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Inter • American News
for English - Speaking people 6th TEAR G A SAN ROMAN C. W. SMITH, S. SMITH, President Vice President. Vice President. FRANCISCO AGUIRRE. HORACIO AGUIRRE, Vice President and Publisher Vice President Editor and Manager Antonio Ruiz, Thomas A. Hill, Managing Editor Advertising Manager Published dally except Monday Entered as second class matter at Stas Post Office of Miami Springs Fla., on Februar? 3. 1954 EDITORIAL DELICATE SITUATION OF THE UNITED STATES IN CUBA It has been reported that U. S. Marines have gone out of the U. S. Naval Base at Guantanamo, Cuba, to per form guard duty at the water supply deposits serving the Base. Pentagon officnns in Washington issued the report as soon as the measure was adopted. Without engaging in considerations of technical order, that is, without analizing the matter from a merely juridical viewpoint on whether the United States is authorized to send that military guard outside of the Base or not; and whether there was respect for the requirements established in the Treaty or Covenant which has made possible the existence of 11. S. naval forces in Guantanamo, the measure of putting under military vigilance the water supply plant, is extremely delicate, taking into consideration the serious political and revolutionary crisis Cuba is facing. The Washington Government must understand the seriousness implied in that fact, because it has, politically, a dangerous transcendence, both before the Cuban people and Latin American public opinion in general. This is not at all convenient for the relations between the United States and the sister Republics of the continent, which are in need of improvement in their present status, not as satisfactory as it should be. It is logical to expect that adequate measures should be taken to prevent a shortage of drinking water at the Guantanamo Naval Base, but this does not mean that the only way to protect it is to send a military detachment to the plant, which is located at a distance of several miles from the Base. The representatives of the United States Gov ernment can find, to be sure, an adequate formula to protect that establishment, which until now, has not been the object of any attacks or sabotage. - To maintain U. S. military units in that plant, in par ticular when there is no immediate visible reason to justify or explain that procedure is, to say the least, a serious imprudence on the part of the Washington Government, which may give the impression that the United States is interfering in one way or another in the extremely serious political tragedy, wiih characteristics of civil war, that Cuba is suffering. Ik k ★ ★ ★ ★ Latin American Finance and Trade News Reports AGRICULTURAL GEOGRAPHY PUBLISHED WASHINGTON. An Agricul tural Geography of Latin Amer ican, « profusely illustrated report showing the closely related trade interests of Latin America and the United States, has been pu blished by the Foreign Agricul tural Service, U. S. Agriculture Department. Because of the importance of the Latin American market, the publi cation contains maps and charts showing, by countries and com modities, total and agricultural trade between the United States and the republics to the South and its relation to world trade. These illustrations poini up the fact that the United States does more business with Latin America that with all of Europe, Asia, Africa, and Oceania, and that nearly 80 percent of U. S. exports go to Latin America. The Agricultural Geography of Latin Ame.ica shows the distribu tion of Latin America’s crop and livestock production, and relates It to the needs of tht people of the area. It shows in general the climat vegetation and soil con ditions which affect the distribu tion of agricultural products such as Temperate Zone commodities in Argentina, coffee and cacao in the Tropics and subtropics, and sugar in Cuba. SANTOS FACES STORAGE PROBLEM WASHINGTON. With the continued shortage of coastal shipping, cargoes destined from Sao Paulo to the north of Brazil are accumulating in Santos ware houses at a rapid rate. The situa tion is critical, however, only with respect to coastal trade; foreign trade is not yet affected. Congestion in the facilities operated by the Cia. Docas de Santos is so severe according to the local ress, that the company will accept no further delivery of merchandise to warehouses reserv ed for cabotage. Santos trade sources state that sone private warehouse operators are complaining the accumulation of cargo is so great that they can no longei service their regular export customers. Much of the merchandise awaiting shipment is said to be foodstuffs urgently .