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Inter - American News
for English • Speaking people 6th YEAR 0. A. SAN ROMAN. C W. SMITH, 8. SMITH, President. Vice President. Vice President. FRANCISCO AGUIRRE. HORACIO AGUIRRE, Vice President and Publisher Vice President Editor and Manager Antonio Ruiz. Thomas A. Hill, Managing Editor. Advertising Manager Published daily except Monday Entered as second class matter at the Post Office of Miami Springs, Fla., on February 3, 1954 EDITORIAL THE AIMS OF SOVIET RUSSIA The hierarchs of the Kremlin, since the end of World War 11, have been engaged in efforts to dominate different countries through the maneuver of establishing puppet gov ernments in as many nations as possible. In general terms, it can be said that there has been an exaggerated caution and prudence on the part of the great Western Powers, in the sense of permitting the Soviet Imperialistic expansion, to the extreme that the present power of Russia is due, in great part, to the quantity of vassal states, which is what practically are all those dominat ed by communist regimes. In this manner, without facing the responsibilities and serious risks of a war with the rest of the world, Russia, taking advantage of the tolerant and peaceful attitude of the Western Powers, in. particular the United States, has been incorporating important countries of Europe and Asia, with the purpose, to be sure, of giving the final blow when political anexation of those territories permits them to do it With the least possible danger. At this moment, everything seems to indicate that the United States and her allies are not willing to continue allowing those Soviet abuses, which seriously threaten the security of the democratic countries. Os course, if the United States allows all the Middle East to become a group of provinces of Moscow, the Russian advantage over the rest of the world would be, in many aspects, exceedingly marked and exceedingly dangerous. On the other hand, that insolent and defiant attitude of Russia has to be submitted to a test, so that the Western World may know whether we already depend on the com munist strength or not. To this moment, the men in the Kremlin, who like easy and ignoble conquests so much, facing the decision of the United States, which Great Britain has joined both morally and physically and is sup ported by all democratic countries, have been very cau tious, not with regard to statements, but regarding the sending of “volunteers”, or directly sending troops, as it happened with the savage invasion of Hungary in October •f last year. But the Soviets know very well that the United States, although tolerant and respectful of world peace, constitutes the strongest power on Earth. ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ Latin American Finance and Trade News Reports However, the Selegua River washed out a temporary bridge and the approaches to another bridge only a month after it was thought the Tap6n was open. The first flood damage is about 14 miles south of the Mexican bor der, above the Tapon, where the approaches to a temporary bridge have been washed out. About 25 miles south of the border, on the lower end of the Tapon, another temporary bridge has been too severely damaged by floods to per mit using it. It is not expected the damage can be repaired until the end of the rainy season this fall. Until then, travelers must drive south to Arriaga, Mexico, place their vehi cles on a railroad flatcar, travel to Tapachula and resume driving back to the Pan American High way below the Tapon, as in the past. In Ecuador, the Pan American Highway is now open almost all the way to the southern border. The stretch from Quito to Latacun ga is being paved. Over 21 miles extending o u t of Lataeunga are finished, as are eight miles out of Quito. Six miles are being recon structed. Two southern sections also are being worked on. About 24 miles between Cuenca and Bilian are undergoing paving and the section from Loja to Macara is under construction. Because of rough terrain, this section probably will not be open until at least 1961. Another road, Loja to Macara, is not finished yet, but is already providing benefits to Ecuadoreans. Along the 20 miles of the highway that are open, 180 families have taken up residence. The road will be finished as far as Zamora. 