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Inter • American News
for English - Speaking people 6th YEAR a A SAN ROMAN C. W SMITH, S. SMITH, President Vice President. Vice President. FRANCISCO AGUIRRE. HORACIO AGUIRRE, Vice President and Publisher Vice President Editor and Manager Antonin Ruiz, Thomas A. Hdl, Managing Editor. Advertising Manager Published dally except Monday Entered as second class matter at the Post Office of Miami Springs Fla., on February 1 1954 EDITORIAL LATIN AMERICAN DICTATORSHIPS AND COMMUNISM Russia is highly interested in exercising political in fluence in the Latin American countries. Constantly, states men of t|ie Kremlin are on the alert regarding every political movement in the Western Hemisphere, with the purpose of taking advantage of it, whether it is for direct benefit in favor of communism, or for indirect benefit, channeling it against the United States of America. The hierarchs of Moscow know that they cannot impose within the zone of influence of the United States a com pletely communist Government, with origin in the type of revolutions that Russia has promoted in Central Europe, in the Middle East and in the Far East. Before this reality, that is to say, before the inability to impose satellite govern ments in America, Russia is engaged in discrediting Latin American democracy, because from that discredit a climate propitious for the malignant growth of communism always results. The democratic governments existing in the Americas are, without doubt, harmful to Russian designs, because the people who are governed by them get used to respect and to love the authentic values of republicanism, and are always ready to defend, with all possible energy, the insti tutions which guarantee their individual rights, social well being and political freedom. On the other hand, peoples who are subjugated, those who see the Government making a constant mockery, in the most irritating manner, of democracy, are in great danger of becoming skeptical, of losing their faith in democracy almost completely, and perhaps avoiding any effort to defend it, because they do not enjoy it. The four dictatorial regimes which still remain in America are, for these and other reasons, direct or indi rect contributors, but always effective contributors, with their anti-democratic attitudes, to the political distrust which is planted in public opinion, and they play the game of communist imperialism, and put out deeper roots where democracy is practiced the least, where the people are less disposed to defend it because they do not know what it means, or, if they do know, are not able to enjoy it. In democratic governments Russia has enemies, in the dicta torships she has allies. Latin American Finance and Trade News Reports LATIN AMERICA MUST USE HER LAND BETTER U. S. REPORT STATES WASHINGTON, August 4. (UPI) The Department of Agriculture has published a report in which It says that if the ever increasing population of Latin America wants a higher standard of living it must take better advantage of its land, improve transport systems, and use more hydrolic power in its in dustries. The Department published an “agricultural geography of Latin | America’', with a complete survey of crops, and of production and the agricultural and cattle raising industry with relation to the ex port demands and needs of Latin America. The report says that the popula tion in the 20 republics has increas ed from 72,000,000 inhabitants in 1900 to 180,000.000 in 195 b. In little more .than half a century there has been a 150% increase, pointing out the fact that the birth rate of 1,000 is more than double that of the U. S. In the future the birth rate may drop as illiteracy decreases and standards of living improve and cultural standards change. On the Other hand, the death rate will probably drop because of better control of tropical diseases, and improvement of public health pro grams, medical attention, and child Oirth care. The report adds: “Perhaps the greatest obstacles to progress in Latin America are the inadecuate transportation systems for the sale »f products of the land and insuf ficient hydrolic power for indus trialization”. Less than 5% of the total land irea in Latin America is under cultivation, the report reveals. The iverage for the entire world is more than seven percent; for Eu rope it is 37% and the U. S. and Canada 10%. CUBAN PESO AMONG FEW Firm WORLD CURRENCIES NEW YOKE (UPI) —lnterna- fonal currency expert Franz Pick reported that “the Cuban peso jelongs among the few currencies 5 Cents—Outside Metropolitan area, 10 cents. 