> Cents—Outside Metropolitan area, 10 cents. needed in the drought-stricken northeast. In addition to the general shor tage of coastal shipping capacity, other factors appear to have con tributed to this situation, such as diversion of many vessels to Rio Grande do Sul to receive the wheat and rice harvest, and lack of adequate unloading facilities in the northen ports of Cabedelo and Fortaleza. The situation is further aggravat ed by exclusion of foreign vessels from the coastal trade. However, iit is doubtful that foreign ship operators woulu now be eager to share this tra-ie even if permitted to do so, since they would be I required to remit freight earnings on the free exchange market ] not an ittraetive prospect at pre j sent rates of foreign exchange and prevailing cruzeiros freight rates j in the eoastwide trade. COLOMBIAN GOVERNMENT BUYS RAILROAD WASHINGTON. The Colom bian National Government and the Department of Antioquia recently signed an agreement covering sale of the Antioquia Railroad to the National Government. The agreement provides that the Government will assume the rail road's foreign debt of US $6,978,- 260, and tl.at the actual sale will be completed by January 1, 1959, after 2 assessors appointed by both parties have determined the actual value of the railroad. The National Government will pay the differen ce between the assessment and the assumed debts in 5 percent Govern ment bonds. Although many opposed the sale, the agreement allows the Colom bian railway system to become completely integrated under the National Railways, thus allowing much more efficient operation. The privately owned Cucuta Rail road will be the only line remain ing out of the National Railway System after completion of this sale. ★ ★ ★ Subscribe to the Americas Daily The Americas Daily Generous Donations to Latin American Countries Announced by the Rockefeller Foundation NEW YORK, July 31. (UPI).— The Rockefeller Foundation an nounced a $265,000 donation to the new Scientific Library of the University of Antioquia, Medellin, for the end of 1965. It also reported another dona tion of $60,000 for the Agricultu ral Faculty of Palmira, and $50,- 000 for the Bogota Faculty of Ve terinarians. These funds will be Knor shy Neighbor By ANTONIO RUIZ HAITI Cap-Haitien is the second city in size and importance in the Republic of Haiti, but first in the great interest and many at tractions for the tourist, since it is a sightseeing center for visits to the country’s greatest land marks, the palace of Sans-Souci and the Cita d e 11 e Laferriere. Earthquakes and numerous fires have destroyed most of the origi nal colonial buildings of the city, once known as the “Paris of Saint Domingue’’ because of its wealth and luxurious living. To the west of the city, the first Europeans to arrive in the New World sailed into Acul Bay in j the Santa Maria and the Nina, followed later by the Pinta. Co-; lumbus sailed in the Santa Maria past Point Picolet which guards Cap-Haitien’s harbor, when he was I about to spend his first Christmas in the New World as guest of the! Indian chief, Guaeanagarie. On the [ fringe of the coral reefs, where the waves can be seen breaking, the! Santa Maria met her fate on Christ- j mas Eve in 1492. Looking inland from the harbor, j the visitor can see the breath taking panorama of the plains and mountains, unchanged since the' Great Admiral described it, in elo- j quent words, in his diary, as fol lows: “The high and rocky moun tains on either side of the harbor rose from among noble forests and swept down into luxuriant plains and cultivated fields, and the rich and smiling valley between the two mountains ran far into the inte- j rior’’. In the nearby islands, more than a century later, English, French, | and Dutch corsairs lay in wait to j pounce on richly laden Spanish galleons en route across the Atlan- j tic. From their island hiding place, | ; lie de la Tortue, French buccaneers | came to the larger island and j founded Cap Francais, later re named Cap-Haitien, in 1670. By the middle of the 18th century it had become France’s wealthiest colonial capital and Saint Domin gue was counted the richest colo nial possesion in the world. The exuberant, productive Plain-du- Nord and the Artibonite Valley supplied half of Europe with sugar and cocoa. On their vast planta tions of cotton, indigo, sugar, co coa and coffee —cultivated by myriads of slaves— French Creole planters lived like kings. Their display of wealth on sojourns in Paris gave rise to the expression “as rich as