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Inter • American Newt
for English • Speaking people stb YEAR 0. A SAM ROMAN C. W SMITH S. SMITH President Vie* President Vice President FRANCISCO AGUIRKI HOKACIO AGUIRRE Vice President and Pubiteiet Vie* President Editor end Mnaater Antonio Rut* Managing editor fublUbeo dam except Munanj - entered u tecoot) clue m»«*l M At Post Office of M’ imt springe PU. as ritrau? ». t*M. EDITORIAL THE STATE AND DEFENSE DEPARTMENTS Regarding Inter American relations of the United States, it is very important to have an adequate coordina tion between the Department of State and the Department of Defense, so that they may, in the discharge of their of ficial duties before Latin American governments, act in agreement, without any excess of cordiality in the part of representatives or spokesmen of the armed forces toward certain regimes, thus compromising the neutrality or the democratic prestige of the United States. There are cases of regimes which are visibly unpopular, which are the object of disproportionate manifestations of cordiality in the part of high ranking military chiefs, with which they give the impression, even if they do not want to do so, that the Government of the United States sup ports that kind of regime. Os course, the only ones who benefit are those in charge of giving emphasis to any praise by a General or head of mission, even exaggerating the reports with publicity campaigns of poor taste. Within the normal coordination that should' exist among all the agencies of the Executive, the Department in charge of foreign relations of the United States must exercise some kind of orientating function in those de mostrations of sympathy and cooperation of the represen tatives of the armed forces toward other American Gov ernments, so that they will not incur in unnecessary gestures of exaggerated cordiality toward elements who are repu diated by their own people, and who exercise authority of spurious origin. There are multiple manifestations of that kind, which do not serve any useful purpose, and which bring no bene fit at all to the United States. The discredited men in government or military chiefs who are the object of those demonstrations of courtesy from high ranking U. S. mili tary chiefs, do not really expect them, and even if they ex pected them, there would be no effect against the United States in their minds if they did not get them. Those peo ple, in general, for their own convenience, try to be cor dial with the Washington Government, whether there are special invitations from the armed forces, military parades, gun salutes, etc., or not. Under no circumstance, therefore, the United States benefits with that apparent lack of coordination, which some times is noted between the Departments of State and Defense. On the contrary, it is very harmful. Latin American Finance and Trade News Reports BETTER FISCAL PROGRAM SUGGESTED TO BRAZIL WASHINGTON —(UPI).— The International Monetary Fund was reported to have suggested that Brazil adopt a more efeetive fiscal stabilization program if it wishes to draw assistance front the world agency. Brazil, beset by financial diffi culties, recently requested permi ssion to draw the full $75,000,000 balance of its $150,000,000 fund quota to augment its sagging for eingn exchange reserves. Authorities informants told the United Press that fund authorities have studied the Brazilian Govern ment's present fiscal policies and have deferred a decision hoping that Brazil would adopt sounder financial measures. They said that a detailed report on the fun's po sition was taken to Rio by Casimi ro Ribeiro, a high official of Bra zil's Central Bank and special as sistant to finance Minister Hose Maria Alkmin, who was here last month for a round of confidential talks with fund officials. While indicating concern over the present economic situation, the fund was reported to have made clear its willingness to extend Bra zil liberal treatment and not to insist on its former policy of den ying access to credit beyond 75 PER CENT OF A MEMBER'S ouot Communications Monopoly Considered in Brazil RIO DE JANEIRO (UPI)— The Government is considering the pos sibility of establishing a federal communications monopoly and re voking the licenses of all foreign companies operating in Brazil, it was announced today. Col. Alberto Bittencourt, direct or of the National Postal and Tele graph Se r vice said he has recom mended such a move because the foreign companies are “interest ed only in exploiting the lucrative radii' and telegraph systems and leave the non-paying systems” for the Government to operate. “We are no longer Indians ex changing our wealth for colored trinkets, Bittencourt said. Foieign companies operating here are Press Wireless; All