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"The World is Governed Too Much."
BURY Lr. B10ssT, Binesis anager. ALEXANDRIA, LOUISIANA, WEDNESDAY. MARCH19 1890. VOL XLY - 2
uto Dr T wAenM CHnn? nT 41-.n :. . . ,_ . . I
MIS CREDIT WAS GOOD.
eTwas a winter night, and the hour was late,
And the snow lay cold and white,
But she saw him as far as the garden-gate
To say to him thee "Good-night."
The moon looked udown with a smiling eye,
And the bright stars winked in glee;
They saw her blush. and they heard her sigh
(For timid and shy was she).
But they never heecd the stars or moon
The youth and the maiden fair;
They reach the gate, and a trifling boon
The lover requested there.
"What is the boon?" asked the charming
In a musical voice and low,
"It is that you'll give me a sweetheart's kiss,
My darling, before I go."
"Oh, no," she said, as the lashes fell
O'er the eyes of fathomless blue;
"You've wooed me long and I love you well,
Vlut I can't give a kiss to you."
"'Then loan me a kiss, my sweet one, pray,
And you never will know regrets."
"Yes, I will," she said, "for my parents say
You are prompt in paying your debts."
FACTS ABOUT SPIDERS.
Wonderful Evidences of Intelli
gence That They Exhibit.
Clas of Creatures to Which They lielong
-All Are Poisonous-How They Spin
Their Webs-Proper Way to
'"The spider, you know, is not an in
sect. It belongs to one class in a
group of creatures called 'arthropods,'
which includes three other classes also
-the crustaceans, such as crabs and
lobsters, the insect proper and the
myriapods or centipedes. The spider's
class, known as the 'arachnidm,'is di
vided into eight orders."
"Goodness me!" exclaimed the St.
Louis Globe-Democrat writer, who was
already becoming a trifle confused.
"Eight orders," repeated Dr. George
Mlarx, of the entomological bureau in
the Department of Agriculture, who
'owns the finest collection of spiders in
this country. "The lowest order of the
'class is found in the 'pentastoma,' a
-worm-like creature that has been dis
-covered in the eye of a rattlesnake, the
liver of a negro and the intestines of a
dog. Next in the scale of development
comes the mites and ticks, which are
not so essentially blood-sucking creat
aires as is popularly supposed; they
live on the juices of plants ordinarily,
and it is the exceptional one that ever
gets an opportunity for a taste
'of gore. Then follow the false
scorpions, minute and without
tails, which live in mold and decay
ing books. Above them by a step is the
order of 'galleodes,' ferocious-looking
beasts of some size, which are found in
the South and Southwest, and are said
to destroy herds of cattle sometimes by
their bites. The 'daddy longlegs' are
next, and then the spider, after which
come the 'pedipalpi,' that have fore
claws to clutch with. Here is a pedi
palpus in this bottle; you see it is a hor
rible-looking lobster-like animal, most
¶unpleasant to meet anywhere, and quite
six inches long. It is called the 'mule
killer' or 'nigger killer' in the South,
and though commonly thought to be
very poisonous it is in reality perfectly
harmless. The only weapons it has are
glands that emit a vinegary odor so
penetrating that if you hold it your hand
will smell of vinegar for half a day
"All spiders are poisonous-that is to
say, they secrete in their mandibles a
powerful venom,which is ejected through
a little hole in the extremity of the
mandible when the bite is inflicted.
The most dangerous of all spiders, so
far as I am aware, is the so-called 'black
widow,' which has a red dot on the un
der side and is very generally feared.