a Creole”. When the French Revolution came, the “Paris of Saint Domin gue” overnight became a stage alike for heroic events and for barbaric excesses in the great struggle for human liberty. The old French fountain which still stands in the Place d’ Armes, was a silent witness to the execution of Haiti’s first martyrs: the mulat to Lacombe, hanged for daring to present a petition claiming the “rights of Man” for his country men: Oge and Chavannes, barbar ously put to death for demanding the political rights of the “af franchis”. One stormy night in the forest of Bois Caiman, outside Cap-Hai tien, three negro leaders met in 1791 to plan the rebellion of the slaves, taking the "oath of blood”. A week later the ominous beat of native drums was heard, and their followers descended from the mountains and swept through the Plaine du Norde with fire and sword, avenging the deaths of Og6 and Chavannes and of untold num bers of slaves during three agoniz ing centuries of bondage, in a week’s time they had reduced the luxuriant plain to one vast ceme tery and had destroyed 600 coffee plantations, 200 sugar refineries, and the fine mansions of the owners. Merciless retaliation was meted out to rebels and non-rebels alike by the French at Cap-Haitien, who kept five gallows constantly in use. (Continued tomorrow). Spanish version page 3... For a better understanding between the Americas MIAMI SPRINGS, FLA., FRIDAY, AUGUST 1, 1958 - used by the two faculties, both sec - tions of the National University of ) Colombia, during a three year pe-j 3 riod. , The Foundation also announced a $lO,OOO donation to the Medical j Library of Caldas University, of - Manizales, and another of $2,000 -for and exchange program between - this faculty and the faculty of me- j ! dieine of the University of Valle, Cali. Dr. Carlos Restrepo, Professor and head of the pathological de partment of the faculty of medi-| cine of this University, will re ceive $2,225 for visiting the pa thological departments of other Latin American countries, and $l,- 700 so that the Secretary General of the University, Elva Leonor Or tiz, may come to the U. S. to study the archives and administrative proceedures of U. S. universities. , The Rockefeller Foundation also , reported two $lO,OOO donations to the University of Chile, Santiago,i ' and the Austral University, of Val- ' . divia. J The University of Chile will use the donation to give post-graduate j instruction to graduates selected from the Faculty of Medicine of ! this university, the Catholic Uni versity, and the University of Con cepcion. The Austral University will use | $lO,OOO for the purchase of equip ment, supplies and library mate , j rial for its agricultural Sciences ’; faculty. Also the Foundation will give $7,000 to the Molina, Lima, expe ’ j rimental station, for the purchase ; of equipment and supplies, destin | J ed for its plant protection division. ! I Another $6,000 donation was an \ nounced for the National Univer | I sity of San Agustin, Arequipa, ’ j to set up an exchange of teachers ,: between the faculty of medicine | of this university and the medical | schools of Colombia and other La [ tin American countries. New Paraguayan Ambassador Thanks Pres. Eisenhower for U. S. Loans WASHINGTON. (UPI). Doc tor Juan Plate, the new Paraguay an Ambassador in this capital, pre sented his credentials to President Eisenhower. After the ceremony, Dr. Plate said that he had expressed the gra titude of the people of, his coun try to the President for the loan granted by the U. S. to the Asun cion government for the capital’s drinking water system. The Export-Import Bank grant ed an eight million dollars loan to Paraguay for this water system, and the Development Fund gave them another million dpllars cre dit. Dr. Plate said: “We are very grateful to the people of the U. S., whose govern ment agencies have made this work possible through long-term loans. This is a splendid gesture of good will”. The Ambassador also stated that, within a few more months, the work on the new International Air port of Asuncion will completed, which is being constructed with the help of a $1,120,000 loan from the Export-Import Bank. The President told the Para guayan Ambassador “you are car rying out your stabilization pro HEMISPHERIC EVENTS Latin American News in Brief RUSSIA OFFERING TO BUY COPPER ONLY FOR PROPAGANDA ~ IBANEZ SANTIAGO, CHILE. (UPI) Soviet Russia wants to buy small quantities of Chilean copper for purely propaganda purposes, Pres ident Carlos Ibanez del Campo sug. gested to a delegation of workers here. “Russia has so much copper, she could throw