Ame rica Cables, a subsidiary of Mackay Radio, Radiobras a subsidiary of the Radio Corporation of Ameri ca; Sudam Cables, controlled by French and Italian interests; Ital ian service; and Western Tele graph, a British owned company. Bittencourt said his Department 5 Cents—Outside Metropolitan area, 10 cents. has assumed responsibility for pro viding telephone communications to Brasilia, the new federal capital now being built, after rejecting offers from private telephone com panies. U. S. RECESSION EFFECTS NEGLIGIBLE IN MEXICO MEXICO CITY (UPI)— In its weekly news report, the Mexican Confederation of Chambers of Commerce said that the negligible effect the U.S. recession has had on Mexico points up the growing economic independence of Mexico. The report showed that while U.S industrial production has de creased by some 14 per cent this yeai only the Mexican mining in dustry has been noticeably hit. While U.S. steel producers are working at 50 per cent capacity, Mexican production cannot keep up with demand, the report said. Money investing continues to ac celerate in Mexico while it has been on a down-grade in the states since the recession started, the re pot t added. Alter citing expansion in the rubber tire, cement manufacturing, and wool and textile production industries, the report concluded "the glowing expansion of nation al production in all fields gives the country a marked economic stability which reduces the im pact of fluctuations of exterior links. On the other hand, this same growth is creating problems which the country will have to solve soon.” BRACEROS’ CONTRACTS IN SHARP DECREASE MEXICO CITY (UPI)— The Cen'ral Migrant Labor Contract ing jffice reported that a total of only 48,077 braceros hive been eontractec by U.S farms this year Last yeai some 480,000 Mexicans went north to work. , The office attributed this year’s cut back to “meteorological pheno mena and economic contingencies” in the U.S. A otal of 35,238 workers have been contracted through the Em palme, Sonora, contracting station; 10,508 from Monterrey, and 2,331 from the Chihuahua. Chihuahua, hiring center Meanwhile, the Interior Depart ment said some 4,000 illegal Mexic an entrants to the states have been deported this year via the “air bridge" from McAllen, Tex., to Le6n Guanjuato The “air bridge” is a charter plane service maintain ed by the U.S. Immigration Ser vice. From Le6n. the Department of Interior sends the “wetbacks” to their homes of origin, The Ameli as Daily For a better understanding between the Americas , Central Americans Will Give Cordial Welcome to President's Brother, Washington Believes WASHINGTON, June 4 (UPI) U.S. diplomats in Central Ame rica reported that Milton Eisen hower, the President’s borther, probably will gc a friendly re ception on his forthcoming trip to the area Informed sources said the Cen tral American nations themselves have assured the United States they will take special measures to make sure he doesn’t encounter violent anti-Amtrican demonstra tions such as Vice President Ri chard M. Nixon experienced in South America. Milton Eisenhower, president of Johns Hopkins University in Balti more. MD„ is scheduled to make a two-week goodwill and fact-find ing trip. Exact dates are uncertain but he probably will depart late this month. The President’s brother, who has made previous trips to South America and Mexico, will visit Guatemala, Costa Rica, Ei Salva dor, Honduras, Nicaragua and Pa nama. There has been consider able concern about his coming Know thy Neighbor Ay ANTONIO RUIZ BRAZIL —(Continue) Bra zilian highways, like the railraods, are best and more numerous in the south, particularly in the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, where they con nect all the principal cities. The most modern is the 35-mile long highway between Santos and Sao Paulo. The above mentioned three states have been linked with the extreme south by roads through Parana and Santa Catarina. Ano ther network of roads is found in the northeast, connecting Pernam buco with Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceara. North and south are linked by the Rio-Bahia Highway A few concrete and as phalt roads link Rio de Janeiro with nearby resorts. In 1951, the 405 kilometer, all weatner, President Dutra paved highway was inaugurated between Rio de Janeiro aud Sao Paulo. Out side of the immediate surrounding of the large cities, the roads are macadam or dirt The Pan Ameri can Highway extends for about 1,- 500 miles in Brazil, from Rio de Janeiro to the Uruguayan border, but not all of it is all-weather construction. Brazil is primarily interested in opening new dirt roads and in keeping passabje the ones already in use by trucks and buses on regular schedules. Highway construction, repair and upkeep are