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infer * American News
for English - Speaking people sth YEAR ® * ROMAN c. w smith s smith President Vice President Vice President „,^ RANI ;* SC 0 AGUIRRE HORACIO AGUIRRE Vice President and Publisher Vice President Editor and Maaacer I R” l * SUseo Rlem-G6mei Manaelnt Rdltoi Advt A Clre Mer Published dallv except Monday - Entered aa second clast matter at tbe Post office of Miami Sprints Fla. on February g ISS». EDITORIAL CIVILIZATION AND POLITICAL CULTURE IN GUATEMALA As it is well known, the political crisis put before the Guatemalan people with the results of the last elections, has been solved, at least in its first phase, because of the patriotic attitude of the two principal rivals in the campaign: Gen. Miguel Ydigoras Fuenfes and Col. Jose Luis Cruz Salazar. In a historical gesture which must be recognized by Guatemala and America, the candidates to the Presidency of the Republic have signed a pact of political peace which, it is sure, will determine that Gen. Ydigoras, the candidate who received the greatest number of votes, be the next Chief Executive. In this manner they have avoided, or are trying to avoid, a conflict of electoral technicality which the Na tional Congress must decide, since Gen. Ydigoras did not get enough votes for an absolute majority, being followed by Col. Cruz Salazar. It is to be hoped, therefore, that the members of Con gress, putting aside their personal sympathies or political interest, both those supporting Ydigoras and-Cruz Salazar, will accept the civic and patriotic formula resulting from the pact of the two candidates. If in Congress the spirit which inspired the noble attitude of the two prevails, Gua temala would have solved in a decorous manner, with a sense of responsibility, a serious political problem in favor of democracy, national progress and the prestige of America. THE INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ORGANIZATION January 27 is in 1958 a memorable date for the eco nomic future of the Western Hemisphere. At Rio de Ja neiro, beautiful Capital of Brazil, the International Coffee Organization was born, symbolizing a positive defensive movement which, however, does not involve a threat to anyone. The purpose is to unify the thoughts of the pro ducers in order to defend their points of view and, conse quently, the interests of millions of Latin Americans. It is extraordinarilv encouraging to note the enormous spirit of understanding which reigned at the meetings preceeding the actual birth of the Organization. A series of illustrious men could be mentioned as principal authors of this Accord which unifies all the coffee producing nations; however, due to space ilimitations, we will only mention those figures who, because of their active parti cipation, could be considered the basic pillars of this great movement: The Brazilian Minister of the Treasury, Jose Marfa Alkmin, who contributed all the resources of his Ministry toward the realization of this important project; Paulo Guzzo. Director of the Coffee Bureau, whose enthu siasm and organization are largely responsible for the success achieved: Manuel Mejia, delegate of Colombia, who personifies the efforts of many years: and, finally, the re presentatives of the four member Nations of the Coordinat ing Commission who, in their preparatory work, assured the success of this most interesting meeting. Perhaps, what most assures the success of the Inter national Coffee Organization is the friendly attitude assum ed by the coffee consumer representatives. Special mention should be given to the cooperation afforded by Mr. George Robbins, representative of General Foods, largest green coffee buyer in the world. The ICO is born at a supreme moment of the world, when the economic anguishes of Latin America require more and more a positive program of development as a defense against the plottings of communism. The big step just taken in Rio de Janeiro is what could be called Latin America’s self-defense against the problem presented by the lack of an accelerated economic development, a lack which might lead to communism as a result of the low standards of living in a majority of the Latin American nations. x x x x x x Latin American Finance and Trade News Reports Colombian Government I Helps Popular Bank BOGOTA. (UP) The Nationalj Government came to the aid of the Popular Bank and destined j 92-1/2 million pesos to it to gua rantee the deposits of the clients j of this