1 of the globe that show more than two decades of unchanged value.” Writing in the 1958 edition of his annual “Pick’s Currency Year book,” Pick also said that the Dominican Republic “deserves praise” for its lack of domestic and foreign debts. He said the Haitian gourde re mained stable during 1957 and predicated that it probably will remain a “hard exchange unit” | this year. Pick pointed out that Cuba is ' “ofie of the few countries on the globe which has no currency black markets. “Cuba’s economic progress has been rather amazing during the post-war years,” the economy analyst reported. “After remark able achievements during 1956, the island's economy marked new advancements in 1957. “Gross national production reached an historic high of $3 billion, an increase of over $50(1 million since 1956. The country’s industrialization showed expans ions. He added: “Cuba’s balance of trade remain ed active and its balance of pay ments continued to show a major inflow of foreign capital for in vestment in the island’s industry and agriculture reached about $5O million in 1957.” Pick said Cuba’s public works program contributed to raising the nation's public debt to about $738 million at the end of last year. “This debt, corresponding to ,ess than a quarter of the present gross national production and ex ceeding currency in circulation by only 60 per cent, cannot be cos idered as heavy,” he stated. “The cost of living in Cuba was held remarkably stable by the Govern ment. “Despite world-wide inflationary tendencies, the monetary man agement under the leadership of Dr. J. Martinez Saenz, kept cur rency circulation at only 3V4 per cent above the level of the preced ing year. The fact i* especially noteworthy as the country under went substantial pressures of poli tical unrest...” The Americas Daily FROM ECONOMIC POLICIES WILL HELP ARGENTINA TO GET SUBSTANTIAL LOANS FROM U. S. WASHINGTON. (UPl).—United States officials are highly gratified with recent economic measures taken by Argentine President Ar turo Frondizi and think the time for helping that nation with broad scale loans is ripe. This was disclosed to United Know thy Neighbor By ANTONIO RUIZ NICARAGUA—In the year 1821, authorities at Guatemala City de clared Central American indepen dence, but the governments of Ni caragua and Honduras agreed in stead to be incorporated to the new Mexican Empire, under the terms of the Plan of Iguala, an arrange ment which lasted for little more than a year. The attempts at Central Ameri can union in 1830. under liberal president Francisco Morazan, were as unsuccessful as those that fol lowed his down fall. Neverthe less, in the thoughts of Central American statesmen, union has re mained to this day an ideal even tually to be realized. From 1830 to 1860, Nicaragua was frequently involved in war with its neighbors, and in strife between the conservative and libe ral factions within the country, and the two forms of conflict aggra vated each other. The situation was further embittered by the stub born antagonism between Granada and Leon. During the years of agitation the executive and legis lative branches of the government were in the habit of moving around, sometimes together, and function ing in whatever towns were con veniente at the moment. In 1852, however, as a compro mise, the Acting President of Ni caragua decreed that the official residence of the executive should! be in Managua. The city’s gradual rise to prominence dates from that 1 time. During the years 1854 to j 1860. besides civil war, there were melo-dramatic international episo des in connection with Cornelius Vanderbilt’s Accessory Transit Company, which transported Cali fornia-pound travelers across Ni- i caragua, and with William Walker, an adventurer from Tennessee. Walker, who marched in with 58 men and had himself made presi dent, succeeded in arousing the ; hostility of Vanderbilt, both poli tical parties, and Central America in general. After Walker’s surrender and death, following two other unsuc cessful filibustering expeditions, conservatives and librals in Nica ragua patched up their differences and from 1860 to 1893, conserva tive government held office in Ma nagua. In these years a certain amount of progress was achieved in the country, such as the establishment of telegraph services, improvement of lake and river transportation, and the start of railroad construc tion. Political unrest, however, had continued throughout Central Ame rica, and as always, during the dis orders, lives and property of for eigners had been lost, and claims for damages accumulated. It was, therefore, with a view to promoting peace and improving the