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Inter - Ame'lran News
for English - Speaking people sth YEAR O 4 SAN ROMAN C. W. SMITH S SMITH President Vtc« PreOdenf Vice President FRAN CISCO AGUIRRE HORACIO AGUIRRE Vice President and Publish*! Vice President Editor and Manager Antonio Ruiz Ellseo Rlera*G6mez Manarlne Editor Advt A Clrc Mgr Published dal It except Monday Entered as second class matter at the Post Office of Miami Springs Fla on February 8 195 b EDITORIAL POLITICIANS OF EXPERIENCE AND PROFESSIONAL POLITICIANS In popular language, a professional politician is the person who dedicates his life or great part of it to poli tical activities with the aim of personal gain or the satis faction of temperamental whims. In reality, the term “professional politician’’ has a marked meaning of con tempt, and it is generally used when referring to indivi duals whose participation in the political life of their countries has been doleful or harmful for the Republic. Some times there is a regrettable confusion with regards to the belief that the discredit of the so-called “professional politicians’’ includes, blindly and systema tically, all politicians of experience, because of their age or because of their long participation in national political activities. The citizen who acts in a decorous manner in the politics of a country, acquiring in this manner adequate experience, without this meaning, of course, that he has committed no errors or that he will never commit them again, usually is a person useful to the political causes and he can lend important services to the Nation. The experienced politician may be criticised both by members of his party or his adversaries, but should not be systematically disqualified as if he had entered the po litical arena with the exclusive purpose of obtaining per sonal gain, as the people do with those identified as “pro fessional politicians”. It is necessary to be able to distinguished between one and the other, so no injustice of appreciation is committed, and also in order not to waste the knowledge of those who have acquired it because of their age or through their intelligence. The reasonable importance which should be given, without exaggeration, to politicians of experience, does not, in any way, close the doors to youth, because, inclu sively, experience in these politicians teaches them the great significance which, in all collective movements, has the support of the youth of today, with their enthu siasm, their energy, their talent and sincerity. To systematically refuse the citizens who, without being out of action due to an advanced age. have gained experience on a basis of many years of political activity and intelligent dedication to these aims, is, at least speaking in general terms, an error. ★ ★★★★★ Latin American Finance and Trade News Reports U.S. Investments in the Latin American Economy The U.S. Department of Com merce, in a new study entitles “U. S. Investments in the Latin Ame rican Economy ’, presents the first comprehensive view of the power ful effects of rast-growing direct U.S. private foieign investments —both on economic development abroad and on the two-way trade between the U.S and foreign coun tries. The new report, announces Ma rion A. Leonard, Manager, Miami Field Office, brings out the follow ing highlights: 1. The book value of United Sta tes investments in the Latin Ame rican Republics has grown from $3 billion in 1946 to over $7 bil lion a< present The current mark et value of these enterprises —a better measure of the size of these investments in relation to their current productivity— would be considerably higher than book va lue for most industries and, for the petroleum industry, several times the book value. 1. These United States companies produced $2.8 billion of goods and services for use in Latin Ame rica, and $2.1 billion of dollar exports from Latin America in 1955. not including sales of the trade and service industries. Cu rrent output )f all U.S. firms in Latin America would be well over $5 nillion 3. Production by United States companies provides 30 per cent of all Latin American exports, in addition to providing a large vo lume of essential manufactures, raw materials and services for use in Latin America. 4. U.S. companies generate suf ficient export earning to pay for all their imports and income re mittances to the United States, and return a direct foreign ex change surplus of some $9OO mil lion a year to the countries in the area. 5 Production by the companies for local consumption, plus their net direct gain in foreign exchange aggregated $3 7 billion in 1955, giving a measure of their direct contribution to the Latin American economy Other contributions not measurable statistically include the indirect stimulation of local indus try and the introduction of mo dern production and management methods. 