38 miles, by the end of 1959. This road leads into rich agricultural country where coffee plants ma ture in three to five years, while the maturing process takes five to seven years in the rest of Ecuador. SIGUE , ... U.S. CAPITAL GOODS SLATED FOR CHILE WASHINGTON An agree ment providing for a $l5 million loan to assist Chile in financing imports of capital equipment from the United States has been author ized by the Export-Import Bank ot Washington. This loan, in favor of the Cen tral Bank of Otoile, is the firts step in implementing $25 million in U.S. Government loans to Chile, the Bank announced. The remain ing $lO million portion of the overall $25 million credit- to Chile i* being implemented by the Inter national Coooaration Administra 5 Cents—Outside Metropolitan area, 10 cents. tion with funds from the Mutual Security Program. The Government of Chile has been engaged in a comprehensive program to check inflationary pressures and to stabilize the eco nomy of the country. Import from the United States of essential goods is an important part of the Chilean program. The Export-Im port Bank loan will assist in such important development projects as the expansion program of Com pahia de Acero del Pacifico, S.A., Chile’s integrated steel mill at Huachipato. Over the years, the Export-Im port Bank has authorized over $2OO million in loans to Chile for the development of the steel mill which has been a notably suc cessful operation, railway equip ment, construction equipment for the development and expansion of Chile’s important nitrate industry and other industrial projects. Os this amount, over $l7O million have actually been disbursed to date, and over $9O million have been re paid on principal. ARGENTINA TO DEVELOP COAL RESOURCES WASHINGTON —The Rio Tur bio coal mines in Southern Ar gentina will be developed under a $3O million credit to be granted by the French firm Comptoir In dustrie! et Agricole de Ventes a l’Etranger (CIAVE) to the Argen tine Government. Provisions for the credit were drawn up in a memorandum sign ed by the Argentine Government and CIAEV on June 13. The me morandum will serve as a basis for later negotiations. Development plans envisage in creasing coal production to 1.2 million tons by 1960 or 1961. Ar gentine coal production most ly, but not wholly, from the Rio Turbio mines was approximate ly 196.000 tons in 1957; imports of coal in 1957 amounted to 1,221, 600 tons. Ultimately it is planned to increase production to 2 million tons annually. Under the memorandum, C.I.A. V.E. would supply technical assis tance, and all legal matters arising in connection with the loan wolild be settled, in the Argentine courts. Terms of the memorandum call for repayment of the credit in 8 years, with annual payments of 5 per cent of the total in the first 2 years, 10 per cent in third year, and 16 per cent in . the fourth through 8 years. Interest' rate would be 7 and one half per cent until the materials contracted for are delivered; subsequently the interest rate would be reduced to 5 per cent. The Amerlab Daily Washington Denies Any Part in Negotiations Between U. S. Oil Firms And Argentine Government WASHINGTON— (UPI). — The United States Government has in no way participated in negotia tions between private Unted .Sta tes oil companies and the Argen tine Government, according to high U. S. officials. The U.S. officials, who are in close touch with Latin American developments, dismissed. Argenti ne press reports that an oil agree ment between the two govern ments was imminent as “inaccur ate and misleading”. Instead, they said, it is public knowledge that several private U. S. companies are dickering to participate in Argentina’s petro leum development. To date the Argentine oil industry has been entirely in Government hands but the regime of President Arturo Know thy Neighbor By ANTONIO RUIZ COSTA RICA Ever since the early colonial times, literary schools and currents which flour ished in other parts of the world have had their exponents in Cos ta Rica. An extremely peaceful and -democratic people, the spirit of life of Costa Ricans is exempli fied in their literature. Roberto Brenes Mesen, in his work “En el Silencio” (In the Si lence), which appeared in 1907, follows the modernist school of “art for art’s sake”. One of Costa Rica’s most versatile writers, he found time during his active pub lic career as an educator to pub lish some excellent translations, with Maeterlink’s "The Blue Bird” and Kahili Gibran’s “The Prophet” among the most outstanding. Bre nes Mesen’s essays and reviews, his languages treatises and text books, all verify his genius. There has been one gender in which Costa Rican letters have been preeminent. A realistic form of expression called “costumbris mo”, a school which focuses upon every day life of the peasantry, describing their modes of life and dress, often using vernacular lan guage. It has been said of this li terature that “one volume gives a better picture of Costa Rican life than twenty volumes of statistics”. Two men may be cited as pio neers of this realistic movement, the priest Juan Garita, a poet whose verses are filled with subtle irony, and Manuel Arguello Mora, author of many novels and short stories on customs, both of whom were the real innovators of the Costa Rican folkorist movement. The