disorganized condition of finances and thus removing possible cause of international war, that the Unit ed States was led in 1910 to in tervene in Nicaragua. The inter vention. resented by Nicaraguans and criticized at home as well as throughout Latin America, was ex pressed in Managua from 1913 until 1925 by the stationing of about one hundred Marine guards at the United States Legation. From 1927 to 1933 a larger force of Marines was present to train a new body of Nicaraguan National Guard, and to supervise elections. Central American policies were worked out in conferences held frequently during the first quarter of the century. The wars between the various republics had happily been discontinued, bringing about some political stability within Ni caragua. Under the financial plans of 1917 and 1920, the Nicaraguan government in 1924 repaid its debt to U. S. bankers, and bought back the stock of the National Bank and the Pacific Railway. With the enunciation of the Good Neighbor Policy by the govern ment of the United States, under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in 1933, the theory of intervention, which had been loosing favor for some years, was completely laid aside. Spanish Version Page 5... For a better understanding between the Americas MIAMI SPRINGS, FLA., TUESDAY, AUGUST 5, 1958 wm mm wMr ■ II VI ■ M W ■ Press International by sources who deal with Argentine affaris. One of them said he felt the oil policy President Frondizi worked out is the most important single event that has happened in Latin America during the last decade He expressed the view that suc cessful implementation of the oil program will go far toward solving Argentina’s long-term e con o mi c problems. But he acknowledged that nation faces serious problems right now. “For that reason”, he said, “now is the time for the United States to act. It must not wait until the situation becomes desperate”. The source said the United States is also pleased with the so lution worked out for the problems of American and European meat packing firms and is optimistic that a settlement of the problems of Ansec, the Argentine subsidiary ' of the American and Foreign Power i Compnay, will be announced soon. , The meat packers had threatened to close unless they obtained more foreign exchange for their pro- I duct. Solution of the long-pending An sec expropriation issue is expected to pave the way for further invest ment in power by the American company. The sources said that once the power issue is settled the Export ■ Import Bank will be in a position to look at applications for power projects. A possible loan for American and Foreign Power might run be tween 30.000,000 and $40,000,000. The sources also said the bank is still working on the Rio Turbio coal mine loan application. A french firm made an offer to | lend money for the project but it does not appear to American of j ficials to be completely firm. NEW ELECTIONS BUENOS AIRES. (UPl).—The first elections to be held in Ar | gentina under the new constitu | tional government will be held | shortly in the provinces of Misiones and La Pampa. The Government sent a bill to Congress for the election of two | senators in Misiones (none were elected for technical reasons in the | Feb. 23 generai elections) and for the election of provincial legisla tors. In La Pampa, the elections will be to choose delegates for a Constituent Assembly to make a provincial constitution. It is understood that President! I Frondizi will make a call for these 5 elections within ninety days after i congressional approval of the bill. Venezuela Expels Cubans Journalisl CARACAS, August 2 (UP) President Wolfgang Larrazabal announced today that the Foreign Office has ordered Cuban newspa perman, Luis Conte Agiiero to leave the country, for having , violated the law which prohibits foreigners to intervene in internal 1 Venezuelan policies. HEMISPHERIC EVENTS Latin American News in Brief British Diplomats Bid Farewell to Argentine Envoy LONDON (UPl)—The Foreign Office gave a luncheon in honor of Argentine Ambassador Alberto M. Candioti and Senora de Can dioti in order to bid them farewell. The Ambassador resigned his post recently and is returning to Buenos Aires at the end of the month. The Earl of Gosford, joint Par liamentary Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs, was host. In a brief speech proposing the health of President Arturo Frondizi, Lord Gosford said that the Ambassador and his wife would be greatly miss ed by their many friends in London and he congratulated Ambassador Candioti on the success of his mission. The guest included the Air