To this variety belongs the celebrated
'katipo,' which. the New Zealanders
dread so much. It is very small, and
accounts are given by the natives of
many human beings and beasts being
killed by it. However, no cause of
death from spider bite has been satis
factorily proven by the exhibition of
the dead person, the spider and the i
bite; therefore, there is still a good a
deal of room for doubt. Spiders usually d
will run away from a human being; but c
one family, known as the "jumping a
spider,"is very aggressive. You have ']
often seen the jumping spider. It is a
hairy, and has three red spots on the t
rear of the back. One often finds it in p
houses and on warmn walls; point your c
finger at it and it will jump at the finger s
and bite. Otta Lugger, formerly of the b
Department of Agriculture, has placed a
on record the case of his little girl who a
was bitten by an 'attus,' as this spider o
is called. She immediately went into n
spasms, and was quite alarmingly ill. d
The most striking system of severe si
spider bite is a rigidity like that of Y
tetanus or lockjaw." ti
"How is a spider constructed?" a
"The spider is distinguished from in- ti
sects by a very important point of ii
structure. The insects have a head,
a chest and an abdomen, but the spider
hasr1o head at all, scientifically speak- b
in4 In other words, the spider'shead d
and chest are in one piece. The animal s
i~so covered with a horny shell and is ti
Mot inside; it has a heart, liver, nerves, o
brain, intestines, arteries, veins and ci
sight eyes. Also it possesses eight legs, 1
or two more than insects have. Ninety- i
five of every hundred spiders that you sl
find in webs are females; the males are sl
only about one-twentieth of the size of b
the females anyway, and the only object t
of their existence seems to be the con- tl
tinuation of their species in the distaff ci
line. They do nothing in the world but o
loaf after coming of age, appear to eat sl
bothing at all, and soon die. While fc
they are growing up they act exactly h
like female spiders. The female has at T
the end of her posterior extremity an cs
elaborate spinning apparatus. Six ex- O
ternal spinningorgans there are, tubular ti
In shape, into which open from ten to if
bar hundred spinning glands, accord- di
kg to the variety of spider. Each T
aand, all operating together, spins a ai
Sparate thread, and the spinner manip- gr
4ates the threads by holding them be- t
teea the "teeth" of her comb-like re
-wSa The poorly-equipped spinner, a
(OpIp walks~ 0Lpg wtit athW*4
always ir. her grasp, to catch herself by
if she tumbles, and captures her prey
*C, by jumping at it. But the good spinner
trusts to the web she has built so artis
tically, and simply lies in wait for vic
tims ,o tumble into her trap."
"Does not the manner of building the
h web exhibit a remarkable instinct?"
"Well, I should say so. The term in
stinct, however, means nothing; it is
merely a vulgar name for what is in
reality inherited experience. A spider
knows how to construct a web by reason
ag of the fact that the art has been grad
ually acquired through the observation
and experiment of thousands of gener
' ations of her ancestors. Weaving or
spinning spiders make three kinds of
web. The first and most perfet sort is
the geometrical web; the second con
sists of a lot of loose interwoven
meshes of all shapes and sizes; the
third kind is best described by its name
,y 'sheet' or 'blanket,' and has a little
tube-shaped attachnient into which
the spider may retire and live in securi
ty. The most important thing in which
the spinner shows her intelligence is in
getting the first line that is to start her
. web from one point to another high in
the air. Suppose that she is seated on
a twig fifteen feet from the ground and
desires to get a thread across from that
twig to the branch of another twig
twelve feet away, how' is she going to do
it? I'll tell you. She knows how the
wind is blowing and takes notice of its
force. When the breeze just suits her
1- purpose, as to direction and strength,
a she raises her abdomen as high as possi
ble and emits a single thread, which is
o taken by the current of air and floated
d off until it catches where it is desired.
e Then she pulls in the slack, so as to
s make the thread taut, and, spinning her
i- entire 300 or 400 threads together, she
attaches .their extremities to the twig
b. where she has been sitting, gives them
, all a twist so as to make themriinto a
rope, and starts with tue rope to walk
e across the thread originally cast, spin
n ning the rope as she goes, until she
o fastens its other ; extremity upon the
n branch twelve feet away. And thus she
e has established her first rope that is the
a beginning of her web."
"But suppose there is no wind?"
e "Then the problem is more complicat
a ed; but she knows how to solve it. She
t drops herself by a thread from the first
a twig to the ground, and then runs across
to the distant tree on seven legs, hold
y ing up one leg to carry the thread; she
r, climbs up the other tree, and when she
r has reached the spot contemplated she
e fastens the -thread, and. pulling in the
e slack claw over claw, fetches it taut.
t She then eats the slack before going on
with her labors, for the spider is a thor
o ough economist. Having drawn her first
3 line between two points, she casts an
a other one parallel with it two feet, say,
I below. Then. running around to the
y middle point of the upper bridge, she
a drops a thread to the lower horizontal,
connecting the two by a perpendicular.
Nextshe drops two other perpendiculars,
one on either side of the original one,
and from the middle point of the first
perpendicular she draws radii in every
direction until there are enough of them
to run all around upon. Now, begin
ning at a point on the outside of this
framework, she spins a spiral toward
the center, and having reached the
center, she runs another spiral outward
to the edge of the frame, destroying the
former spiral, which is not made of
sticky Web, not being designed to
be permanent for fly catching.
sometimes Mistress Spider does not ap
prove of her work and tears it all apart,
to begin anew. One way in which the
weaver manifests her intelligence is by
the jidicious choice she makes of places
for her web.