title of National Poet of Costa Rica has been bestowed up on Aquileo Echeverria (1866-1909). ; His brilliant folkoric sketches of the people in all thqir daily prac tices have contributed a perman ent legacy to the world. Echeve rria possessed a profound observa tion sense, as well as an expert ability to reproduce the same in words he earefully molded into rhythmic verses. His life was one of constant service to his country, first as a journalist and later in the diplomatic service. Among the best of his poetry can be found in a volume, “Concherias” (Shells) published first in 1905. The finest edition of this work was publish ed in 1948 by the Guatemalan Government, as part of their col lection “Los Clhsicos del Istmo” (The Classics of the Isthmus). The novel “La Propia” by Ma nuel Gonzalez Zeledon, more com monly known by his pseudonym “Magon”, confirms his right to be named the best “costumbrista” in prose writing. His works are fhll of vivacity, wit, irony and grace. An educator, businessman, and di plomat, he spent around thirty years outside .Costa Rica holding in the United States various con sular offices. Joaquin Garcia Monge is also a novelist who distinguished hinV self in this type of literature. His youthful novels “Abnegation” (Ab negation) and “Hijas del Campo” (Daughters of the Country), creat ed a sensation when published around 1900, and paved the way for other authors to write realis tically on local themes. As found er and publisher of the outstand ing literary review “Repertorio Americano” (American Reperto ry), which is famous for its repro ductions of New World art, he has achieved considerable internation al prominence. /While Ricardo Fernkndez Guar dia isiprimarily renowned for his treatises on Costa Rican history, his collection of “Cuentos Ricos” (Costa Rican Short Stories) publish ed in 1901, shows the best devel opment of the •“Costumbrista” movement in the short story. Spanish Vanias Paae X For a better understanding between the Americas MIAMI SPRINGS, FLA., SATURDAY, JULY 19, 1958 I Frondizi is known to be willing to open the way to private capital. According to the latest informa tion here the Argentine Govern ment and several private oil com panies were close to agreement on a formula whereby the companies would sell their services to the Argentine oil monopoly, YPF. There are also reports that some European firms were planning to sell petroleum to Argentina to be repaid in kind on a longterm basis with Argentine petroleum develo ped by the European companies. But the State Department or other United States agencies never intervened in these negotiations, the officials said. Confused reports may have rea ched Buenos Aires about consulta tions the Argentine Ambassador to the United States, Dr. Cesar Barros Hurtado, held with U.S. firms in order to obtain United States oil drilling equipment for YPF. A YPF expert, Carlos Reichman. is here to advise the envoy on technical details regarding the purchase of equipment. Argentine officials are known to be optimistic that several impor tant United States companies will sooh agree to work for the state corporation. They emphasized that the new government has made far reaching plans to transform the clumsy and archaic structure of YPF into a modern corporation modeled along the lines of a free enterprise business but still controlled by a government board. Mexico Opens a New Low Income Housing Project MEXICO CITY (UPI) - A new housing development consist ing of 624 apartments for low-in come families was inaugurated by the Mexican Social Security Insti tute. Antonio Ortiz Mena, Director of the Social Security Institute, said this is the first of six similar low rent projects to be built during the year, to alleviate the critical housing shortage here. The apartments, distributed in a total of 39 buildings, will rent for 50 pesos (four dollars) a month and will be given exclusively to working families. Each appartment has two bed rooms, kitchen, dining-living room and bath. The project also con tains one building for small shops and services and plenty of space for gardens and recreational facil ities for the children. LARRAZABAL INVITED TO VISIT THE U. S. CARACAS Venezuela —(UPI) Wolfgang Larrazabal, acting president of Venezuela, told the newspaper El Mundo Wednesday that he has received a formal in vitation from the U.S. Vice Presi dent Richard M. Nixon to visit the United States. He told the news paper he has accepted the invita tion but has set no definite date for a visit. HEMISPHERIC EVENTS \ \ •. ' ' Latin American News in Brief NIXON GETS LETTER URGING U. S. HELP FOR LATIN AMERICA WASHINGTON —(UPI)— Vice President Richard M. Nixon re ceived a letter from Argentine Foreign Minister Carlos A. Florist urging that all steps be adopted to help speed Latin America’s eco nomic growth. The