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Inter - American News
for English - Speaking people sth YEAR a A SAN ROMAN C. W. SMITH 8 SMITH President Vic® President Vice President -..JKAWCWCO AGUIKKE HOftACIO AGUIRRE vice President Mid Publishes Vic® President Editor and Manager Antonio Rnlx Eliseo Rlera-Gftmez Manarlni Editor Advt A Tire Mgr Published daUr except Monday - Entered a® second class matter at th® Post Offic® of Miami Sprtnrs Pla. on February 8 195 b. EDITORIAL PATRIOTIC CONCERN When a high percentage of the citizens in a Republic seriously concern themselves with the wellbeing of the Fatherland, the fortunes of nations are quite different, and political activities develop in a high plane, more decorous and more constructive. Unfortunately, those who deeply reflect on civic mat ters, thinking about the interests of the country, are, almost in every case, a minority. That is the reason why, with discouraging frequency, there are political victories which respond only to a well-planned and better executed maneuver, which does not mean anything, in patriotic terms, to the country’s welfare. There are persons, who, although very careful in the analysis of their own problems and affairs, which they solve or try to solve within the norms of good judgment and decency, do not act in the same manner when they have to do something with matters of public interest which, in one form or another, envelop the interests and ideals of the Fatherland. To raise the level of thinking in each citizen to the height where the interests of the Fatherland are, should be the concern and constant endeavor of all those who, directly or indirectly, exercise some influence in the community. There are some persons who believe that patriotism implies feelings which are not compatible with reality and human nature, since it places them in planes of inac cesible spirituality, as if only carrying out an idea of almost Impossible practical realization. This way of think ing is sometimes very dangerous, because the concept of patriotism is then removed from the orbit of human attitudes, depriving them, with this error, of inspir ing themselves in the principles which give life, love, and respect to the Fatherland. Patriotism, no mat ter how much its spiritual significance, no matter how much it Is represented as an ideal, should never be considered as something which is outside of everyday realizations, as long as there is a sense of responsibility. Latin American Finance and Trade News Reports Venezuelans Purchase of N. Y. Bank a Vital link to Strengthen Relations NEW YORK, Jan. 2 (UP)— A short joint statement says that the purchase of the Colonial Trust Company Bank, by Venezuelan in vestors. is considered by the new owners as a “vital link in strength ening reciprocal investments and commerce" between the U S. and Venezuela. The sale was closed here when the Venezuelan group purchased 94 per cent of the bank's stock from the Chesapeake Industries, Inc. Colonial had approximately $71,000,000 on deposit in Decemb er 1954 and the purchase was made through an exchange of shares. The new owners acknowledged that they would bring general banking and commercial experi ence from Venezuela to the U.S. banking institution, and that since, as private investors, they have no | official position as representatives of the Venezuelan commercial com munity, they consider their incor poration in the U.S. bank as “a symbol of closer economical and financial bonds” between the U.S. and their country. The institution will enlarge in ternal business in the country and will maintain prestige and services in the field of foreign banking. They will organize a special de partment to aid Latin American visitors as well as U.S. companies who have business in Latin Ameri ca. They will maintain the same operational policies, which are re gulated by U.S. rulings. The purchasing group was re presented in the closing ceremony by Salvador Salvatierra, Miguel An gel Senior, Dr. Juan Carmona, Dr. Hugo Brillembourg, Dr. Baru Be nacerraf, Dr. Moises Benacerraf, and Dr. Rodolfo Belloso. William C. MacMillen. Jr., President of Chesapeake, and who will continue as President of Colonial represent ed the selling firm. Some 40 per cent of the pur chased stock, or 24,000 shares, were bought by the “Empresa Venezo lana Valores Comerciales E Indus trials (Vacoinca) which has a cap ital of 45.000.000 Bolivares, and of which Salvatierra is President and Brillembourg is Executive Vice- President. “C.A. El Impulso,” a Venezuelan company, which is the owner of a newspaper of the same name which has been in print for 55 years, purchased an 18,000 block of stock or 30 per cent. The company was represented by Dr. Carmona. The rest of the shares were bought personally by