some away,” the President was reported to have told them. “She only wants to buy very small quantities. Recently, the So viet Ambassador in the United States invited our Ambassador to lunch to talk copper. He offered to by 1,500 tons. That is very little, and we did not accept.” U. S. ENVOY TALKS TO CUBAN CANDIDATES HAVANA —(UPI)— The U.S. Embassy reported that the Ambas sador, Earl E.T. Smith, confcred Americas' Women Asked to Exercise Their Political Rights Properly WASHINGTON. (UPI). l~ Mrs. Graciela Quan Inclan, Chairman of the Inter-American Commission of Women, called on the women of the Americas to utilize properly their political rights. Mrs. Quan, who comes from Gua temala, said that her organization is turning its attention away from the subject of political rights, since those rights are recognized by all countries in the Americas with the exception of Panama. She indicated the commission now wants to turn its attention to such pressing problems as the cri sis facing the family in Latin Amer ica. Mrs. Quan told a news confer ence that elements in the crisis are juvenile delinquency, the unwed mother and a lack of proper re sponsibility in some fathers. She said this crisis is the most general problem facing the Amer ican women and said she would like to see a seminar organized to study the problems and seek solutions to them. Radio Censorship in Nicaragua MANAGUA.—A rigid censorship has been imposed on all radio newscasts, and it is presumed the measure is aimed at preventing broadcast of bulletins and com ments in connection with the plan ned general strike, voted by both employers and workers, in protest against the high quotas they have to pay for Social Security. On the other hand, both the Minis ter of Government and the Chief of Police of this city have issued threats against the leaders of the movement, wich is the best orga nized against the Government in the history of Nicaragua. gram which was started last year with the colaboration of the In ternational Monetary Fund and the U. S. Treasury”, and added: “the success of this program will greatly contribute to the economic deve lopment of Paraguay and, as a consequence, to the well being of the people of Paraguay”. Importance of Puerto Rico in U. S.-Latin America Relations By HARRY W. FRANTZ (Note: The United Press In ternational correspondent attended the Sixth Anniversary celebration of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico at San Juan, July 25-27, and recounts his personal observations in the following series of three stories). WASHINGTON, (UPI). The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an autonomous free state under the United States flag, has become one of the most important laboratories of political evolution, economic ad vancement and international rela tions in the Western Hemisphere. 1 with ex-President Ramon Grau San Martin, head of the Authentic Party, of the Opposition, which is requesting free elections, at a lun cheon held in the Embassy. The Embassy’s statement was not published in Cuba. The censors did not permit it to be published. The Embassy said that the lun cheon between Smith and Grau continued “the exchange of view points between the Ambassador and Cuban political figures". According to the Embassy, Smith has previously confered with Pro-Government candidates, Andres Rivas Aguero, and also Carlos M&rques Sterling, of the People’s Liberal Party. ARGENTINES RECOVER BODIES FROM RUINS BUENOS AIRES —cUPI)— Ad ditional bodies were removed from the ruins of the Phillips Televi sion building which collapsed Tues day while stil’ under construction in the San Justo District of Bue nos Aires. The deathtoU stood at 16, with Cuba Ignored U. S. Plea to Keep Forces Guarding Guantanamo Water Svstem * <i Thousands of Haitians Ready to Strike Again Against the Governnpent By United Press International Unconfirmed reports reaching' Miami said yesterday some 2,000 i poorly-armed rebels are lurking in the Haitian hills outside Port au Prince, waiting their chance to launch a new onslaught against the Government of President Fran cois Duvalier. Strict censorship and curfew re gulations prevailing on the embat tled Carribean island made it im possible immediately to confirm the reports. The rebels in the hills were said to be members of a force which was to have met the arms-loaded “invasion boat” from Miami which arrived in Haiti Monday night. They missed connections, leav ing it to the seven or eight persons in the launch to start the abortive revolt that was crushed a few hours later, according to informa tion reaching here. Ail of the boat party were