planned by the federal, state and municipal gov ernments and supervised by the National Highway Department, which is essentially a technical ad visory agency coordinating all activities in this field. The actual work of building the roads is car ried out by the State Highway De partments. The National Highway Fund, created in 1945, provides money through taxation to carry out the highway development plans. Because of the difficulty and ex pense of constructing highways and railroads, air transport has played an important role since the establishment-of the first airlines in 1927, and has served to bring formerly isolated districts into communication with the large centers of population Today, Bra zil’s airlines are the most farflung of its transportation systems, se cond only to the United States in intensive development and length. Civil aviation comes under the jurisdiction of the Air Ministry, to wmch it was transferred in 1941 from the Ministry of Transport, In addition, the Bureau of Air Routes has charge of airways, air ports, and safety regulations, and the Director of Supply inspects aircraft, investigates accidents, and issues licenses to airmen. The Government does not operate any commercial service, but the Forca Aerea Brasileira (Brazilian Air Force) does operate an extensive airmail and military transport ser vice Principal airlines connecting Braz’l with other parts of the world are Panau do Brasil, Aero vias Brasil, Air France, Braniff, and other foreign lines. Brazil has been served for many years by steamship .lines, both Brazilian and foreign, for the vast export trade of her agricultural products to all major countries of the world. The Lloyd Brasileiro, a Government-owned company, Is the principal shipping organiza tion iii Brazil leads Latin America in commercial shippng. Spanish Version Page S MIAMI SPRINGS, FLA., THURSDAY, JUNE 5, 1958 visit because of the violence Nixon ran into during his recent South American trip. Officials said no thought is be ing given to cancelling Milton Ei senhower’s tour. But the State De partment asked embassies in the six nations for an estimate of how the President’s brother will be received. On the basis of their re ports. authorities expect Milton to be well received They expect communists in the six nations to trv to whip up trou ble if they see opportunities. There are communists in these nations but their Strength is not believed great. One reason authorities expect less trouble for Milton Eisenhow- I er than Nixon encountred is the fact that there is a greater re- [ servoir of friendship for the | United States in Central America ! than in South America. Central Americans generally have not been pinched by U.S. loreigp economic policies as some South Americans have. On his trip, Milton Eisenhower plans mostly to listen to the Cen tral Americans outline their pro blems and proposed solutions. These are some he probably will hear: —Sagging coffee prices are hurt ing Guatemala, Costa Rica and El Salvador particularly, and the oth-1 er Central American nations to a lesser degree. Since all depend ; heavily on coffee for income, fall ing prices are threatening to dis rupt their economies. They would like U.S. participation in a quota system aimed at bolstering coffee prices and American help in shouldering the accompanying fin ancial buden. —The Central Americas need continuing financial help o spur their economic development. They likely will urge Milton to support new U.S, loans for this purpose, perhaps from the new develop ment loan fund. —ln PanamA, officials may raise PanamA Canal problems. Some Panamanians want an increase in the $1,930,000 annual rent paid by the United States for the Can al. In addition Panamanians are unhappy about congressional fail ure to implement two provisions of a 1955 treaty on the Canal. These call for construction of a bridge over the Canal at Balboa and revision of wage scales in the Canai 3one to provide equal pay for Panamanians and Americans. —Most nations may urge in creased U.S support for economic integration plans of the five Cen tral American nations proper (ex cluding Panama, they are working toward a common customs and tar iff arrangement and want U.S. sup por in the form of loans for re gional projects. Newsprint Import Quota Raised in Argentina BUENOS AIRES. (UPI). Ac cording to the Finance Ministry or der the annual quota for the im port of newsprint was increased 20,000 tons, making a total of 150,000 tons. The resolution was adopted be cause of the fact that there are newspapers which don’t have any benefit in the distribution of im ported newsprint at official ex change rates, and the necessity to be included in that category, in order to prevent greater expenses which the acquisition of paper means at the free