Dr. Benacerraf, Dr. Belloso. and Mr. Senior. NEW VENEZUELAN SHIPYARD FIRM WASHIGTO A new enter prise, Varadero y Astillero del The AmeiHas Daily For m better understanding between the Amothm Zulia C. A., was recently organized in Venezuela, with a capital of $l.B million. It will be known by the abbreviated name of “VAZCA” and will be located 13 miles south of Maracaibo. Most of the stock is held by Venezuelan investors. The company shipyard will be operated by Levingston Shipbuild ing Company, of Texas, one of the foreign stockholders, and will engage in the construction and re pair of all types of marine equip ment, including ships, barges, drill ing units and tenders. RIO DE JAEIRO FAIR CHANGES WASHINGTON The Rio de Janeiro Industry and Commerce Exposition, which was originally scheduled to open last October, will now open officially on Ja nuary 31, according to the spon sors. The internationl section of the Fair, however, will not open until March 31. It will close on May 1. 8.0.A.C. TO REESTABLISH AIR SERVICE TO SOUTH AMERICA WASHINGTON British Over seas Airways Corporation has an nounced plans to reestablish air service across the South Atlantic to Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. The company recently complet ed a survey of prospects for re suming the route, service on which was suspended in April, 1954, be cause of shortage of equipment. BOAC intends to extend to Ve nezuela and Colombia the services it now operated through Bermuda to the British Caribbean. It hopes to begin the extended service in the autumn of 1958 by operating as far as Caracas. AMERICAN AND FOREIGN POWER UNIT ELECTS NEW PRESIDENT WASHIGTO W. J. Amoss was recently elected president of Compania Cubana de Electricidad, a subsidiary of American and For eign Power Company, utility hold ing company. He succeeds D. G. Lewis, who will return to ew York to assume the duties of a vice president of American and For eign Power. For the past year, Mr. Amoss has been executive vice president of the Cuban company. Prior to join ing it, he was Director of the Port of New Orleans. Compania Cubana de Electrici dad provides more than 90 per cent of the electric power distri buted in Cuba. It is one of the larg est subsidiaries of American and Foreign Power and is presently engaged in a $197 million expans ion program, which is expected to double its generating capacity by 196’ Ambassador Chiriboga Appeals to U. S. to Pay More Attention to the Urgent Problems of Latin America KANSAS CITY, Jan. 20 (UP)— Dr. Jose R. Chiriboga, Ecuadorean Ambassador in Washington, call ed on the United States to pay more attention to Latin America in the application of her programs of economic aid. Chiriboga made this appeal in a speech here, while accepting, in the name of his country, a plane donated by Kansas City to the peo ple of Ecuador, to be used in the educational program of natives in the Ecuadorean Amazon jungle. The Ambassador pointed out the little knowledge there is in this country about Latin America, and Know thy Neighbor By ANTONIO RUIZ CHILE During the Spaniards struggle with the untamed natives of Arauco, a young captain named Alonso de Ereilla wrote verses on bits of paper, strips of leather, or whatever he could lay his hands on. When he returned to Spain, he incorporated them into a long poem and published the first part in 1569. “La Araueana,” the re cord of Chile’s beginning as a na tion is the greatest epic in Spanish American literature. Most Chilean children know parts of its 37 “can tos" by heart before they enter high school. Numerous editions and transla tions have appeared throughout the world. “The Araueaniad,” a version in English verse was pub lished in the United States in 19- 45. Ereilla and Arauco provided Chilean writers of the 16th and 17th centuries with most of their inspiration. Poets as well as chron iclers set out to study the Araucan ian Indians at home and in bat tle. Best among Ereilla’s imitators was Pedro de Ona, whose “Arauco Domado,” published in English in 1948 as “Arauco Tamed,” skillfully recounts events of the same wars, but without the heroic quality of the earlier masterpiece. During the chaotic struggle for independence in Chile, creative writing lagged behind literature that was aimed at spreading the doctrine of the ’■evolution. New life was dramatically injected in to Chilean letters around 1842, when the controversy between classicism and romanticism was at its height in Santiago. While Sar miento, self-taught Argentine edu cator, was calling for romantic freedom of expression a progres sive concept of culture, and emu lation of the French writers, Be llo and his followers were defend ing a strict literary standard, the purity of the Spanish language and the supremacy of Spanish culture. Even after