killed. The weapons in the boat, which were to have been issued to the hill i rebels, are believed to have fallen into the hands of the government. Official Hatian spokesmen in New York said Wednesday night that “peace has been completely j restored” to the negro republic, | They cited a cable from Du-' valier blaming the uprising on an ousted ex-President of Haiti and a defeated presidential candidate. He charged that the conspiracy was supported by the communists. “The bodies of all the conspira tors yielded documents that gave sufficient evidence to prove that they were in the employ of ex- President Paul Magloire and defeat ed presidential candidate Louis Dejoie, and that they are directly affiliated with communist forces”, the cable said. JAPAN INTERESTED IN VENEZUELAN FISHING TOKLO. (UPI). A high leader of the Jananese fishing industry announced that he will leave for Venezuela on the 11th of August to discuss the creation of a mixed Japonese-Venezuelan fishing com pany, with a capital of $345,000, with a Caracas firm. Four centuries ago, Puerto Rico was the testing-ground of the po licies and social institutions of Im perial Spain in the Antilles. In the 20th century, the Island’s progress and welfare reflects the capacity of the United States to adapt its institutions and national purposes to the benefit of the 2,- 000,000 American citizens in the Commonwealth. There is, however, this novel as pect in the Puerto Rican life today. The Commonwealth, by virtue of its geographical location and the cosmopolitan spirit of its people, 'has become the “show-window” to six others injured seriously. A to tal of 49 persons were in the big building when it collapsed almost completely. Police, firemen, soldiers and vo lunteers were removing hundreds of tons of broken concrete in searcn for new victims. The wooden forms surrounding the concrete were removed four days ago and the men were finish ing the job when tragedy struck. A central column was seen to crack and then the whole struc ture which covers 1,800 sq. yards came rumbling down. It was be lieved that water had seeped into the foundations. Designs for the buildings were said to have been made by the Phillips Co. Technical Department in Brazil. The Building Workers Union staged a 24- hour “mourning” strike starting at midnight last night. IRAQ EVENTS TO AFFECT WORLD OIL INDUSTRY CARACAS, Venezuela —(UPI) "BATISTA TRYING TO PROVOKE AN INCIDENT, REBEL LEADER STATES WASHINGTON. (UPI).—A Ma rine detachment was sent in to guard the water supply system 'j of the Guantanamo Bay naval base on Cuba territory only after the United States pleaded in vain with the Cuban government against withdrawing its troops, it was learned today. Cuban rebels have demanded “immediate withdrawal” of the American troops from the water station, located some five miles outside the U. S. base. Ernesto F. Betancourt, Wash ington representative for Cuban rebel leader Fidel Castro, warned Wednesday night that the rebels soon may attack the Marine de tachment. He said danger of a clash . between the rebels and Marines was “imminent”. Betacourt also said Cuban dic tator Fulgencio Batista withdrew Venezuelans Hope to Have Elections | ■■ ■ -v. . ’ on November 23rd. j CARACAS. (UPI). According ' to a statement by the President -of the Supreme Electoral Council, Fi del Rotondaro, it is hoped that November 23rd will be the date set for holding the next general elec tions. In an interview which he had with the Minister of the Interior, Numa Quevedo, Rotondaro said that the trip which he made through all of the country was to try to speed up the work of the corresponding officials, so that ci tizens could begin their registra tion on the 10th of August. Rotondaro pointed out the neces sity of these elections being held before the Central American Olym pic Games, since this would avert the possibility that they would slow down commercial activities at the end of the year, with which the businessmen hope to compen sate for the lack of business dur ing recent months. He added that 29% of the muni cipal electoral polls have already been installed. other American Republics and the domains of Great Britain, France and The Netherlands in the Carib bean area. Puerto Rico thus becomes a lead er and an intermediary in Inter- American life, rather than a remo te auxiliary of what may happen in Washington. Cooperating with the Federal Government, the Commonwealth Government already has been the host and training-center for sev eral thousand trainees and visitors from all parts of the Free World, exploring the potentials for econo mic and cultural