exchange rate. HEMISPHERIC EVENTS Latin American News in Brief Central American Economic Meeting TEGUCIGALPA, Honduras. (UPI). The fifth meeting of the Economic Cooperation Committee of the Central American Isthmus began here, with delegations of the five Central American coun tries and PanamA participating. Some important affairs will be discussed, the integration econo mic program among them, the pro ject of the regime of the integra tion of Central American indus tries, the multilateral treaty, the cellulose industry, paper etc. The textile • industry problems will also be discussed in a round table, as well as transportation, liv ing standards, statistic coordina tion, weights and measures, agri culture and cattle development, fishing and other important mat ters. Next Tuesday the conference will adjourn. Villeda Morales in Uruguay for Official Visit MONTEVIDEO, June 4. (UPI). Dr. Ramon Villeda Morales, Pre sident of Honduras, and his party arrived from Buenos Aires today at noon. He was welcomed at the Na tional Airport by the President of the Government Council, Carlos Fisher, and other officials. Army troops redered the corres ponding honors. 'decoration to PRES. FRONDIZI BUENOS AIRES. (UPI) Hon duran President Ramon Villeda Morales, who this morning left for Montevideo, imposed last night the decoration of the Order of Mo razan to President Arturo Fron dizi. Argentine technicians and eco nomic counselors of the Honduran President, drafted a protocol which contains a joint statement that the governments of Argentina and Hon duras have the purpose of esta blishing a regular exchange of products. The protocol was signed by the two Presidents. Villeda Morales paid a courtesy visit to the Supreme Court of the nation. The distinguished guest was welcomed by the ministers of the high court, with whom he chatted in the ambassador’s hall. Dr. Carlos Florit, Argentine For eign Minister, Dr. Francisco B. Horz, undersecretary and Carlos Leguizamon head of t-he Protocol Division. Colonel Antonio Molina, Hondu ran Defense Minister, visited the Military Academy. Hector Solano | Pacheco, War Minister, General Miguel Villarroel, general army instructor, and General Julian Gar cia, Commander of the military institutes, accompanied him. Gen eral Bernardo Labayru, director of the college, and others welcomed him. The cadets with flags and bands marched. Visitors watched the march displayed by the scho lars of te college. "Newsweek" Comments on Changes in U. S. Policies Toward Latin America NEW YORK. (UPI). “News week” magazine, commenting about the change of U.. S. policy toward the Latin American countries says that to stabilize the prices of cof fee, copper, lead and zinc will make the best “good neighbor po licy”. “The Government, It says, “is considering an international con ference to be held in London spon sored by the United Nations. How ever, the United States will enter tain talks with the Latin Ameri can producers within a few months in connection with prices and ex port of those minerals. “At the same time that it consi ders that export is the most vital problem of Latin America, the gov ernment is considering to accelera te the dollars flowing through loans. “Washington is now somewhat concerned because Latin America has a good case in the program of foreign aid. Since 1945 foreign aid Honduras, Argentina Hold Trade Talks BUENOS AIRES, (UPI). The Honduran Natural Resources Mi nister, attorney Francisco Milla Bermudez, and Dr. Bernardino Horne, delegate of the president of the nation, set the basis for an increase in short periods of the exchange of products between Ar gentina and Honduras, as well as with all the Central American countries interested in this oom mon aim. The negotiations, as officially reported, will be held through the normal diplomatic ways. AMERICAN BLAMED FOR UNREST AMONG INDIANS RIO DE JAEIRO. —(UPI>— American and other missionaries operating in the Mato Grosso jun gle area of South Central Brazil are causing “embarrassment and complications among the Indians,” Luis Guedes, director of the Indi an Protection Service, said today. Rivalry amog different missions Vice President s Visit to Latin America Served Useful Purpose, Rubotton Affirms Violent Incidents Overshadowed Cordial, Warm Receptions, he Says WASHINGTON (UPI)— Assist ant Secretary of State for Latin American Affairs, Roy R. Rubot tom, declared that demonstrations of violence against Vice President Ricard M. Nixon in Peru and Ve nezuela, clouded the genuine cor dial and warm re'ceptions given to him during his recent tour of eight Latin American nations. Rubottom was the first official called to testify before a House Foreign Relations Subeomnrttee investigating U.S relations with Latin America. At the closed-door hearings, Rubottom said; “I