letter was delivered by Ar gentine Ambassador C4sar Barros Hurtado, who conferred with the Vice President at his office at the Capitol for a hall hour. The envoy declined to discuss the contents of the letter but other sources disclosed it dealt with Latin America’s’economic dif ficulties and proposed new steps to meet them. Barros said that Nixon had warm praise for the interest dis played by Puerto Richn Governor Luis Munoz Marin in helping to improve hemisphere relations. ARGENTINE SOCIALISTS' IN SERIOUS DIVISION BUENOS AIRES. (UPI). The headquarters of the Argentine So cialist Party, known as the Peo nls’s Hnm« (Cass dal Puehlo) COLOMBIA DAY-ID! BY THE MAYOR OF THE CITY OF MIAMI, FLORIDA A PROCLAMATION WHEREAS the Republic of Colombia is one of Miami’s otesest South American neighbors geographically, and WHEREAS the Colombian colony of Miami bow ranks third among the peoples of other nations in Miami and is contributing substantially to the culture and economic growth and progress et the Greater Miami area,- and WHEREAS the Colombian colony es Miami will observe the 148th anniversary of the independence of Colombia on July 20, 1958, and WHEREAS it is fitting that the City et Miami take note of this important occasion of our neighboring republic and of a substantial portion of our residents, NOW THEREFORE, I, Robert King High, Mayor of the City of Miami, Florida, do hereby proclaim the day of July 20, 1958, as COLOMBIA DAY IN MIAMI IN OBSERVANCE THEREOF I urge the citizens of Miami and our visitors to join wholeheartedly in this special occasion by par ticipating in all events held in observance of Colombia Day and of the 148th anniversary of the independence of Colombia, to consider earnestly the importance of this occasion and the importance of the relations of our nation and the Republic of Colombia. IN WITNESS WHEREOF I hereunto set my hand and cause the seal of the City of Miami to be affixed. DONE in the office of the Mayor of the City of Miami, Florida, this the 18th day of July in the year of Our Lord, Nineteen Hundred and Fifty-Eight. ROBERT KING HIGH MAYOR Magdalena River Valley Railroad Brings New Wealth to Colombians BOGOTA (SICO) The works | of the Magdalena Railroad, joining Bogota with the Atlantic through the valley of this great river, and the road Bogota-Medellin which enables communication between these two cities in 8 hours, opens to agriculture fertile soil, Rear Ad miral Ruben Piedrahita Arango, member of the Military Junta, ex plained to a group of reporters in that place. People who traveled through the path to be followed by the rail road from the port of La Dorada to the ports of Barranquilla and Santa Marta, say the dense forest is changing to cultivated lands in great extensions, totally devoted No U. S. Protest Planned on Mob Attack at B. A. WASHINGTON, July 17 (UPI) The State Department was stud ying reports today of a mob at tack last night against the United States Embassy in Buenos Aires. Officials said that two large win dows were smashed but that no United States personnel was injur ed. It appeared unlikely that the U. S. Government would protest last night's riot, mainly because of the quick and decisive action by the Argentine police in dispersing a mob estimated at about 300 per-, sons which had gathered in front of the Embassy. The Department was notified of the attack in a cable from the U. j S. Ambassador from Argentina, | Williard Beaulac. The reasons for the demonstrations was not im- j mediately known but officials spe-1 culated that it may have been in j opposition to the United States in- ; tervention in Lebanon. the party’s regional headquarters on Sarandi Street were occupied forcibly by groups of socialist youths. They announced that no mem bers of the Party’s Executive Com mittee would be allowed to enter the premises. They said the step was taken in order to “protect” the party’s assets in view of the chaotic state of affairs prevailing after the uproarious party conven tion held in Rosario last week. The stormy convention was marked by frequent fistfights on the floor and was finally dissolved before it had accomplished any thing. Despite party leaders’ statements to the contrary, it appeared that the organization was about to be split between the older elements headed by 78-year-old patriarch Dr. Alfredo L. Palacios and the younger groups. Panam6 Canal Bridge to Boost Economy of Republic of Panamd WASHINGTON (UPI) A U.S. Embassy report from Panamt said tnat construction of the $2O, 000,000 high-level bridge across tha Panama Caul at Balboa will to cattle raising or agriculture. The valley of the Magdalena riv er has in a great extension a veg etable -top soil of about 4 meters deep, The big farmers mainly de dicated to rice and cotton pro duction say the new soil give a production of 40 per cent more than any other