A spot she is apt to select is a warm
wall or the sunny side of a house,where
the flies like to settle. Or she will spin
her snare before a bunch of bright flow
ers, which insects are ,apt to seek for 2
their sweets, or she will place it in an
opening like a broken window or among
densely foliated bushes, where there is
a draft to carry the victims into the
trap. Sometimes a spider will spin
four hundred threads of some length
in a bunch, break them all off together
and let them fly with the wind in all
directions. One or two of the lot will
catch across between available points
and give the desired start for the bridge.
Then she fastens the extremities of the
accidental bridge with new sticky(
threads-the other ones were dry-and
proceeds to business. With the sixteen
combs that she has to hold the threads !
separate, and a finger claw on each foot c
besides,wherewith to fasten the threads, I
she can perform her weaving operation
with exceptional dexterity. The sec
ond horizontal bridge beneath is ordi
narily made by going to a point a short
distance below the upper bridge on one
side, fastening the thread on a con
venient projecting twig, climbing from
there to the upper bridge, running
across it, then down the opposite side to
to the proper place, and finally hauling
in the slack."
"Do all spiders spin webs?"
"No, some spiders are called vaga-e
bond spiders for the reason that they
do not spin webs. The mostiaheresting g
sort of vagabond spider is the so-called a
trap-door spider, which makes a box, o
often as big as your two fists, of earth a
cemented into a large mass by the ,
spider's own excretion. The box has a
little trap-door at one end with a
strong elastic thread to serve as a
spring. The nest looks like nothing
but a clod of dirt, and the door springs
to so perfectly-even in the case of
those that have been kept for years as
curios-that you can not see any trace
of an opening. Another vagabond
spider lives in a hole in the ground a
foot deep with a little nest on top of the
hole made of small sticks and grass.
There is a very curious weaving spider it
called the 'gossamer or flying spider.'
On a warm fall day you will ofteD find "
the air afloat with spiders' webbs, and
if you examine othem you will find o
dozens Jof little spiders in the webs. p
These gossamer spiders in pleasant 01
autumn weather attach a thread to the si
ground and permit the breeze to blow i
them 'way off into the air, where they f
remain suspended, at snehor, for days at s
a time, often miles and miles from a spot i:
to which they a~e anchored."
t'Wage spidrs any eneatear n
)y "Plenty of them. Their worst foes
y are wasps. A certain family of wasps
'r the sort that makes mud cells under the
.s eaves of houses-always tills its cells
c- full of spides. The wasp of this variety
catches a spider often much heavier and
te bigger than itself, and first stings it
into insensibility. The spider thus
n- stung is rendered senseless, but not
Is dead; it is put into a state of coma
in which lasts for a long time, so that at
3r the end of from one to three days the
n spider is still asleep, as it were, though
I- living. After thus rendering the spider
n helpless the rasp lays an egg on its
r- body; the egg hatches out, and the
r young larva feeds on the :body of the
3f spider until it is ready togo out and see
is the world. This is nature's way of re
a- producing that kind of wasp. In South
n America monkeys eat spiders, and here
ie some mice do so also, as well as snakes,
o turtles and birds.
Le There are very few collections of
:h spiders in this country; the one at the
i- National Museum is as yet an embryo.
h There are probably 5,000 varieties of
.n spiders in the United States. I have
,r got together in my collection about 1,000
n varieties. Most spiders are soft, and
n when dry they have shrunk so is to be
d unrecognizable. Their legs get so brittle
it as to break off by their own weight. So
g the only way to do is to keep them in
.o spirits, which is just as satisfactory a
e plan from the scientific point of view.
is In that manner a great number can
sr be kept in a small compass. You see,
i, my 1,000 specimens take up no more
- room than a little book-case would.
is And, at a moment's notice, I can find by
d the label any variety I am looking for,
I. pull out the little frame that holds the
o row of bottles containing the repre
r sentatives of that variety and exhibit
e them in prderly arrangement. If it is
g desired to exaiineany particular speci
n men closely she is spilled out upon a
a little saucer and subjected .to scrutiny
k under the magnifying glass."
HE STUDIES MANKIND.
0A Drnmmer's Knowledge of the Peculiar
e itles of His Fellow-Men.
e "Do you see that little group of men?"
said a drummer in a Washington hotel
corridor recently, as he pointed to a
knot of office-seekers in a corner.
e "They seem to be enjoying themselves,
don't they? That one with the goatee
s has been telling a funny story."
"How ,do you know that that particular
e one told it?" was asked.
D "Because he is laughing the most,"
D replied the drummer, sententiously. "I
am a student of human nature and an
observer of the habits and particularly
a the foibles of men. That's an indis
pensible element of success in my line."
t Now do you see that other man with
the clean-shaven, thin face?" he con
tinued. "That man's from Florida, and
not only that, but he's from a rural dis
trict of Florida and is accustomed to
working on overseeing work in the
fields and brush."