organization whose liqui dation was, rumored in usually well informed circles. Day before yesterday hundreds of persons rushed the tellers windows of the bank, taking out their deposits as a result of a period of panic. The government also authorized the Bank of the Republic to carry out all necessary operations to completely guarantee the opera tions of this organizations, which will be re-organized. The amount destined to refi nance the Popular Bank was taken from the current national budget | as ?r a special conference attend-; ed by members of the Military Junta, Ministers, and ex-Presidents Alfonso L6pez, and Mariano Ospi na P£rez, and Carlos Lleras Res trepo. Restrepo is an exMinister of Finance and present director ol the Liberal Partv The Daily I PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAM IN CUBA WASHINGTON Total cons truction activity in Cuba declined during the past two months and, except for residential construction, the longsustained building boom appears to be losing momentum. However, the new public works programa scheduled to get under way in the near future is expected to support the demand for cons truction materials. For the continuance of the pu blic Works projects during the remainder of fiscal 1958 and in fiscal 1959, an appropriation of up to $3O million has recently been approved by the President of the. Republic. These expenditures will be financed in part by a general increase in most transportation taxes, such as license fees for private cars, trucks, and buses. Moreover, retirement funds are required to invest 40 per cent of their loanable assets in govern ment public debt bonds and 20 per cent in national public securi ' ties issued by the Cuban Govern ment development banks. Subscribe to the Americas Daily U. S, Oil Import Restrictions Are "Explosive" in Venezuela the Journal of Commerce Says NEW YORK; Jan. 31 —(UP).— U.S. restrictions on the import of oil at this time, constitutes, in Ve nezuela, a question so very ex plosive that “The Wall Street Journal” classifies it as “incen diary”. The paper, on its first page, publishes a reporf from its corres pondent in Caracas, Ray Vicker, that in the “recently liberated country” there is a general feel ing of illwill against the U. S. oil import restrictions, and he cites, in effect, the opinions of politi cians, capitalists, and workers. Know thy Neighbor By ANTONIO RUIZ CUBA More than 120 years ago, when Spain, the Mother Coun try, did not have any railways as yet, King Ferdinand VII, on Oct ober 12, 1834, authorized the De velopment Bureau, of which the Count of Villanueva was President, to negotiate a loan from England for two million pesos, which would bfc invested in the construction of a railroad between Havana and Guines. On November 19, 1837, the first section, between Havana and Bejucal, was inaugurated, and on its first anniversary, November 19, 1838, the second section, from Be jucal to Guines, was put into ser vice. The name of Havana-Guines Railroad was given to this line. On January 11, 1842, the Hava na-Guines Railroad was sold in public auction, and was purchased by the Havana Railway Company. One of the conditions of the sale was the construction of a branch from Rincon to San Antonio, an other one from San Felipe to Ba tabano, and a third one from Gui nes to La Union. On December 8, 1843, the first train arrived in Batabano; on December 8, 1844, the first one reached San Antonio, and finally on November 26, 1848, another one arrived in La Union and in Guanabajay on October 15. 1849. On March 18, 1857, a conces sion was given for the construc tion of a branch from Guines to Matanzas, and the first section, from Guines to Catalina, was in augurated on October 4, 1859, and on October 15, 1861, the first train arrived at the station of San Luis, Matanzas. Alston March 18, 1857, a concession was given to the Bay Railway Company for the construc tion of a railroad from Regia to Matanzas, and the first section, from Regia to Minas, was inau gurated on April 4, 1859 and in May, 1853, the first train arrived in Matanzas. On November 1, 1857 the same company was authorized to build a branch from Regia to Guanaba coa and this service was inaugurat ed on July 26, 1858. The branch from Matanzas to Jovellanos was built in sections by different com panies and the branches they built were joined together, be tween Guanabaeoa and Matanzas, on February 26, 1861. On the Cardenas Railraod, a con cession was granted on May 23, 1837, for the