part in the Philippines where we have a special interest.” Cautioning that in those repub 1i c s “politics are economics”, Wiley said continued declines of world sugar prices might threaten the stability of their governments. The debate at one point deve loped a spirited exchange be tween Senator Paul Douglas of Illinois, who opposed ratification, and Senators George D. Aiken of Vermont and Frank A. Barrett of Wyoming, who supported it. Aiken suggested that Douglas was at tempting “to protect” Chicago candy makers. The candy industry, he said was seeking to weaken the United States sugar act through an attack on the interna tional agreement. Aiken accused the candy makers of wanting “two cent sugar” and “high tariff” against importation of foreign sugar. Senator John Bricker of Ohio questioned whether participation in the agreement would benefit the United States. Aiken replied by citing the three benefits listed in commit tee report on the matter. Those were: 1. That it would enhance pros pects for “economic progress and political stability in countries... of very great importance to the Unit ed States”, 2. That it would “tend to insure the effectiveness” of the United States sugar act by insulatin the domestic market from world price fluctuation, 3. That through participation the United States “will be in a position to protect our interest and to make constructive propo sals concerning needed adjust ment in the world's sugar eco nomy.” The agreement now goes to the White House for approval by Pre sident Eisenhower. If Eisenhower implements United States ratifica tion, this country’s diplomatic of ficials are expected to make all possible efforts to deposit that ratification before the deadline iSaturday. VIOLENCE FEARED IN MEXICO CITY DURING MAY DAY CELEBRATIONS Public Barred From Menaced Canal Areas o BALBOA, Canal Zone, abril 29. (UP) —Panama Canal authorities barred the public from Contractor’ s Hill, where a threatened rock slide could close the canal for a year. Taking photographs of the dan ger area in the hill was forbidden. No military guards were assign ed to the old back road along the west bank of the canal but the area was marked “restricted.” Authorities indicated they want ed to prevent throngs of curious from flocking to the danger area, hampering the work and possibly tampering with engineering instru ments. Working crews were pushing construction of an access road to the top of the hill, where an over hanging rock ledge had developed a 600-foot deep fissure and threat ened to tumble into Gaillard cut. Red Directives in may Day Celebrations o GUATEMALA CITY (SS)— The battle cry in this city during May Day celebrations will be re pudiation of the Caracas confer ence anti-Communist resolution.” A committee composed of Gua temalan Communist party leaders and those from worker organiza tions under Communist control has been created to organize and carry out ceremonies with which “democratic groups" will comme morate Labor Day. According to local press reports, international labor leader Vicen te Lombardo Toledano, who is pre sident of the Confederation of work ers of Latin America, is at the head of local May Day celebra tions, for which purpose Lombar do Toledano has “suggested” ad herence to orientation supplied by his union and the World Federa tion of Trade Unions on the part of officials of the Guatemalan Ge neral Confederation of Workers and the Guatemalan Peasants’ Confederation. Tax on Stock Market Operations by non Residents Requested O WASHINGTON —(UP)— Sen ator Guy M. Gillette has introduc ed a bill into Congress asking for a 30 percent tax on the earnings of all nonresidents foreigners di rived from American stock market operations. Gillette headed a 1949 50 con gressional investigation into cof fee prices preceding the present uproar over coffee price rises. The senator said he was convinc ed that “foreign speculators were extremely active in coffee exchan ge operations last November and December.” “They have evidently profited handsomely from their transac tions and the least the American people can expect, if they can t be protected from such raids on their poeketbooks, is that the ones who made such fortunes by spe culation on our exchanges pay an appropriate tax,” Gillette went on to say. Gillette said that non-resident foreigners having no fixed busi ness establishments inside the U. S. do not have to pay taxes on their earnings derived from spe culation. He added that his bill for amending existing tax laws is in accord with a recommendation made in 1950 by an investigating committee headed by him. Triangular Contest in Honduras Election o TEGUCIGALPA, HONDURAS (UP) — A triangular contest in the forthcoming presidential elec tion was assured following the nomination of Dr. Ramon Villeda Morales as the Liberal party can didate. Villeda, a young physician, will be opposed at the polls Oct. 20 by two veteran politicians: for mer president Tiburcio Carias An dino, 78, Nationalist party nomi nee, and former vice President Abraham Williams, 60, candidate l of the Reform Movement which bolted from the Nationalist party. Red leaders arrested after police learned of a secret meeting where they planned to provoke disturbances during