soils in the coun try considered ss extremely fer tile. Cotton is produced in a bush strong enough to stand hurricanes; the two yearly rice crops are mak ing fortunes in a relative short time. Cattle, of Santa Gertruidis breed and other crossed breeds, is be ing raised in great extensions which previously they were deep forests In the ports new indus tries are being raised for the peo ple. Rear Admiral Piedrahita has sug gested that the new lands be dis tributed among the former guer rillas combatting in those regions. Seeking jobs for these former guerrillas, he considers a great so cial problem will be solved at the same time that settlement of a wonderful land is changed into an other valley of the Cauca. SCIENTIST KILLED IN ACCIDENT IN PERU LIMA, Peru. (UPI). Dr. An gel Indacochea, 43, Secretary of the Peruvian Committee to the In ternational Geophysical year (IGY), was killed with his wife, two children and a servant when the jeep he was driving fell into a 1,500-foot precipice. Indacochea, prominente physical scientist and geological engineer, was on his way to the Chosica Geo physical Observatory, some 25 mi les east of Lima, when the acci dent happened. bring “a tremendous boost to Pa nama’s economy”, besides other long-range benefits. The report, published in the Foreing Commerce Weekly today, said that fina, designs and speci fications for the bridge are now in preparation. Peak employment is expected to commence in about 18 months and continue for 2 years. The economic stimulus to Pana ma is expected to result from em ployment of construction workers, purchase of vast amount of mate rials ana development of new skills among participants in the bridge construction. OIL CONCESSION * TO U. S. FIRM BUENOS AIRES. (UPI). It was reported in official circles that the President of the Repub lic, Dr. Arturo Frondizi, will an nounce soon signature of a con tract between Pure Oil Company and the Government of the Repub lic. It is believed that the docu ment is signed already. The negotiations have been held in the most strict secret, but it is said the contract will involve geo physical studies, drilling of wells and extraction of oil for the Gov ernment Kubitschek Wins Wide Support For Policy Aimed at Greater Latin Role in World Affairs RIO DE JANEIRO (UPI) President Juscelino Kubitschek seems to have obtained complete support from the military and the opposition parties for his cam paign aimed at achieving greater recognition for the voice of Latin America in world affairs. Kubitschek sketched bis new “Operation Pan American” before 400 high ranking officers in a meeting at the Itamaraty Palace. Previously, there had been a meet ing with the leaders of all politi cal parties at the presidential res idence of Laranjaeiras. The President said to the mili tary that Brazil will insist on a “complete revision of Pan Ameri can policies, which is the only way for Latin America to advance from the pos j tion of companion to that Paraguay Government Receiving 150,000 Japanese Immigrants TOKYO - (UPI) Reliable sources said preliminary negotia tions of the program by which Pa raguay will admit 150,000 Japan ese inmigrants in a 30 year peri have been closed. Japan, on the other hand, will build three ships and five river boats for Paraguay, to be used in the transportation of farm pro ducts through the Parana River and to European markets. Japanese officials have refused to make any comment on this mat ter, bu treports say that a region in the Brazil-Paraguay border, near Stroesner city, has been pro visionally selected to be develop ed by the Japanese. According to the contract the Japanese inmigrants will receive 120,000 hectares of a fertile forest region on either side of the Pan American Highway now in con struction. It was said that the Japanese government will build houses, roads, schools, hospitals, agricul ture research centers warehouses, saw mills and other, installations during the next six years. The ships built in Japan will be financed by the Japan Export-Im port Bank as a credit in yens to Paraguay, Up to this writing no thing is known whether the terms of the agreement have been closed or not. Panama Offering $26,000,000 in Public Bonds to U, S. A. Bankers NEW YORK, July 18.—(UPI)— Panamas Finance Minister, Fer nando Eleta, with approval of President Ernesto de la Guardia and the cabinet, has appointed j Lehman Brothers to form and head an underwriting group for a pub lic offering of approximately $25, 000,000 Republic of Panama exter nal bonds. Security for the bond issue will be based on the Treaty of 1903 between the United States of America and Panama for the con struction of the Panama Canal. I Under the Treaty, as amended, j l he United States agrees to pay I Panama in perpetuity $1,930,000 The announcement will be is sued to the press later this week. MONETARY FUND HELPS HAITI WASHINGTON. —(UPI).