6. Over $4 billion was paid out ia Latin America by all reporting The AMEril as Daily enterprises in 1955 for wages and salaries, taxes, and local materials, hervices and equipment. This am ount representeo about three-quar ters of their total proceeds from sales of goods and public utilities. 7. In 1955, actual capital ex penditures for fixed investment, ad ditions to inventories, and explo ration and development were near ly $6OO million These outlays were twice as large as the increase in the book values of the reporting enterprises, the only measures of investment previously available. 8. About 625.000 persons were employed in Latin America by reporting companies. Only about 9.000 of this to'al were sent from the United States, and the great bulk of employment, both in super visory and othei positions, went to local personnel This interesting Study includes separate sections for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Me xico, Peru Venezuela, and Cen tral America, as well as reviews of individual industries, including manufacturing, petroleum, mining and smelting, agriculture, and pu blic utilities. For more details on this survey, informs Mr Leonard, contact your Miami Field Office of the U.S. Department of Commerce, locaged at 316 Post Office Building. CORN PURCHASED BY MEXICO APPROVED WASHINGTON (UP)— The De partment of Agriculture announc ed today it had authorized Mexico to purchase an additional 150,000 metric tons of yellow corn worth $7,233,000 from the United States under the U. S. agricultural surplus law. In November 1957 the depart ment authorized Mexico to pur chases may be paid in foriegn cur rencies and the money can be used by the U. S. Embassy to pay for its expenses as well as for setting up special U. S. projects such as trade fairs. The law also provides that the United States can take up to 80 per cent of the Mexican pesos and lend the money to the Mexican Government or private U. S. or Mexican firms for approved de velopment projects. The Department’s announcement said that Compahia Exportadora e Importadora Mexicana, S. A., (CEIMSA) of Mexico City, will make the corn purchases in the United States Perus Foreign Policy Will not Change With Cabinet Reorganization LIMA, Jan. 9 (UP) —Peruvian international policy will continue along the same line which was set by the President, Dr. Manuel Pra do, with the new Foreign Minis ter, Dr. Victor Andres Belaun j de, the only new figure in the Cabinet, which has suffered a se cond modification since the 28th of June, 1956. It seems as if there will be a change in the economic field, Juan Pardo Heeren, a well known businessman and owner of a chain of newspapers in the Provinces, irrevocably resigned from the post of Finance and Commerce Minister Know thy Neighbor By ANTONIO RUIZ COLOMBIA The Department of Narino, located in the south of the Republic, bordering with Ecuador, has a population estim ated in 650.000, with an area of 19,708 square miles. Two different regions form this department, which borders on the west with the Pacific Ocean, Ecuador on the south, the Commtssarie of Amazo nas on the East and the Depart ment of Cauca on the north. One of these regions is formed by the lowlands of the Pacific, which have very hot climate, ex tensive and thick jungles and very little population. The other is loc ated in the east, and is mountain ous and cold, formed by the West ern and Central Ranges of the An des, with plateaus, valleys and deep ravines. The plateau of Tu querres, at 9,843 feet above sea level, is the principal one in the department. Among the valleys are those of Atriz, where the ca pital, Pasto, is located, and La Cocha, which contains a large lake of the same name. Pasto, the capital, was founded I in 1539 by Captain Lorenzo de Al dana, at the foot of the Galeras volcano, which is still active. Pasto has a population estimated in 110,- 000. Other important cities are Tu maco, port on the Pacific Ocean, founded in 1814, with a population of 50,000; founded in 1789 with 5,000 and Ipiales, 1863 with 35,- 000. Besides its volcanos and its pro gressive capital city, Narino offers beautiful landscapes as special at traction. The small farms give the Department a beautiful appear ance, due to the great variety of cultivation. Beautiful sites, easy to reach, are the famous Rumiehaea Bridge, the name of which in the Quechua language means bridge of stone. It is on the border with the Republic of Ecuador, in the region of Ipiales; the La Cocha Lake, in a beautiful landscape, is the center of many native legends. It has the peculiar feature of being exactly the same shape as South America. The Sanctuary of Nuestra Seno ra de las Lajas, 3 miles from Ipia les, is visited by thousands of Co lombians, pilgrims and tourists from other countries, and in the Catholic world it is considered equal to the Sanctuary of Lourdes, France. Also in the southern part of Colombia is the Department of Huila. with a population of 300.