am concerned about the sen sational and even dangerous char acter of certain incidents during the recent tour of President Nix on, which overshadowed what Mr. Nixon himself and State Depart ment officials accompanying him consider a positive and beneficial result of the tour. “We must have in mind that in all those countries he had the op portunity to talk with people of all kinds and to have friendly and fair discussions. “Everywhere —and I must stress the word everywhere he was ac corded a genuine friendly welcome by the representative people of th nations, without letting them selves be influenced by a minority, which was organized to commit in hospitable acts of violence against him. “We trust that the Vice Presi dent’s visit will be long and favor ably remembered by those people: government officials, labor lead ers, students, newspapermen, husi-’ nessmen, intellectuals and just plain, common people.” Robert C. Byrd (D) Chairman :of this sub-committee, declared that these hearings were prompted iby the anti-American demonstra tions occurred in some South Ame lias amounted to $61,000,000,000. Out of this sum scarcely 2.5% has gone to Latin America”. “Newsweek” continues: “NEW CREDITS. It is for sure that as a first step to more reason able balance, the government will grant to Latin America a greater proportion of loans according to the Development Fund, than what it was some months ago. Those loans will be in long terms and with low interest, and refunded in local currency. The loan fund, established last year with a capital of $300,000,000 as a part of the foreign aid, has received application from at least of twelve Latin American coun tries. So far, out of the ten loans granted only one has been made for a Latin American country ($5,- 000,000 to Honduras) But a change is in sight. Colombia. Brazil and Peru are in the list for the con cession of loans. “Other governments are receiv ing better treatment”. ries seeking the maximum number of converts to their respective sect is stirring up the Indians, he said. Guedes singled out American Mi ssionary Robert Butler and said there is “grave danger” of war be tween Indians working for him and those of a tribe whose chief, known as Urubuenan, was murdered. The Chief was reported to have been slain in a village under Bu tler’s jurisdiction. Some 300 follo wers of the dead chief are en rou te to the village on horseback to avenge his murder, Guedes said. Butler previously charged with arming his Indian workers with Winchescter rifles and fomenting rivalry between different groups of Xavantes Indians but the Amer but the American denied the char ges, Guedes said. He added that he is awaiting fur ther detalis on Urubuenan’s killing before deciding on what action the protection service'will take. MINISTER RESIGNS IN BREAK WITH KUBITSCHEK RIO DE JANEIRO (UPI)— Bra silian Postal and Communicationa riean countries during the recent tour of Vice President Richard Nixon to some of those countries. He disclosed that the hearings are paying closer attention to the economic and social problems brought out by those eruptions than from the incidents them selves. It is not the purpose to consult the Vice-President about his view points on the matter. Nixon said that he will not be able to show in any of these hearings but that he will be pleased to talk unof ficially with any of their mem bers. Representative Byrd when an nouncing these relations between United States and other countries of the continent, declared: “I firmly believe that the rela tions between the United States and the Latin American Republics are vital for our security and es sential for our prosperity. Our objective must be, as in the past, to live a good neighbor life. The last events may show that these relations have not been main tained in a satisfactory way. If these relations are getting worst we have to find the cause and ef fects.” “The aim of the study to be per formed by this sub-committe is to find out the facts and to establish a better understanding among the different countries, their people’s attitude and the problems con fronting them.” “We want to know the situation at all and to stimulate a frank study of it. This is the reason why the meetings are being celebrat ed in executive meetings. However I am hopeful that it may be pos sible to publish an informative transcription of the meetings eli minating any part that must be maintained in secret.” A Senate foreign relations sub committee presided by W’yne Morse (D) has been making pre paratory studies for similar meet ings about the Latin American situation. Next week these meet ings will be started. Colombian Minister to Visit Ecuador BOGOTA, (UPI). Carlos Sanz de Santamaria, Foreign Minister, will visit Ecuador during four days with the purpose