Bello withdrew from the debate, some of his disciples continued the argument. Soon af terwards, however, opponents of Sarmiento’s principles and even Bello himself adopted romantic tendencies in their writings. Towards the end of the 19th cen tury, “costumbrismo,” the fashion of presenting various phases of contemporary life in short, inform al sketches, made its way from Eu rope to America. The humorist, Jose Joaquin Vallejo, a member of the generation of 1842, was a fore runner of the Chilean “eostumbris ta” school, which later turned to longer stories or novels of man ners and customs. The greatest novelist after the pattern of Balzac was Alberto Blest Gana, whose works are detailed, full-scale protraits of Chilean so ciety. Luis Orrego Luco was a real istic novelist of the following gen eration. The novelist, short story writer and literary critic, Mariano Latorre, has for years headed the “eriollista” school, faithfully re producing landscapes and types and customs of rural life. Luis Du rand is another important contem porary “eriollista” writer. A complete picture of Chilean city life as seen through the eyes of a naturalist is presented in J. Edwards Bello’s realistic novels. The first Chilean short story writ er to point up his country’s so cial problems was Baldomero Li llo, who was influenced by Zola and other European naturalists. Two outstanding novelists have made direct studies of Santiago’s middle class. Eduardo Barrios, a master of abnormal psychology, portrays the sufferings of a pre cocious child in one book, the struggle of a sensitive man in a hostile materialistic enfironement in', another, and the emotional tor ments of a monk in a third novel. Augusto D’Halmar, abandoning the crude realism of his earlier works, turns to oriental escapism in his ' later novels and short stories. 1 Spanish Version Page 3 MIAMI SPRINGS, FLA., TUSDAY, JANUARY 21, 1958 said: “Even the great exporters and Importers of New York, New Orleans, San Francisco, Florida, Boston, Seattle and Baltimore, know very little about Latin Ame rica, with its 170,000,000 inhabit ants and jts immense mineral, agri cultural, hydroelectric and other potentialities. But the people of the United States as a whole have either no knowledge, or superficial knowledge of the real Latin Ame rica and the future significance to this country of the twenty free na tions whose peoples hold ideals of peace, justice and liberty similar to theirs. Latin America is the largest and nearest market for United States products. In 1957, trade between the United States and its twenty sister republics amounted to $8,000,000,000. Lat in America has 70 per cent of the strategic products essential to na tional security of the United States.” “There is in this country he said —a .marked tendency, in speaking of economic and tech nical aid, to think in terms of a cold war taking place in Asia and the Middle East. Many consider the foreign aid given by the United States as some kind of prize for ‘neutrals”. “But Ecuador and other Latin American nations are in urgent need of aid, aid in the form of credits, of trade under fair condi tions, so that their peoples can fight and eliminate ignorance, pov erty and illness affecting millions of human beings who are sincere friends of the United States.” Chiriboga pointed out that the standard of living in some of the countries in our Hemisphere is as low, or lower, that in some Asiatic nations, and added: “Russia and her satellites are working hard in Latin America also, to win the friendship of the masses. Russia realizes that at the very moment in which one Latin American coun try falls under communist domina tion all the political and military strategy of the United States will be affected.” The Ecuadorean diplomat then said: “If the day should come when the Panama Canal is threatened by Russian submarines, the Unit ed States will lose its main source of supply for her peace industries and her national defense.” Chiriboga concluded saying: “There is still time to save Latin America for the cause of freedom, peace, and democracy. Our peo ples belong to Christian civiliza tion and have more faith in the might of right than in the right of might.”- Cultural Exchange Meeting in Chile SANTIAGO (UP)— With the attendance of representatives of dis ferent continental houses of study, the first Latin American confer ence of universary extension and cultural exchange will start to morrow. The organizing- committee re ported that during the meeting they will basically cover the three following themes: An analysis of universary exten sion; a study of the various forms of seasonal schools; the financing of activities of cultural activity and universary extension. HEMISPHERIC EVENTS Latin American News in Brief Venezuelan Relief Sent to Peruvians CARACAS, Jan. 18. —(UP).