- 000 and an area of 7,73 square miles. It is located in the Upper Magdalena Valley. The central pain, 15 miles long is of hot, tropical climate, locked in between the slopes and peaks of the Cen tral and Eastern ranges of the Andes, where there are also tem perate and cold regions, some crowned with snow, as the Snow Peak of Huila, 17,44 feet above sea level. NBeiva, the capital, was founded in 1550 by Captain Juan Alonso, and has a population of 70,000. Garon, seat of the Dioceses was founded in 1782. has 21,000 inhabitants, and is the second city of the Department. The principal tourist attraction in Huila is the Archeological Park of San Agiistin, a town officially founded in 1715, but in which tra , ces of a civilization dating from I long before the discovery of Ame rica have been founded. Accord ing to studies carried out recently by well known world authorities and Colombian scientists, the his torical culture of San Agustin dates from many centuries before the arrival of the Spaniards. Some samples of stone carvings believed to be the work of the Kamsa tribes, which have been traced as far as 500 years before Christ, are to be found in Coro graphis Museums of Leipzig and Berlin, the Britannic of London, and the National Museum of Bo gota. Spanish Version Page 3 For m better understanding between the Amerieat MIAMI SPRINGS, FLA., FRIDAY, JANUARY, 10, 1958 after having been the object of strong criticism of his financial policies by the opposition in Par liament and the local press. Pardo Heeren has been replaced by Dr. Augusto Thorndike, who ve ry successfully held the post of Minister of Justice and Culture. Dr. Thorndike, the present Fin ance Minister, is the author of the book “A Guide to Peruvian Tax Legislation” (“Guia de la Legisla cion Tributaria del Peril”), and held the post of Director of the Union Bank and other industrial banking companies. Since 1947 he has been the Economic Advisor to the Banco Minero del Peru, (Pe ruvian Mining Bank). There is much interest in politi cal circles to know if the new Finance Minister will continue with the same financial policies of Prado Heeren, which the opposi tion has classified as “inflationis ts”. Dr. Victor Andres Belaunde’s en try as Foreign Relations Minister means the incorporation in the gov ernmental division of a career di plomat and not of a politician or the representative of a determined ideological tendency. Dr. Belaunde who has been in the Foreign Service for 50 years, is know as a miliant Catholic man, and a dedicated anti-communist. In speaking to the U. P. Dr. Belaundq, said that he can not as yet make any statements about his suggestion to the Foreign Office, althoubh he stated that Perus posi tion in International organizations is very well known, and that many times she has defended her posi tion. He said that he will continue at the head of the Peruvian de legation to the United Nations and th-at he would attend the Ge neral Assembly in 1958, if there was no incompatimility between his work as Minister and the re presentation to the United Nat ions. Dr. Manuel Cisneros, President of the Ministers’ Council, has left the Foreign Office in order to take over the post of Minister of Culture and Justice. Polticial cir cles have interpreted this change as a desire to hold a less active post which will permit him to de dicate himself to his party the Pe ruvian Democratic Movement, of which he is Head. The new Ministers Belaunde, Thorndike and Cisneros Sanchez will now take over their posts, af ter having sworn in a ceremony which took place in the Gold Room of the Government Palace. Perez Jimenez Orders Venezuelan Cooperation Law Put Into Effect CARACAS Jan. 9. (UP)— The President, Marcos Perez Jimenez, i ordered the International Coopera tion Law, which was approved by j Congress and which is destined j to strengthen Venezuela’s bonds j with other countries, to be put in- } to effect. The Presidential order says that they want “to contribute towards making cooperation through prac-! tical measures effective”. The article says that “the Ve- j nezuelan nation 'reiterates the j principle that cooperation is the j most convenient way to broaden friendship between the nations and j search for the