advancement. Russian exploitation of Iraq’s oil resources would have harmful effects on the oil industry of the Western World, a top Venezuelan official said here Minister ot Mines and hydro carbons Carlos Perez de la Cova said the situation in Iraq is caus ing deep concern in Venezuela, whose oil production is second only to that of the United States. Asked whether events In Iraq could result in increased Venezue lan oil exports, the Minister said: “Inasmuch as Iraq is the Middle East’s most important oil center, there is no doubt that develop ments there can cause disturban ces In the world’s oil economy. “The situation may prove profi table for Venezuela but only over a short period We are acquainted with the kind of offers Russia makes of its own crude oil abroad and if the Russians get to exploit Iraq’s oil to obtain exportable sur pluses it would harm the West’s petroleum industry”. Member Infer American Press Association • For Liberty, Culture and Hemispheric Solidarity NUMBER 24 his soldiers and called for the Marines to “provoke-an incident” that would bring U.S. forces to the aid of the Cuban government in its long fight against the rebels. U. S. officials staunchly sup ported the move by Rear Adm. Robert B. Ellis, commander of the base, on the ground that the pumping plant and pipelines sup plying water to the base had to be defended one way or another. The Press Secretary of the State Department, Lincoln White, stated that “the U. S. government hopes” that the stationing of Marines to protect the water supply system of the Guantanamo Naval Base will •‘only be a temporary measure”. WASHINGTON PAPER WARNS OF DANGER Meanwhile, the Washington “Post and Times Herald” says that the U. S. is taking a risk in sending Marines to replace Cuban Army troops which guard the installa > tions. In an editorial it comments that the U. S. Marines are, in reality, in the line of fire in a province en veloped in the flames of a rebel lion against the Batista govern ment, and adds: “Let us suppose that Fidel and Raul Castro Ruz add to their past mistakes of kidnapping that of fir ing on the Marines. Would the U.S. government then be obliged to take military action which would be of help to the Batista government? It says that the action in Cuba has no comparison to the direct and unforgetable intervention in Latin America, because soldiers were sent there with the consent of a recognized government, and adds; “With it all, these actions tend to occur in Cuba and other Latin American countries. It seems that, with an astute maneuver, Batista has managed to get the U. S. mixed up in an internal dispute. “It is certain that nothing would please Batista more than a rebel attack on the Marines. Perhaps the events of Lebanon gave him the idea. In the face of these risks, shouldn’t the U. S. immediately look for other ways to assure the drinking water supply of the base? There-was a time whep many of the mainland citizens of the United States thought vaguely of Puerto Rico as a realm of “dolce far niente” (sweet- do-nothing), important for its sugar crop, and concerned perennially with its po litical “status”. Now visitors in Puerto Rico sense something very different in the thought and lives of the people. There is a burning desire for social and economic advancement, and a geunine belief that this can be realized. This spirit finds expression in the frequently used word “tesdn”, meaning literally “firmness” or “tenacity”, but carrying the im plication that with courage and purpose great things ean be ac complished. Today, the Hags of the United States and the Commonwealth fly from twin poles above La Fortale za, the Government House. Luis Munoz Marin, the first elected Gov ernor among the 170 executives es Puerto Rico in four and one- half centuries, works strenuously to give a “creative” aspect to the *a pid social and economic develop ment programs. Probably no statesman of any small nation attracts more inter national attention, due to a gen eral awareness that he seeks new answers to old questions. His re markable personal quality seems to be a faculty for “identification". He seems equally at ease with in ternational diplomats, businessmen, farmers atjd intellectuals, and often finds a “common denomina tor” of interest and procedure be tween San Juan, Washington and New York. Historically, from the time of the United States occupation, there have been three fundamental cour-' ses for the political aspirations of the Puerto Rican people: Inde pendence, federal statehood, or a modified autonomous statehood such as was established in the pre sent Commonwealth Government.