construction of a line from Cardenas to Jovellanos, and the first section, to Contreras, was inaugurated in June of 1840. The first train arrived in Jovellanos in December of the same year. In Jan uary, 1844, this line was extended to Navajas. The same company was granted a concession to construct a line from Jovellanos to Aguica, and little by little it was extended arriving in Santo Domingo in Dec ember, 1871. In 1885 it was ex tended from Santo Domingo to La Esperanza. On the Matanzas Railroad, a con cession was granted by the Gov ernor General of Cuba in 1839 for the construction of a line from Matanzas to Las Piedras, and on November 1, 1843, the first section was inaugurated from Matanzas to Guanabana. The locomotive “La Junta.” which carried the first "train is on exhibition at the Hava na Terminal. This Railroad was ex tended to Union in 1848; to Gua reiras, where the’ first rain arriv ed on May 17, 1870 and to Colon, in November 1872. The Consolidated Railways of Cuba have their services in the provinces of Las Villas, Camagiiev and Oriente. They have more than one thousand miles of tracks, over 200 locomofives and several thou sand passenger and freight cars. There are other railroads in Cuba, which is, in relation with its area the country with the best distribu tion of railroad services in all of Latin America. Spanish Version Page f For a better understanding between the Americas MIAMI SPRINGS, FLA., SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1958 The journalist states that “the politicians are in a struggle to see which one will be able to get the most advantage out of the resent ment caused by the U. S. restric tions”. “They speak of two measures, as a reprisal, which could greatly affect U.S. businessmen, if the threats of restrictions materalize, says Vicker. The threats mentioned are: —Restrictions of Venezuelan purchases from the U. S. —More Venezuelan control over the operations of oil companies. The correspondent recalls that Venezuela was the Latin American country which bought more in the U.S. last year, reaching a level of more than one billion dollars. He stressed the importance that the second threat consists of that the most part of the 3 million do llars invested by U.S. capital in Venezuela in is oil companies. He cites the following statement of Fabricio Ojeda, leader of the Patriotic Junta which directed the civilian movement against the go vernment of Perez Jimenez. “(The restrictions) constitute an adverse' precedent regarding the commercial relations between the U.S. and Venezuela. A similiar measure could be used by Vene zuela against U.S. import pro ducts.” Jovito Villalba, leader of the Republic-Democratic Union, who recently returned from exile to Ca racas says: “The Venezuelan go vernment should take a more im portant part in the sale of its oil”. He adds that Villalba thinks that his country’s oil is now being sold “unilaterally”. and that the “whims” of the U. S. are the deter mining factor. “I cannot be sure that if what the Venezuelans say about repri sals is concrete, but there is no doubt about the depth of resent ment, and this has a better op portunity to find political expres sion now than before the recent revolution,” concludes the corres pondent. U. S. Imports From Latin America WASHINGTON, Jan. 31 (UP)— I The Department of Commerce an nounced that U S. imports from the twenty Latin American Repub blics reached last October the amount of $2)7,400,000 against $261,100,000 in September. Imports in October were consid erably higher than those‘of Octob er, 1956, which were for $270,600,- 000 but somewhat lower than the monthly average for 1956, which was $303,300,000. The main increases in October corresponded to Guatemala, Mexi co, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Chile U.S. imports from the whole world In October reached $1,144,- 700,000, almost a record figure, against $1,007,100,000 in Septemb er. Increases were from Western Europe, Canada and European de pendencies, as well as Latin Ameri ca. U S. imports in October and September from each of the Latin American countries, in dollars, were as follows: Mexico, $31,600,000 against $28,- 000.000; Guatemala, $5,900,000 a gainst $2,000,000: El Salvador, $l,- 900,000 against $1,100,000; Hon duras, $1,200,000 against $BOO,- 000: Nicaragua, $700,000 against $600,000; Costa Rica, $1,600,000 ; against $1,800,000; Panama, $2,- HEMISPHERIC EVENTS ' Latin American News in Brief DR. RAFAEL CALDERA RETURNS TO VENEZUELA NEW YORK, Jan. 31. (UP). Rafael Caldera, leader of Copei, Venezuelan Christian Democratic Partiy, left today for Curazao on a KLM plane. He will arrive this afternoon and spend the night there. He will then continue on Lineas Aereas Venezolanas for Caracas, where he will arrive tomorrow. Argentina to Seek Manufacture of U. S. Automotive Products Washington >up)— The Com merce Department’s investment op portunities section announced that Manfredo Hause of Buenos Aires plans an early visit to New York, Chicago and Detroit to seek licens Rojas Pinilla's Fortune Increased Several Millions While in Power BOGOTA, Jan. 31. —(UP).