Mi nister George Ward, Sir Leslie Ro wan, permanent head of the Treasury, Sir John Taylor, Director General of the Hispanic and Luso- Brazilian Councils, and Lady Tay "Urgent" Appeal for Disarmament Made at Meeting in Rio de Janeiro RIO DE JANEIRO. (UPI). The Interparliamentary Union is sued an urgent appeal for the re ' sumption of disarmament talks, the end of nuclear weapons tests and 1 the formation of an international I police force under the United Na -1 tions. More than 450 legislators from 41 nations attending the confer ence approved six resolutions hnd 1 pledged to use their influence to press their governments to adopt ' the resolutions. An outline of the resolutions 1 follows: 1. Parliaments of all states members of the Interparliamentary , Union GPU) recommend in the ' strongest possible terms speedy ac tion to secure resumption of dis armament negotiations and to se cure without delay the cessation, under proper control, of nuclear i weapons tests. 2. Adoption of all possible steps to establish an international police ; force on a permanent basis. 3. Modification of national laws - to facilitate the exchange of in formation likely to serve the cause of international peace and to pro mote better understanding among ' nations. 4. Promote intellectual exchan ge between nations. 5. Encourage legislation which would build truly democratic le gislatures in non-self governing territories. 6. Adoption of an international code of investments, defining the conditions of equitable treatment for both lenders and borrowers. The resolution calling for ces sation of nuclear tests was passed unanimously as was the cultural exchange resolution. Iron curtain countries either abstained or vot ed against formation of an interna' tional police force, which was pas sed in the closing plenary session by a vote of 371 to 104 and 50 abastentions. Mexican Firms Get Eximbank Credits WASHINGTON. (UPI). The 1 Export-Import Bank announced giving its first credit in foreign currency to 11 Mexican firms: 41,- 034,000 Mexican pesos, which are the equivalent of 3,282,720. These loans will aid Mexican firms and U. S. subsideraries in that country to develop the market of private industry. The companies receiving the loans and the loans are: Wyatt of Mexico S. A. de C. V., 2,620.000 pesos; Compania Mexica ns de Refractarios A. P. Green, S. A., 8,500,000; Sears Roebuck de Mexico, S. A. de de C. V., 10,- 000,000; International Harvester Company de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., 937,000; John Deere de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., 5,000.000; Limparas General Electric de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., 4,070,000; Grace y Com pania (Mexico) S. A. de C. V., 4,900,000; Philco, S. A. de C. V„ 835,000; Perfeccion y Lovable de Mexico, S. de R. L. 600,000; Nego ciacion Textil “La Concordia”, S. A., 300,000; and Beneficiadora E Industrializadora S. A. de C. V., 572,000. The credits are on six to seven year terms with 10% interest a year, according to the prevalent norms in Mexico for similar loans. lor, Mrs. Maria Luisa Arnold, Social Director of Canning House, Sir Anthony Rumbold of the Foreign Office, H. A. Hankey, head of the American Division of the Foreign Office, Mr. and Mrs. John Vaughan-Morgan, Brigadier C. A. Mac Nab, and Minister Counsellor of the Argentine Embassy Ernesto Piaggio and Sefiora de Piaggio. U. S. Carrier in Visit to Callao LIMA (UPI) At the’ nearby port of Callao, the gigantic air craft carrier, “Ranger,” and her destroyer escort the “Rowan” and “Gurke,” of the U. S. Navy, are visiting. The visit of the three ships is part of a “Greetings to Peru” pro gram of the government and peo ple of the U. S. to the government and people of Peru. The President of the Republic, Dr. Manuel Prado, will visit the ships on Tuesday the sth, going from the Presidential Palace to the very deck of the ship, some 15 kilometers, in the presidential he licopter. Kubitschek, Dulles to Talk About Bold Changes in U. S. Latin American Relations Communist Paper Ends Publication in Rio de Janeiro RIO DE JANEIRO, August 4 (UPI) —The communist newspa per “Imprensa Popular” is sus pending publication today, after more than ten years of circulation in this city. The newspaper has been in fi nancial difficulties for several years. Nevertheless, its Editor, Pedro Motta Lima, announced in a front page article that the suspension will continue only during the time necessary to reconsider the paper’s policies and exchange its person nel. Motta Lima added: “Neither can we hide the fact that a long series of mistakes gave our newspaper a narrowminded aspect, even sec tarian, during certain periods. Add to this undeveloped technique and lack of material resources and it is easy to understand why so many negative factors limited our circu lation.” Motta Lima promised that “Im prensa Popular” will again soon be on the news stands in this city, reflecting a new policy. In its last publication, the news paper publishes an editorial attack ing U. S. Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, who arrives today in this capital, ft calls Dulles “a fanatic of war and of the domina tion of the people, and one who unconditionally serves the large Yankee monopolies which profit from the arms race and prepara tion for war.” MYSTERIOUS SICKNESS HITS ARGENTINA BUENOS AIRES. (UPI)— A germ carried by cornfield rats is believed to be the cause of a mysterious sickness which has stricken more than 200 farm hands, 70 of them fatally, in the O’Hig gins area of Buenos Aires Prov ince. The germ was said to be of the leptospira or spirochete type, a parasitic variety carried freely by mammals. Dulles Has Opportunity to Begin a Fresh Deal in Latin America, 'The Times' States NEW YORK, August 4. (UPI). Under the title “Back to the Hemisphere”, The New York Times publishes today the following edi torial: “Our preoccupation with the Mid dle East and a summit conference has fortunately not interfered with Secretary of State Dulles’ trip to Rio de Janeiro. During the crisis Dr. Milton Eisenhower and his Two hours after his arrival, the “Ranger” Commander will give a press interview, attended by re presentatives of the local newspa pers and foregn correspondents. The 4,050 men who comprise the crew of the three ships, and of ficials, Marines and Coatsguards men will take part in a full pro gram of' activities during their four day visit. MEXICAN AGRICULTURE HELPED BY RAINS MEXIC OCITY (UPI) The heavy rains of the past few weeks have greatly improved prospects for Mexican agriculture, officials said. The Department of Hydraulic Resources reported that most of the nation’s dams are filled to capacity, which “assure excellent crops for this year.” Officials mentioned particularly dams in northwestern Mexico, along the Lowe. Rio Grande and Lower San Juan River, where there is “sufficient water to meet irriga. tion needs for the remainder of the current agricultural season.” The Marta R. Gomez Dam, of ficials said, is now holding 40 million cubic meters of water sod BRAZILIAN PRESIDENT TO SUBMIT FOUR POINT COOPERATION PLAN RIO DE JANEIRO. (UPI). Secretary of State John Foster Dulles was en route to Rio de Janeiro today for two days of con ferences with Brazilian President Juscelino Kubitschek designed to firm up inter-American relations in advance of a “summit” meet ing. The plane made an early morn ing stop at Trinidad and was scheduled to reach Rio de Jan eiro in the afternon. Dulles, who conferred with President Eisenhower before tak ing off from Washington was bearing a personal message from Eisenhower to Kubitschek. He de dined to reveal its contents. Kubitschek and the U. S. Chief Executive haxe exchanged letters recently stressing their desire to seek means of solving hemispher ic problems. The Brazilian leader also emphasized to Eisenhower Brazil's interest in questions that would be discussed at the pro posed summit conference. FOUR POINT PLAN WASHINGTON. (UPI). The President of Brazil, Dr. Juscelino Kubitschek, is ready to exhort the U. S. to unite with Latin America in a bold Four Point Program for economic development, according to well informed sources. It is understood that this will be Kubitschek’s main proposal during the two days of confidential discus sions which he will have with the U. S. Secretary of State, John Fos ter Dulles during his visit in Rio. Well informed sources told the United Press International that the Brazilian Chief Executive has the intention of formally proposing that the U. S. take a more active role in the task of eradicating “the evil of economic backwardness” of the continent. Kubitschek paved the way for his proposals when he recently an nounced his “Operation Paname ricanism”, which stresses a new way to lick the fight against pover ty in order to more efectively achieve political stability and curb communist action in the Latin American countries. According to versions picked up here, Kubitschek’s main proposals will be: 1. Form a new Inter Amer ican Development Bank, which will extend liberal and long term ere group of high Government econo mic and political experts went se renely ahead with their swing around the C ent r a 1 American countries and Panama, from which they