— The Venezuelan government sent five Army Air Force planes to Peru with 22 thousand pounds of food, medicine, and clothes for the victims of the Arequipa earthquake. The chief of the Venezuelan mis sion is Lieutenant Colonel Abel Omaha. Argentine Airline Gets U. S. Permit WASHINGTON. (UP) Trans continental Airways, a new Ar gentine company, has been award ed a permit to begin service bet wen Buenos Aires and New York. The authority was granted by the Civil Aeronatutics board but the decision has not yet been made public. Conservative Gen. Ydigoras Fuentes Holding Lead in Guatemalan Vote GUATEMALA CITY (UP)— Rightwing candidate Gen. Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes is holding the lead today in the first returns from Sunday’s presidential elec tion, in this former Communist stronghold in Central America. He is not sure yet of his election, however. Ydigoras, a veteran conservative and leader of the National Demo cratic Reconciliation, has 89,743 with 151 of the 332 municipal dis tricts of Guatemala counted. Cen trist candidate Jose Luis Cruz Sa lazar, supported by the Nationalist Democratic Movement founded by the late President Carlos Castillo Armas, has 77,480 and Mario Men dez Montenegro, of the leftist Re volutionary Party, 77,077. Os these totals, Ydigoras receiv ed 40,209 in the capital, where he is considered particularly strong. Mendez Montenegro received 32,- 907 and Cruz Salazar only 13,072 in the capital. The other two candidates, Col. Jose Enrique Ardon Fernindez, of the Liberal Nationalist Union Party, and Col. Enrique Peralta are virtually eliminated. Political observers here believe it probably will be necessary to hold a run-off election between the two leading candidates. It ap pears unlikely that any of the five contenders will receiver the majority vote required for elec tion under Guatemalan law. Sunday’a voting was quite, and the heavy military precautions tak en by the government to prevent a repetition of October’s disorders proved needless. Provisional President Guillermo Flores Avendano, who took office after the October election was an nulled, said the quiet voting prov ed that “democracy has taken root” in Guatemala. Mexico is Opposed to OAS Economic, Political, Military Bonds With NATO MEXICO (UP)— Mexico is op posed to the creation of political, economic, or military bonds be tween the Organization of Ameri can States, (OAS), and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, (NA TO). In an extensive press statement, the Foreign Relations Minister, Luis Padilla Nervo, says that there is no objection to an exchange of ideas and reports between the two International organizations, in order to establish closer and more friendly relations between the Eu ropean countries and those of the Americas. “But, he added, they cannot be politically, economically, or milit arally linked because OAS is main ly occupied with general better ment of the American countries and with the solution, by peace ful means, of the disputes which can occur among its members, and NATO is an essentially transitory organization destined for Armed Defense.” He later said that he was com pelled to make this statement about the question in answer to recent reports which suggested the possibility of such a connection between the two organizations. At the same time he said; “Our organization should continue as it is, that is to say, a mode of In ternational cooperation, an exam ple of sisterhood between the re publics, the epitomy of how prin- Transcontinental is the first private Argentine airline which would break the state monopoly on air transportation in Argentina. CUBAN TERRORIST HURT AS HIS OWN BOMB EXPLODES HAVANA (UP) A young terrorist was at the point of being blown to bits when the bomb wnich he placed in a desolote section in Ved-ado suburb blew up before he could escape. The police identified the ter rorist as Mario Cambras, 28, an ex patient of a mental institution. Pambras was seriously wounded by bomb fragments. The young terrorist tried to escape the explosion but was detained bl a policeman who took him to an Emergency Hospital where his condition as classified as serious. MEXICAN PROMOTIONS MEXICO CITY (UP)— Presi dent Adolfo Ruiz Cortines has under study a list of 918 officers of the Mexican armed forces re- Dozens Killed, Injured as Earthquake, Tidal Wave hit Esmeraldas, Ecuador's Port Britons to Sue Panamanian Govt, for Mistreatment LIVERPOOL, England (UP) Two Britons returned home from Panama to press action against the Panamanian Government because of alleged mistreatment they suf fered at a customs post in Puerto Armuelles. Twenty-two-year-old Don White of London said after arriving here aboard the liner “Reina del Pacifi co,” that