solution of the pro-! blems which effect the wellbeing of the people”. The law says that cooperation would consist in the construc tion of works for economic and so HEMISPHERIC EVENTS I , . Latin America n News in Brief U. S. SOLDIER GOES ON TRIAL IN PANAMA PANAMA (UP)— P.F.C. Harold F. Rose, of Reaches Point, Bucks port, Me., went on trial in Pana ma Court for the murder of his Panamanian wife’s two-year-old son by a previous marriage. Rose has been held in Panamfi City jail since he was arrested on Nov. 22, 1956 the day the child died. He married Blanca Castillo in jail. She is on trial with him as an accessory. YANKEE WEATER HITS MEXICO MEXICO CITY (UP)— “Yan ee kWeather,” as the Mexicans call it, has hit a large section of Mexico. Three feet of snow were report ed in a section of Northern Chi HHP' 11111 l sm'"* Jr* v DR. JOSE A. MORA SHIPPING COMPANIES SHOW CONFIDENCE IN HEMISPHERE FUTURE, DR. MORA DECLARES NEWPORT NEWS, Jan. 9. Dr. Jose A. Mora, Secretary Gen eral of the Organization of Ameri can States, made a speech at the launching of the new luxury liner “Santa Paula” of the Grace Line, in which he said: “Today, we witness another im portant launching in the multi million dollar fleet replacement program— a program which tells the world the confidence of this private steamship line in the fu ture economic growth of our Ame rican Republics I am pleased to say this confidence is being ex pressed by the entire shipping in dustry engaged in Inter American trade”. Dr. Mora praised Grace Line for their work of promotion of Inter American good will and trade de velopment, pointing out it was the first U. S. flag service between New York and the West Coast of South America through the Pana ma Canal, between Gulf ports and South America, and others, and concluded: “In closing, let me say that the new “SANTA PAULA” is not only an elegant liner but a fine Ambas sador bringing to all the family of American Nations a message of good will, friendship and prosper- Costa Rican Envoy Presents Credentials SAN SALVADOR. Jan 9. (UP) —The new Costa Rican Ambassa dor, Humberto Nigro Borbon, presented his credentials today. During the ceremony, which en ded with a cordial conversation between the Ambassador and Pres ident Arambuuru, Minister Alfonso de La Ferrere and other high of ficials attended rial development, the distribution of basic and raw materials, manu factured products, cattle raising and agricultural products, const ruction material and equipment, the organization of public utility services, technical assistance and advice, technical and scientific re ports and any other activity which is conducive to the aim of coopera ! tion The law says that the Executive : can outline which cooperative pro grams will be used through any of the agencies whether from an I indendent institute or private Ven | ezuelan companies. The thir chapter establishes that i the cooperation which is asked of Venezuela or which is granted by the Executive according to the present law, will be established by agreements, or bi-lateral treaties. huahua State; storms swept the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific coasts and rains drenched most of the country. The Navy Department ordered all ships in the Gulf of Mexico to head for the nearest ports and those now in port to remain there until further notice. The Navy’s order followed Wea ther Bureau forecasts that the gale lashing the Veracruz area would be intensified. EDUCATIONAL T. V. IN PUERTO RICO SAN JUAN, P. R. (UP)— Gov. Luis Munoz Marin dedicated here a 100,000 watt Government televi sion station to be used solely for educational purposes. Known as WIPR Channel 6, the station is capable of covering the entire island except its southwest Kubitschek to State His Position About Relations With Communist Countries Somoza Promises Freedom of Press for Nicaragua MANAGUA, Jan. 9. (UP).-Pres ident Luis A. Somoza said press freedom in Nicaragua will continue without restrictions in 1958, and that he hopes that circumstances will not force him to change this policy during the year. Somoza made the statements in his weekly press conference, in which he also stated he will not intervene with the decision of the Supreme Court, which imposed sentences on those implicated in last November’s plot against his Government. He explained that the Court had sentenced them for a co mmon crime, which prevented him from reuesting amnesty from Congress, since such amnesty ap plies only to political crimes. He said also he would not request pardons, adding: “Judicial power is sacred. The opposition puts this up to me as a political concession. I, as the son of Somoza (the assassinated Pres ident Anastasio