— Several tax law experts agree in holding ex-General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla and all the members of his family responsible for crimes of falsehood and perjury for om miting facts in their income tax statements. The experts made their -state ments after reviewing the income tax statements of Rojas and his family, according to which, they had a capital of more than 8.1/2 million pesos in 1956, while it was less than 200,000 1952, or six months before Rojas took over the power in a military coup. In 1952 Rojas Pinilla stated that he had assets of 50 thousand pe sos and an income of less than 26 thousand pesos, while in 1956 he declared assets of 2,820.000 pe sos and an income of 125 thous and pesos. Statements of his wife. sons, and brother - in - law increased accord ingly. The tax law experts maintain, nevetheless, that they ommited income in these statements which can be used to sentence Rojas and his family for the crimes of falsehood and perjury. These documents are the first proof that has been -published about the increase of wealth of Rojas and his family during the time he held the dictatorial go vernment in his country. Nicaragua • Honduras Commission Returns MANAGUA.—(UP).—The Nica ragua-Honduras Committee, which visited the Mocoron border in order to investigate the complaint that there were Honduran troops there, returned to this capital. It is believed that the two coun tries, in conformity with the Or vanization of American States, will agree to' declare the zone “No man’s land”, while the litigation is being solved. 30,000 against $2,100,000; Cuba, $37,400,000 against $4,900,0000; Haiti, $2,100,000 against $1,300,- 000; Dominican Republic, $2,400,- 000 against $2,700,000; Colombia, $26,500,000 against $24,700,000; Venezuela. $72,100,000 agalinst $65,600,000: Ecuador $8,200,000 against $7,300,000; Peru, $12,900,- 000 against $9400,000; Bolivia, $1,600,000 against $1,000,000; Chile, $14,700,000 against $ll,. 400,000; Brasil, $64,100,000 against $48,600,000; Paraguay, $600,000 against $200,000; Uruguay, $BOO - against $600,000; Argentina, 8,800.000 agains! $8,800,000. Brazilian Production Records New Increase RIO DE JANEIRO. (UP).—Bra zilian national gross production, in 1957, was 1,040,000,000 crucei ros more than in 1956. Part of this increase was dimi nished by the depreciation of the cruceiro due to inflation, accord ing to the monthly economic bul letin. But at the same time, says the publication, national production increased 5.6% over that of 1956, while the increase in per capita production was 3%. ing arrangements or investment for manufacture of American au tomotive products in Argentina. The announcement said that Hause is particularly interested in obtaining technical know-how for production of automobile spare parts. “It is understood that he is in a position to negotiate on behalf of a well-established Argentine manufacturer oc related items for a possible joint-venture operation if the United States manufactur ers expresses an interest in capital participation,” the Department said. HAITI PRESSURED ON AMERICAN’S DEATH WASHINGTON (IB—Mrs. Shibly Talamas, Ashtabula, Ohio, widow of an American who died in cus tody of Haitian police last Septem ber, said she is “determined that those responsible tor my husband’s Cuban Soldier Killed by Masked men Trying to set Fire to bus in Highway --....... , . - * Red Publicity in Latin America to be increased Soon NEW YORK, Jan 31. —(UP).