."Oh, come now"' said the drummer's
companion; "that's a little too steep.
You can't toll all that just by looking
at him. What makes you think so?"
º "Watch him the next time he laughs,"
said the drummer, "and you will see
him stoop forward, lay both hands on
i his trouser legs below the knee, and
give his shins a good scratching or rub
bing. Most of the Floridians do' that
from :habit, It gives them pleasure be
cause all of them who work out of doors
in grove or field are pestered with a tiny ,
insect called the red-bug, all but in
visible to the eye, which swarms on I
fallen brush-wood, decayed weeds or
grass and makes itself most unpleas
antly and lastingly apparent on the I
legs of all who come near them. Sand
fleas and mosquitos add their attentions
and on the whole a Floridan 'cracker'
gets about as much amusement out of
a good scratching as*' from a yawn' or
even a drink. Watch him now. They
are going to laugh again."
Sure enough the clean-shaven man
began to smile, then chuckled, then a
roared and in his ectasy reached over :
and gave Iboth his shins a brisk rubbion
with a handfulof his trousers.
"Come with me," said the drummer, I
as he sauntered past the jolly group, t
who had now stopped talking and, be
gan to break up.
"Can you tell me, sir" he said to the
scratcher, "how the Florida orange d
crop is this year along the lower Gulf c
"Fair to middlin,' I believe, sir" was
the reply "but nothing like ours down e
on the Indian river, sir. That's God's e
own country for oranges, you bet."- -
N. Y. Tribune. d
Increase in Human Stature.
From archaological evidence, an En- V
glish writer contends that the human c
race is growing taller, the increase in i:
average stature appearing to be about I
and inch and a quarter in each one thou- t
sand years. Measurements of old ar- a
mor show a decided increase in the p
height of the English aristocracy within tl
five hundred years. Ancient coffins h
found in Great Britain indicate that the u
Romans could not have greatly exceed. o
ed five feet five inches in average stat- a
ure. Twenty-five Egyptian mummies i
give an overage of 61 inches for males 1
and 55 inches for females. The mummy h
of Cleopatra measures about 54 inches, tl
and the most ancient known mummy of a
an Egyptian King is only52 incheslong. o
-Christian at Work.
-In a recent lecture Prof. Brewer, of
Yale College, illustrated the idea that
"man is worth more than the land" by a
case which came under his own observan
tion. A man bought a farm for 820 an
acre. Hie so improved it that in a few
years he was offered 8300 an acre for it.
At his death it sold for $250 an acre. In t
a few years the purchaser $old it for $100
an acre to a man who finally disposed of aI
it for $1t2 an acre. Here it was plainly a
the men and :not the farm that deter
mined the value. ni
-The destructiOn of human life by di
our railways is attaining trlly alarming p4
proportions. According to the estimates pi
of the In'er-State Commerce Commis- il
sioners, the mortality from this cause di
in asingle year is as high as 5,690, while w
for the same period the-number of per- ti
sons injured in railroad accidents h
reohes 7,b89& Of course a grea pro. 4
portion In both classes is ipade up oi bj
a PRESENCE OF MIND.
a It Was Shown by a Gold-Digger Under
I have heard of many striking exhibi
tions of presence of mind in the face of
t sudden danger, but here is an instance
of it which beats every thing of the kind
that has ever come under my notice. I
can vouch for the truth of the story.
t An Australian "forty-niner," who had
struck it fairly rich at the gold diggings,
was taking his nuggets and dust to Mel
bourne. He was walking along by the
side of his team with his rifle under his
arm, indulging in pleasant speculations
concerning the good time he would have
after he had sold his gold, when a
stranger appeared on the road, and ac
costing him, said:
"Give us a piece of 'baccy, mate."
Those were days when people, espe
cially those who had been to the dig
gings, didn't stand on ceremony. Sus
pecting no treachery, the miner thrust
hand into his pocket to get a chunk of
the much-prized weed.
In a moment the muzzle of a pistol
was thrust against his forehead, and the
The stranger was a bush ranger, and
that was the way bush rangers ordered
their victims to throw up their hands
before going through them.
Without pausing an instant, although
he knew that the bush ranger had only
to exercise a little gentle pressure with
his forfinger to blow him into eternity,
the miner bawled out at the top of his
There was no "Bob" around there. It
was a ruse conceived by the miner in
the fraction of a second and immediate
ly put into execution to distract the at
tention of the bush ranger. It worked.
The bush ranger thought the miner was
calling a companion to his assistance.