Somoza) cannot politically deal with his assassina tion, since it would be to destroy juridical structure. Should that ha ppen, the country would be lost. The independence of the Powers is the basis of democracy”. In another statement he said he was ready to have an interview with the President of Honduras, Dr. Ramon Villeda Morales, to dis cuss the border problem between the two countries. More Bodies Found as Terrorist Wave Increases in Cuba HAVANA (UP)—Another five bullet-ridden bodies turned up in the riotous Oriente Province, which brings the total of mysterious deaths and violence up to 14 peoples during the last 24 hours. Uu to now, at least 30 persons have been killed by violence in this Province within the last three weeks. Among the last victims were Jose A. Fuentes and his son, “take for a ride” from their home in Niquero by four unidentified gunmen. Three other bodies were found in the Guantanamo zone. U. S. residents of Santiago de Cuba, it is said, travel the 83 miles to Guantanamo in order, to make their necessary purchases, in view of the scarcity of products in San tiago and in order “to avoid tele phone threats”. For some time rebel sympathizers in Santiago have asked the residents “not to buy unnecessary things” there, so that the capital of that Province will become a “dead city”. Salvador to Elect Deputies March 23 SAN SALVADOR, Jan. 9. (UP) —March the 23rd has been set as the day for the election of deputies for the next Assembly by decree of the National Assembly. There will be 54 deputies, with an equal number of alternates ac cording to the population of each Department, during their two year ierm. ern corner. It will operate 5 V hours daily, starting at 3 P. M. Sixty per cent of its programs will be “live.” Rafael Delgado Mftrquez was nam ed general manager and Leo poldo Santiago Lavandero pro gram director. The station will carry no ad vertising. Except for 30 minutes of news daily it will transmit on ly education material. Munoz Marin assured the private radio-T. V. industry that the new station would not compete with commercial T. V. MEXICAN CHILDREN GET POLIO SHOTS MEXICO CITY (UP)— Health Department Officials announced plans to give anti-polio shots to one million children under three Opposition Groups Request a Clear Statement of Policy on the Matter Argentine Government Mission Leaving Sunday for European Communist Nations The President of the Republic, Juscelino Kubitschek, will soon make a statement about the propo sal of renewing diplomatic rela tions with Russia as a result grow ing pressure of different sectors for adoption of a clear position with regards to this matter. The President had a conference with the Foreign Minister, Mace do Soares, for the preparation of this statement. In the Itamaraty Palace, the rmors about the preparation of a secret report in which the com munists have decided to use Bra zil as a starting point for their economical penetration campaign in Latin America has been denied. It has been said in the Foreign Ministry that they are looking for away to find a formula to accept Russian offers for machinery for oli well drilling without having to ac cept Russian technicians. On New Year’s Day, Pres ident Kubitschek said that he was in favor of renewing relations with Russia, which is supported by the Finance Minister, Alkmin, and the “young wing" of the Social De mocratic Party, to which the Pres ident belongs. It is reported that Macedo Sores is opposed to this renewal of rela tions which the ex Minister of Foreign Relations, Oswaldo Aran ha, the present head of the Brazil ian delegation to the United Na tions, has proposed. Aranha recently stated that Bra zil should have commerce with all of the nations Russia included. Well informed sources say that before addressing the United Na tions Aranha stated that they would not adopt a diffinite posi tion regarding the renewal of re lations with Russia,. It is said that the Foreign Re lations Minister has said that “it is regretable that Aranha is not capable of resisting the callings of the Communists in New York”. ARGENTINE MISSION LEAVING SUNDAY BUENOS AIRES, Jan 9. (UP)— U. S. And Latin American Countries Negotiating on Territorial Waters UNITED NATIONS, JAN. 9 (UP) — The United States is hold ing negotiations with Chile, Peru and Ecuador, searching for an agreement permitting'the Ameri can Republics to go united to the U. N. Conference on ocean rights, which will begin next month at Geneva. Well informed diplomatic circles believe it is possible to find a conciliation formula among the countries, separating the matter of territorial waters in two parts: the territorial waters of undisput ed sovereignty of