to complete some agreements to investigate the com mercial and cultural relations be tween the two countries. Sanz de Santamaria intends to sign a new commercial agreement between the two countries, prepar ed by special joint commissions both in Quito and Bobotl When he returns to Bogota, Sanz will decide the date of his trip to Washington where he will sign the Colombo-U. S. agreement about the $103,000,000 loan to Colom bia. Chief Col Alberto Bittencourt has resigned in open dispute with Pre sident Juscelino Kubitschek, in lormed quarters said. Bittencourt, who last week call ed for nationalization of all foreign communications companies operat ing here objected to Kubitschek’s choice of Libero Oswald Ade Miranda gs new Director of the state-jperated telegraph syitem, sources close to the presidential palace said. The army colonel was a pro mient figure behind, the November 1955 military announcement which backed Kubitschek for the presi dency but he recently warned squabbling politicians that the military leaders were “tiring!’ of the country’s “chaotic” economic and political situation. He and his twfti brother, Col. Alexinio Bittencourt, President of the National Petroleum Council, are considered leaders of the na tionalistic colonels’ group who support war minister Gen. Henri que Teixeira Lott. Member Inter American Press Association For Liberty, Culture and Hemispheric Solidarity NUMBER 281 TEMPERATURE 1 J - S: liihl I LI, 1 ,.1 Mil - The Root of Many a National Problem One of the main reasons why the Latin American people worry and get immensely excited with regard to their political prob lems is that these problems bring forth many complica tions into the national picture, at times of tragic results, which create crises of all kinds in the economic, moral and social aspects. The greatest patriotic preoc cupation that the people really have, especially in Latin Amer ica — where political life is so agitated— is to raise the moral standards in which their repub lican institutions must function. Adequate moral standards would assure serious democracy, hon est administration and, logically, progress and general wellbeing in.the country. When a community knows it cannot enjoy spiritual tranquility and physical comfort, just be cause there are element's dedi cated to the proposition of turn ing their political life and, par ticularly, their national life, into a state of humiliation, of con fusion, cruelty and violence, it logically falls into a profound desperation that leads to atti tudes of open rebellion against those who have transformed th* Republic into an instrument at the service of the lowly personal interests of minoritary groups. Those people know that they suffer not only the humiliation of having irresponsible Govern ments that attempt against their political rights, by all means •acred, but that they also must suffer the consequences of the administrative chaos which, we repeat, is a result of the politi cal confusion. Thus, even when there are citizens who would be willing to renounce their dignity to humbly accept the condition of underlings, they have to raise their protest in the field of practical realizations of a more or less material type, because not only they lose the advantage* of democratic freedom, but they suffer besides the economic or fiscal chaos resulting from the corruption of higher circles. Sometimes people are heard to ask why the political topic is of so great interest among Latin Americans. The answer to that) perhaps, is found in these brief comments. The root of many a national problem lies on the absence of moral standards. CUBANS REQUEST HELP FROM RUIZ CORTINES MEXICO. (UPI). The club of the Cuban exiled in this city, “Jos£ Marti” sent a telegram to the President Adolfo Ruiz Cortl nes asking for an urgent solution of the case of the missing “re volutionary Cuban soldier, CAndi do de la Torre”. “C&ndido de la Torre, one of the leaders of Fidel Castro in Me xico, has been missing for five days after leaving his home in this capital, and reports about him have not been received. The Cuban exiled here suspect, as they told to the Mexican Presi dent, that Candido de la Torre, “was freely kidnaped in this city by agents under the tyranny ei Fulgencio Batista”. Peruvians Wounded in Soldiers - Police Clash LIMA (UPI). News received from Iquitos say that a sergeant .and twelve policemen, besides one civilian, were wounded in a clash in this capital of the Amazonic De partment of Loreto, between army soldiers and police. The incident broke out when a group M soldiers on leave attack ed the policemen on duty in the streets df Iquitos, to revenge the arrest of two soldiers of the anqr. However, the assistance of the military pblice, prevented the tto cident to tak* great proportion*.