returned on Friday. “Mr. Dulles’ voyage is a sequel to the sensations that accompanied Vice President Nixon’s visit to South America last May. The exci tement has died down, as Dr. Ei the International Falcon Dam has 2,360 million. Os these Mexico is entitled by treaty with the United States to use 275 million. Also overflowing are the Sanalo na .Angostura, Alvaro Obregon, Mocuzari and Miguel Hidalgo Dams In the central part of the coun try the Solis and Tepuxtepec Dams are almost filled to capacity and Lake Chapala, in Jalisco, which had threatened to dry up, is now holding 914 million cubic meters of water. NEW OIL WELL VERACRUZ, Mexico (UPI) The Ocean Drilling and Explora tion Company of New Orleans re ported that it has brought in its first oil well for Pemex off the coast of Coatzacoalcos. The Lousiana concern is explor ing and drilling for Pauley Pan American Petroleum Co. which is under contract to Pemex. ★ ★ ★ Svbtcribt to the Member Inter American Press Association • For Liberty, Culture and Hemispheric Solidarity NUMBER 27 dits. 2. U. S. support of invest ment project which private capi tal ignores, such as public works, large scale construction of schools and housing works. 3. Much more technical aid than ever before. 4. U. S. support to the agreements adopted in view of stopping fluctua tions in the prices of basic pro ducts. It is hoped that Dulles will listen with marked interest to Kubit schek’s view points, since they are being submitted in a moment when the U. S. is trying to overcome the tension which has crept into the traditionally friendly relations be tween this country and Latin Amer ica. The Brazilian President’s posi tion seems to have been streng thened by the conclusions of Dr. Milton Eisenhower, the brother of the U. S. President, upon his re turn to Washington, after his tri| to the Central American republics In a preliminary report to th« President, Dr. Eisenhower asked that urgent attention be given t« “the overwhelming need” to give bank loans to Latin America and to give a more positive answer to Latin American requests to help in stabilizing the prices of their basic products and the prices of manufactured products which they must acquire from abroad. Washington’s interest in finding a solution to these problems is re flected in the inclusion in the Dul les’ Committee of Thomas C. Mann, Assistant Secretary of State in charge of Economic Affairs. Mann has been one of the most active supports of U. S. participation in discussions with Latin America about how to stop sharp fluctua tions in coffee prices. Mexican Bankers Visiting U. S. A. MEXICO CITY.— (UPI)— Five officials of the Bank of Mexico, headed by assistant manager Raul Torres, left on a two-month tour to study modern banking systems in tbe United States and Cuba. The group will visit principal banking organizations in Chicago Washington, New York, and Hav ana. senhower’s peaceful excursion pro ved. The Middle East, in any event, took the spotlight away from Latin America. Nevertheless, the hosti lity against the United States shown during the Vice President’s trip shocked the Eisenhower Admi nistration into a realization that an agonizing reappraisal of our po licies toward Latin America was needed. “President Kubitschek of Brazil was the first statesman in the hemi sphere to step up and propose that an inter-American conference be called “on the highest political level of the continent” to seek re medies for what had gone wrong. Aa a preliminary move, Secretary Dulles has gone to Rio to talk things over with the Brazilian Pre sident. “Meanwhile, Hie Middle Eastern crisis gave an added note of ur gency to hemispheric understand ings on problems which include, but are not confined to, the Com munist conspiracy. There again it was Dr. Kubitschek who was the spokesman for Latin America in the note he sent to President Ei senhower on July 23 “emphasizing the necessity of Latin America being represented” at the proposed summit meeting. In his press con ference on Thursday Secretary Dulles politely side-stepped Presi dent Kubitschek’s request by point ing. out that “through the partici pation of Colombia and Panamk on the Security Council there will be an opportunity for the Latin-Ame rican countries to have a voice”. “The two chief Latin-American complaints, which Mr. Nixon cor rectly diagnosed, lie in the field of economic relations and in Unit ed States policies toward Latin American dictators. On the econo mic side Dr. Eisenhower’s trip should prove valuable. Dr. Duties now has the opportunity to begin a fresh deal on all aspects of Unit ed States poliey toward the hemi sphere”.