the coastal state, and the jurisdiction the state may have in adjacent zones. Among the experts it is suggest ed as possible limits to negotiate, twelve miles for territorial waters, and perhaps a hundred miles for the adjacent zones. The governments of Chile, Peru, years of age in the republic’s most polio prevalent areas during 1958. Dr. Carlos Calderon, Chief of the country’s Anti-Polio Campaign, explained that victims in Mexico generally fall into the three years and under age group, in contrast with the United States where polio melitis strikes most frequently in the adolescent and young adult brackets. The National Institute of Infant Welfare said nine million cubic centimeters of Salk vaccine has proven 70 to 80 per cent effective compared with 80 to 90 per cent effectiveness of U. S. manufactur ed vaccines. Polio incidence in the Federal District fell from 900 in 1955 to 290 in 1957. Figures have not yet been compiled for the rest of the country. Member Inter American Press Association ’ • For Liberty, Culture and Hemispheric Solidarity NUMBER 158 A mission of Government officials sent by the Argentine Government to discuss economic and financial matters with European countries within the Soviet Orbit, will leave Sunday in an Argentine Airlines plane. The mission, headed by the Un dersecretary of Industry of the Mi nistry of Commerce and Industry, Engineer Raul Ondarts will go first to Madrid, then to Paris, Prague and Moscow The group includes the Trade Po licies Director of the Ministry, Dr. Alberto Signanini; the Assistant Manager of the State Oil Mono poly (YPF), Engineer Ernesto ft. Peters: Engineer Hugo Albertelli, Director of National Sanitary Works, Eng. Ernesto Kohler, Pro duction Manager of the Fuel Ad ministration; Dr Manuel lacono, of the National Industrial Bureau; Eng. Francisco Llusa, of the Sar miento Railway In representation of the Argentine State Railways; Dr. Augusto Lile, Director of the Meat Bureau; Juan Carlos Moneta, of the Central Bank; Moises Men jamin. of the National Telecomu nications Department; Dr. Enrique Gaston Valenti, of the National Economic and Social Council, and Dr. Wladimiro Saul Muller, rep resenting the Ministry of Social Assistance and Public Health. Ondarts declared that no invita tion had been received from any of the countries they will visit, pointing out that the iniciative came from Argentina. “We are simply collecting debts some of these countries have with Argentina. Buying from them the things we need Argentina has es tablished reciprocal credits with those countries but our way of purchasing does not agree with the selling methods in those countries. “We are not going to buy in Eastern Europe what some people believe has been denied to us some where else. Simply, we are going to buy whatever we can with bal ances in our favor, or with margin al credits allowed to us under ex isting agreements”. and Ecuador, which accoridng to these reports should be negotiat ing now with the United States in Quito, Lima and Santiago, in their “Declaration on the Maritime Zone” signed m Santiago, Chile, on August 18, 1952, set 200 miles as the jurisdiction limit. The Santiago Declaration referr ed to the fact that “geological and biological factors related with the existence, conservation and devel opment of the ocean fauna and flo ra in the waters of the signatory countries, make the ancient exten sion of territorial waters and ad jacent zones ’nsufficient for the conservation, development and ex ploitation of that wealth, to which the coastal countries have a right”. “Therefore. —it said— it is also their uuty to prevent exploitation of that wealth outside its juris diction, when it endangers the existence and conservation of that wealth, harmful to the countries which, because of their geograph ical position, have in their seas sources of subsistence that cannot be substituted, and of economic resources which are vital to them”. Regarding the United States, the three-mile limit was adopted dur ing the first years of independent life. Although up to 1794 states men had certain reserves regard ing such three-mile limit, on that year Congress approved legisla tion establishing jurisdiction of the courts to the three mile limit. Regarding Customs, however, the United Stales set a 12-mile limit In 1935, and not all the States of the Union have the 3-mile limit. Florida, for instance has a 9-milt limit, and Louisiana 27 miles. The Geneva Conference, which is to meet on Februeary 21, may result for the first time in an international agreement on the thorny question, if the Latin Ame rican Republics arrive with a for mula already approved among themselves when they go to Switzer land.