he was beaten up by a Panamanian policeman and that he and his friend Danny Havilland, 31, of Micthman, were imprison ed by Panamanian officials. They said that they intend to seek lega.l advice in the hope of receiving compensation from the Panamanian Government. The men said they met in Syd ney Australia, and decided to tra vel together. They entered Pana ma via the Costa Rican border town of Golfite. It was in Puerto Armuelles that they ran into trou ble. “Everything seemed all right in the Customs office, but suddenly the Customs officer took excep tion and. . .the policeman came in from another room and started bat tering White,” Havilland said. “There was absolutely no justi fication for the attack or the treat ment and we intend to take up this matter. Afterwards we shall con tinue our globe trotting.” ciples of equality, justice and re coprocal respect can regulate rela tions between the nations of the world.” PRADO ANSWERS CRITICISM LIMA (UP) — President Manuel Prado answered the criticism from some oppostion political sectors about his plan to link the Organiza tion of American States (OAS) with the North Atlantic Treaty Or ganization (NATO). Prominent Latin Americans to Meet in February to Discuss Regional Market SANTIAGO, Chile A number of prominent Latin Americans from six countries will meet at the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America in February for several days to discuss ways and means of creating a Latin American region al market. Specifically, the Group will consider the general lines of an over-all practical program re lated to the projected regional market and, on the basis both of the studies prepared by the ECLA secretariat and of their own know ledge of the situation, will ex amine the possibilities and pro jections for such a market, define commended by the Defense De partment for promotion. Officials said the promotions will be probably approved without any change. An announcement is ex pected within the next few days. NEW AIR SERVICE MEXICO CITY (UP)— A nett economical ‘tourist class” air ser vice between Mexico City and Los Angeles was inaugurated by Com pania Mexicana de Aviacibn (C MA, in another step to increase U.S. tourist travel to Mexico. The company will operate two such flights daily, officials said. One-way tickets will cost $79. which is 20 per cent less than the regular first-class fare. 3,500-YEAR OLD TOMB IS FOUND IN PERU LIMA, Peru (UP)— The Peruv ian Government’s Archeological Department reported the finding of an Indian grave estimated to be nearly 3,500 years old. The find was made in Palpa Valley, lea Department, in a height known as Mollawue Hill. The tomb had the form of a ter City Badly Damaged in Second Such Tragedy in So. America in a Week Peruvians Still Working Hard, Trying To Repair Water Service en Arequipa GUAYAQUIL, Jan. 20 (UP)— Earthquakes and tidal waves lash ed the Ecuadorean coast yesterday, causing at least 20 deaths and the destruction of hundreds of homes and other buildings. This was the second great trage dy in South America in less than a week, since an earthquake killed 24 persons and left 1,500 homeless in the Peruvian city of Arequipa a few days ago. In Ecuador, the worst damage was caused in Esmeraldas, where all the known deaths occured. Be sides, four persons have been list ed as missing, and 300 wounded. Almost half of the buildings in Esmeralda were destroyed by the combination of the earthquakes and tidal waves, and several ships which were in port were torn to pieces. A 40 foot wall of water rushed into Guayaquil and the near-by city of Las Palmas, causing consider able damage but no victims. A hotel and several other buildings in Las Palmas were destroyed. DESTRUCTION ENORMOUS AIR LINE PILOT SAYS QUITO (UP) — Agustin Arias, a commercial airline pilot who re turned from Esmeraldas, said that enormous destruction was caused by the earthquake in that city and neighboring towns and added that the population was saved from a worse catastrophy because the homes were build of wood, and due to the time the earthquake occured. According to Arias, almost all of the brick walls have fallen. The violence of the movement, classified as 7.5 on the Internation al scale, threw everything off ta bles, desks, seats, etc. Water pipe lines have been bro ken and the city is without elec tricity. Arias said that the tidal wave produced huge whilpools of water, The government has requested reports from the Galapagos Arehi its characteristics and submit re commendations to the Govern ments through the secretariat on basic principles and procedures for its establishment. In this way, ECLA will be entering upon the phase of practical work in con nexion with the Latin American regional market. The members of the Group were appointed in a