— The International Monetary Fund an nounced that it has agreed to a stand-by arrangement under which the Haitian Government may pur chase up to $5,000 000 in curren cies held by the Fund in the next 12 months. Officials said this arrangement is intended to provide Haiti with a second line of reserves in sup port of a stabilization program based upon strict fiscal and credit policies. “The fund expects to remain in close contact with the Haitian au thorities” the announcement said. MEXICAN POWER CO. ASKED TO EXPLAIN MEXICO CITY (UPI) The Economy Ministry has given the Mexican Light and Power Compa ny five days to explain why its services are so deficient. Last week, Federal District Gov ernor Ernesto P. Uruchurtu order ed suspension of payment for elec tric services because of continuous hlsfhsuti and ether ieresulexMee. Member Inter American Press Association • For Liberty, Culture and Hemispheric Solidarity HUMBER 18 ot participant m international life”. He also said that the foundation of relations between Brazil and the United States is “interdepen dence. not subordination”. He reiterated that Brazil does not wish to establish itself a* head nation -»f the continent. He pointed e events in the Near East .irate that it is necessary «o .r.sform Latin America into an elective aiy that can be mobilized for the defense of democracy He added that Brazil is not ask ing for any special favors from the United States, but that she desires to strengthen Latin Amer ican participation In international affairs. J‘lf our support is valuable, our opinion in world politics must be valuable also”, he affirmed. The officers applauded Kubits ohek with enthusiasm. After the meeting of political leaders the President of the De mocratic Union, opposition party, Juracy Magalhaes, said that Bra zil is in a position to give an ex ample of international coopera tion to the othei American coun tries, in particular in the field of technica' assistance. Magalhaes ad ded that he wouid give the Minis try of Foreign Relations his pep sonal viewpoint on how “Oper* tion Pan American” can be achiev ed. Vice President Joao Goulart, of the “Trabalhista” party, and Pli nio Salgado, leader of the Popular Representation party, formerly a fascist group, declared that Kubit schek could count on their com plete support. Also present at the meeting at Laranjeiras were Ernani do Ama ral Peixoto, Ambassador in Wash ington and President of the Social Democratic Party, to which Kubit schek belongs, and the Minister at Foreign Relations, Francisco No grao de Lima. The latter said that “Operation Pan American” constitutes “a po litical and economic determi nation”. He added that from thd political viewpoint it conceives a more, active participation of Latin America in Inter American affairs From the economic viewpoint it offers suggestions to speed up La tin American development, with the aim that this continent achieves greater influence in world affairs. annually as compensation for the rights granted to the United States in the Canal Zone. $1,500,000 of the annual treaty payment / is to be irrevocably assigned for thirty years to the First National City Bank of New York, fiscal agent for the bond issue, so that the bank will receive the annual pay ment directly from the United States Treasury and apply it to the full payment of principal and interest when due. Proceeds of the bonds are to be applied, partly, to the redemption of certain outstanding debt of the Republic and, partly, to the costs of Panama’s feeder road program. The Inter-American highway from the Panama-Costa Rica bor der to Panama City and Colon has been previously financed and a large part of it has been construe* , ted. The feeder roads to be con structed will afford access to the highway from many areas of the nation, thereby greatly improving the economy of the country. Spokesman at Lehman Brothera said that the offering date and terms of the bonds can not be de termined until a Securities and Exchange Commission registra tion statement has been filed and has become effective and that every effort is being made to file the statement at an early date. Panama in 1950, through Leh man Brothers, placed privately $10,500 000 similar bonds in the United States at a 3 per cent In terest rate and with the security of $430 000 of the annual Treaty payment Venezuela to Get U. S. Bank Loan CARACAS, Venezuela. (UPI). Finance Minister Jos£ Antonio Ma yobre said that the documents for malizing a $250 million American bank loan to Venezuela will be signed before the end of the month. Progress ot the loan negotiations was confirmed recently in New York banking circles. The loan is intended to fund the public Mat left by the dictatorship ot Marsos P6rez Juntnee, who was ovsrth- v row* hr a seewiwttoa aasff Mb yaw.