— The magazine, “Vision”, which is published here in Spanish for La tin America, says, in its latest is sue that the Soviet Union is going to start soon a publicity campaign in Argentina and Brazil in support of offers made of oil refining and drilling in those countries. According to the magazine, an assortment of public relations ma terial received in Montevideo in cludes photographs of factory ma chinery for oil and sugar refining which Czechoslovakian, Rumanian, and Russian technicians are erect ing in India, Punjab, and Syria. The information on the photo graphs say that all of the Soviet block is ready to aid in the deve lopment of Latin America. The propaganda also affirms that U.S. dollars have “aided” the dictators of Venezuela and Colom bia to development their natural resources, but were denied to aid the “democracies such as Argen titina and Brazil” from establish ing their own state oil corpora tions. “The material says the maga zine— is destined to widen the existing divisions in the govern ments about the question of if they should obtain Russian aid for oil development”. RIO BUILDIN6 COLLAPSES FLATTENS THREE OTHERS RIO DE JANEIRO (UP)—A ten story apartment building, in the Copacabana section, crashed down with a tremendous noise, and partly destroyed three near by buildings. Reports received up to date say that there were no victims, since engineers noted last week that the building was starting to sink and predicted the crash. As a result, the police condemned the zone and evacuated the building and neighboring ones. Reciprocal Trade act Endangered by Possible Negative Congress Action WASHINGTON, Jan. 31. (UP). Key lawmakers said today there is no chance that Congress will give President Eisenhower all the tariff-cutting power he is demand ing to combat Russia’s “intensifi ed” trade offensive# They figured that after a long and stormy battle Congress would approve some extension of the 24-year- old Reciprocal Trade Pro gram which will otherwise expires June 30. The President asked for a five-year extension. Lawmakers said he’ll be lucky to get three. Some supporters of the program felt there was a real danger that the bill would be so drastically death be brought to justice.” Mrs. Talamas met with her con gressman, Rep. David S. Dennison Jr. (R-Ohio) and Rep. Donald L. Jackson (R-Calif.) to discuss the case. Both congressmen conferred with U.S. Embassy officials in Hai ti last year about it. Talamas, merchant in Haiti, died after a beating. In a statement issued through Dennison’s office Mrs. Talamas said she believes the U.S. Govern ment is doing everything possible to press its demands upon the Haitian Government for a full in quiry into Talamas’ death and dam ages for his family. “No one who knew my late hus band and the respect in which he was held in Haiti can credit the claim of some Haitian officials that he met his death by natural eau ses,” she said. DISAPPEARANCE OF EX LIEUTENANT BELIEVED TO BE IN JAIL REPORTED Mysterious Plane Burns 7,000 Tons of Sugarcane in Camagiiey Province Fields HAVANA, Jan. 31 (UP)..— Two masked men killed Ramon Gros, a 28 year old soldier, when he tried to keep them from setting fire to a bus in the nearby town of Madruga. The soldier was riding in the bus when it was stopped by the two masked men, who ordered the passengers to get off so that they could set fire to the bus. When Gros resisted them, they shot him and fled without setting pire to the bus. It was also reported that ex-Lt. Dionisio San Roman Toledo chief of the naval uprising in Cienfuegos on the sth of September, who had been taken prisoner by the go vernment forces when the rebel lion failed, has disappeared. The court, upon suspending their decision about a Habeas Cor pus presented in favor of San Ro man Toledo, announced that they had been informed by the Com mander of La Cabana Fort, that, in the list of arrested persons, no such name appeared. Meanwhile, taking advantage, .of the lift of censorship, the news paper, “El Comercio”, of Cienfue gos, says that 71 perons died in this uprising. It adds that 20 were not identified and were buried in a common grave. According to the newspaper, among the dead were 15 civilians, one a 13 year old youth. SUGAR CANE BURNED BY MISTERIOUS PLANE HAVANA, Jan. 31 —(Special to THE AMERICAS DIALY).