private capacity by the ECLA secretariat in conformi ty with the powers assigned to it by the- Commission. Their names are given below in alphabetical or der: Mr. Jose Garrido Torres, Presi race in whose base a human body was found. Besides it was a ceram ic dish with figures engraved and painted. Several rocks found in the vicini ty were engraved with human and animal figures, including llamas, felines, monkeys and birds. In contrast with Indian mum mies found in the favous Paraeas burial grounds and in those of the pre-Paracas Chavin culture, which were usually wrapped in textile fabrics, the newly-found body was wrapped only in the leaves of the pacae plant. CASALS TO PREPARE PRADES FESTIVAL PERPIGNAN. France (U) Spanish cellist Pablo Casals will return to France in May to pre pare for his Pradts Music Festival, officials said today. They said the concerts would be gin July 3 and run through July 20. Casals who took part in the j 1956 festival, was forced to cancel : his appearance last year because ihe suffered a heart attack at his I home in Puerto Rico. Member Inter American Press Association • For Liberty, Culture and Hemispheric Solidarity NUMBER 167 pelago where is it estimated that the earthquake also caused dam- ages. PERUVIAN CITY HAS SHORTAGE OF WATER AREQUIPA, Jan. 20 (UP)—ln tensive work is being done to completely re-establish drinking water services which at the present is only sufficient for a little more than half of the population. The situation in the southern, eastern, and northwestern zones which covers more than 80 thou sand inhabitants continues to be critical with regards to water since new faults in the sector’s main pipe lines have occured. The May or, who presides the Aid to Are quipa Mission, said that he would ask the U. S. government for all possible aid that it may wish to of fer to the town lashed by the earthquake to be used for financ ing a new pipe line for drinking water. It is estimated that the cost of this work will reach about 9 million soles (approximately $400,000 to $450,000.) Meanwhile, a census is being taken of the families and homes affected by the earthquake, un der the charge of the personnel of the National Health and Social Wellbeing Fund. The first foreign aid to reach the city of Misti was that of Argentina, who sent four tons of medicines, food, plasma, and clothing. In charge of the shipment made by President Aramburu was Dr. Rodolfo Baltierrez, representative of the Brazilian Ministry, who was received by Prefect Abril de Vi vero, the Major, the President of the Peruvian Red Cross, and other authorities of Arequipa. The Venezuelan mission made a stop over in the Limatambo Air port, since it could not immediate ly continue towards Arequipa due to radio transmitter trouble. This mission was presided by Command er Jose Abel Omana, of Caracas, who studied in the Peruvian Air Force Academy in this capital. dent of the National Economic Council of Brazil Mr. Rodrgio Gomez, Director of the Banco de Mexico Mr. Flavian Levine, Manager of the Compania de Acero del Pa cifico, Huach pato, and Professor of the University of Chile ’Mr. Eustaquio Mendez Delfino, President of the Bolsa de Comer cio, Bueno Aires, and ex-Chair man of the Argentine National Honorary Commission of Economy and Finance. Mr. Galo Plaza, Ex President of the Republic of Ecuador Mr. Joaquin Vallejo, Ex Minist er of Development, Colombia. In view of the broad scope and complexity of the subject, the forth coming meeting of the Group will be of a preliminary nature. Be fore resuming final conclusions, it is probable that it will have to meet again several times in the course of the year. Intra-Latin American trade po licy is still influenced by outmod ed forms of development, accord ing to which each country makes its own separate way towards com plementarity with the centers of industrial production through the traditional exchange of primary commodities for manufactured goods. The development of this type of trade, far from being in consistent with the industrializa tion of Latin America, is one of the most effective methods of ac hieving it, but the process of in dustrialization in these countries is being carried in watertight com parments, and there is little in tra-regional trade in manufactur ed products. While industries were still producing goods usually current consumer goods —for which the local markets were big enough for the establishment of sufficiently large enterprises, the industrial isolation of each coun try was not a matter of great con cern. Now, however, that the pro cess ,in response to the demands of development, includes goods that can only be produced eco nomically on a large scale which would overload domestic markets, it becomes necessary W intensify intra-regional trade.