parade headed by Pres. Ruiz o MEXICO CITY, April 29 -(UP)- The Mexican government yes terday began a roundup of Com munist leaders as a “precautiona ry move”, against possible May Day violence. At least 14 top-ranked Mexican Reds were arrested and held in communicado in city prison. Secret police were reported hunting other Communists and of ficials of the outlawed “Henri quista” Party in the nationwide crackdown on agitators. The arrests began after go vernment agents got word of a secret Communist meeting at which plans were discussed to provoke disturbances during a giant May 1 parade of 300,000 laborers. Presidente Adolfo Ruiz Cortines and members of his cabinet were scheduled to march in the labor EXCLUSIVE STATEMENTS OF CANDIDATE LEROY COLLINS o Florida Senator Leßoy Collins, | who is presently engaged in an active and energetic campaign for the governorship of the state, gave The Americas Daily exclusive state ments which will be carried in our tomorrow's issue. The outstanding politician anal yzed among other things our edi torial of March 12 entitled “Miami’s Inter-American Center and the Coming State Elections”. In his statement to our paper, Mr. Collins also touches on rela tions between the State of Florida and Spanish - speaking countries, pointing out the benefits in which such friendship is likely to even tuate. He makes cogent observa tions that no doubt will greatly interest our readers. As is known, Mr. Collins has strong backing in Florida, and his campaign for the governorship has been identified with that of an; honest and upright candidate. $lO4 MILLION GRANTED TO LATIN COUNTRIES FOR MILITARY AID o A friendly Latin America can be a source of great power for the U. S. WASHINGTON -(UP)- Major General G. C. Stewart, head of the Office of Military Assistance of the Defense Department, told the House foreign relations committee that up to the present the United London Times Views Argentine Elections LONDON. —(UP)— The Times said in an editorial the results of the Argentine elections Sun day “confirm the Peron regime’s firm hold on the Argentine pe ople.” “In a formal sense the elections were free”, the Times said. "Al though the reported arrest of the defeated radical candidate for the vice presidency on charges of sub quote disrespect unsubquote to Pre sident Peron illustrates the diffi culties under which the opposition have had to campaign.” “While the electorate are free to vote as they wish,, the whole apparatus of the regime, which successfully prevents the natural growth of opposition parties, has reduced the democratic process to a polite formality”, the Times said. HAITI'S NEW BUDGET TOTALS $27 MILLION PORT-AU PRINCE, Haiti.—(UP) The Haitian legislature has begun study of a budget for the 1954- 55 fiscal year which was submitted bv President Paul Magloire. The projected budget for ad ministering affaris of this tiny ; Caribbean republic amounts to $27,590,000 a figure representing .a $1,750,000 increase over the pre sent budget. For Liberty. Culture and Hemispheric Solidarity NUMBER 250 demonstration. Police officials withheld details of the roundup but newspaper re porters saw the Communists jail ed “for questioning”. Valentin Campa, former leader of organized railroad laborers, who was identified by police as the most important figure in the Communist planning, has been charged with provoking discontent among the people because of the recent peso devaluation. This is the second roundup of Communist leaders to have been made in Mexico on the eve of May Day celebrations. After vio lence flared in 1952 —with seven people killed— police arrested last year over 100 Reds and Ilen riquistas, who were released sev eral days alter May Day. No vio lence occurred last year. 1 Ipf . ■ LEROY COLLINS States has spent 104 million dol lars to strengthen the military might of Latin America. “Compared with programs for military aid to other world areas, Latin American programs have been very modest" -Stewart said “but this in no way means that United States interests in that area are secondary”. In his testimony, General Stew art said that the purpose of the U. S. assistance and mutual de fense program for Latin America is to provide necessary war ma terial for use by selected unrts of certain Latin American republics in order to enable those countries to fulfill specific military duties contracted by them for hemispher ic defense “Militarily and strategically”, Stewart added, “a Latin Ameri ca friendly to the United States can be a source of great power, while a hostile Latin America might adversely affect our na tional welfare." He said that the United States is maintaining military aid pro grams in Brazil. Chile, Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Peru and Uruguay and that negotiations are being car ried on at present in various other countries. “Prior to our program”, ho said, “the armed forces of the Ameri can republics were handicapped by lack of proper installations and huge amounts of antiquated mili tary equipment. The equipment that we have now given them has considerably improved the situa tion. “The armed forces of various countries have proven themselves capable of using and maintaining the equipment they have receiv ed”.