— Colo nel Victor Duenas, Chief of the Camagiiey Military District, report ed that the amount of the sugar cane burned by the mysterious plane which flew over the nor thern region of this Province drop ping inflamable materials, reach ed 7 thousand ton. He added that the Cane can be ground, since all of the sugar mills are working, but that the yield instead of being 12% will only be 8%. The sugar cane which was affected the most was in the central colonies of Adelaida and Punta Alegre. Re i ports issued by the Military Chief amended before passage as to be come in substance more of a ta riff-boosting bill than one to pro vide fCr lower import duties. In a special message to the House and Senate yesterday, the President insisted that further re ductions in tariff wall separating free world countries were neces sary to strengthen their economies and to meet the economic chal lenge of communism.' The President further stated that the law “is essential for our national economic interest, for our security and for our foreign re lations”. MEXICO AIMING TO END OIL IMPORTS MEXICO CITY (UP)— Antonio Bermudez, Director General of Pe troeleos Mexicanos, said plans are being completed for the erection of a petroleum storage plant in En senada, which would permit Mexi can oil products to “recapture the Lower California market." “The success of the nationaliza tion of the Mexican oil industry is not complete as long as there are places in the Mexican territory where foreign petroleum products are sold,” Bermfide’ said. The petroelum chief said Lower California uses 25 million liters of gasoline monthly. He said the Ensenada storage plant, served by Mexico’s petroleum fleet, would completely meet tbe State’* pe troelum needs. Member Inter American Frees Association • For Liberty, Culture and Hemispheric Solidarity NUMBER 177 to the Emergency Court stated the “phantom” plane, of a silver color, had its registration number covered with black paint and flew over the zone for 25 or 30 minutes in the afternoon and that military planes had been sent after it without results. Meanwhile, from Santa Clara it was reported that authorities think that they have identified the rebel killed in a recent encounter with the Army in El Naranjo, in Fo mento zone. According to docu ments found on the body, the rebel is E. Villegas, chief of the rebel group which operated in that re gion and a student living with his family in Sancti Spiritus. Fifteen year old Eduardo Mor gado Contreras was wounded in Santa Clara as he walked along the street with Jose Grimal, 21, as shots were fired. A bomb was set off in the Com mercial School of this city on the 2nd floor, causing some dammage. In Cienfuegos, “El Comercio”, pu blished a report that the name* of those killed in the sth of Sep tember uprising were inscribed in the municipal courts. Among them the names of 5 Navy officers, 17 sailors, an Army Lieutenant, se veral soldiers, Navy police, a IS year old girl, and 16 civilians. The paper said that some 20 unident ified bodies had been buried also. Sears to Open New Branch in Brazil CHICAGO. —(UP).— Sears, Roebuck, and Company will inau gurate its ninth branch in Brazil, in Campinas, 90 kilometers to the northwest of Sao Paulo, next week, The announcement was made to day by Charles A. Meyer, Vice- President in charge of Operations in Latin America. Meyer said that the new store will be situated in the commercial section of Campinas, an industrial city of some 100 thousand inha bitants. “If our Government —he ad ded— is to play a decisive role in the protection and strengthening of the free economy system against the communist threat, the Reci procal Trade Agreement requested by the Executive must be ap proved”. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE HERE REQUESTS RENEWAL PASSAGE Here in Miami, the Miami-Dade County Chamber of Commerce has expressed great concern regard ing the extension of the law, in particular regarding the conse quences it may have on the trade of this region with the Latin Ame rican countries. The Board Directors of the In ternational Affairs Department of the Chamber, on January 15, adopted the following resolution on the matter: WHEREAS the International Af fairs Department of the Miami- Dade County Chamber of Com merce believes that the continued expansion of world trade is of vital importance to world peace, and WHEREAS we recognize that a greater exchange of goods will be nefit the economy as a whole, and WHEREAS the Reciprocal Tra de Agreements Act has benefited the people of our own country and throughout the world, and WHEREAS the Reciprocal Tra de Agreements Act, is the only means by which we can continue to effectively trade with the world with out raising tariff barriers, and WHEREAS it is our firm belief that the United States of America must accept the responsibility of the free world leadership, BE IT RESOLVED that the fol lowing organizations recommend to the Congress of the United States passage of an eleven year renewal of the Reciprocal Trad* Agreement* Aet from June 80, 1958.