He looked around to catch a glimpse of
the fictitious "Bob." That was the
miner's opportunity. Quick as a flash
he swung his left arm and knocked the
pistol out of the bush ranger's grasp.
Then he brought hisrifle to his shoulder
and leveled it at the bush ranger's
head. In much less time than it takes
to tell it the situation had been com
pletely reversed. The bush ranger was
at the mercy of the miner.
"Now," said he, "you scoundrel, just
fold your hands'behind your back and
march ahead of me; if you move or try
to runaway I'll save the hangman a job
by letting daylight through you."
In that way the. miner escorted the
bush ranger into town and handed him
over to the police.-Toledo Blade.
THE LOVE OF HUMBUG.
How the Human Family Is Beguiled by
Shams and Pretenders.
If one may be indulged in the use of
a little slang, it makes a wise man tired
to see how persistently his compeersrun
after and are beguiled by the latest
shams, and seem never so happy as when
they are being deceived. Especially is
this trait noticeable in the matter of
physical ailments. The family physi
cian may measure out his prescribed
doses of quinine or senna, give the
patient a plain, practical talk, and de
part with the consciousness of duty done
a nd the certainty that the subject will
leave the powders untouched on the
mantel, unless he becomes frightened,
and that his reputation as a physican
will suffer in consequence. But let
some traveling fakir come along, pitch
his tent, swing out his flag, with ringing
of bells and blowing of horns, and lo!
the public is at his feet ready to be
healed, willing to swallow the most
nauseous mixtures, if only they be
christened with unpronounceable and
untranslatable names, anxious to pay
double the fees of a respectable, respon.
sible physician, and bold to assert after
a week's diet of bread pills and rain wa
ter sweetened with molasses, that they
are perfectly cured of imagined aill
ments, and are urgent that their friends
shall share in their good fortune.
Science doesn't always receive the
support of the universal public; hum
buggery does. The street wizard, with
Stangled hair anid picturesque garb, can
extract teeth painlessly by the same
process which nearly murders the
patient if performed by an educated
dentist, dressed in nineteenth century
clothes and located in a well-appointed
office. The noble aborigine, in war
paint and feathers, dealing out mystic
oils, will carry off all the spare change
of a community, while the village phy
sician grows poverty-stricken. The
dealers in patent medicines roll in
wealth; the vailed sibyl who prescribes
to her mystified devotees from a dark
ened closet, gathers in the shekels; and
if the commonplace physician means to
hold his own he will soon be compeled
to label his vials with cabalistic char
acters, consecrate them with mystic
passes and mutter "abracadabra" over
them ashe gives them into the patient's
hand. The common sense which a man
uses in the selection of a suitable coat
or hat seems to desert him utterly when
any trifling ailment attacks him. His
intellect wavers, and superstition, that
cunning fiend always lying in wait for
humanity, betrays him unresisting into
the toils of the mountebank. We can
not change human nature with our ex
ordiums, but we can at least make it
alive to its own weaknesses and incon
Marching by Compass Bearings.
The General commanding at Alder
shot has directed that the early even
ings of the new year are to be made use
of to exercise officers and sergeants in
the novel practice of marching on com
pass-bearings by night. The officers
and sergeant of each battalion are to be
assembled as soon as darkness sets in,
arrangements having previously been
made to show a light-for ten minutes
or a quarter of an hour-at a point some
distance off, but clearly visible from the
point of assembly. The necessary com
pass-bearings and other precautions hav
ing been taken, the parties are to en
deavor to reach the spot where the light
was showh. From battalions the prac
tice is to develop into malabing by
brigades, the Fox hills on one side of
the camp and Cesar'g camp h the other
being indieated rea' twh . ' to bg U
PITH AND POINT.
-The man who rests lets others over
-It's the man who we are second-k and
clothes who follows the fashion. --Ter
re Haute Express.
-The humorist is about the only man
who likes to have his work laughed at.
-It was mne. Roland who said:
"The more I know of men the more I
-Better be good than great. You'll
have less competition. The latter busi
ness is overdone-Puck.
-Unfortunate are those who have
just enough sense to realize their own
-When a man knows that be can not
get out of the mud his next impulse is
to go in deeper.-Atchison Globe.
-There must be some peculiar fatal
ity among bright children, else there
would never be such a dearth of bright
men and women.-Youth's Companion.
" -No man has a higher opinion of the
value of woman's love than the fellow,
who for some reason, has always failed
to win it.-Sgmerville Journal.
-Character is much like cloth in one
respect. If white, it can be dyed black;
but once blackened, it can not be dyed
white. He alone is happy and great
who needs neither to obey or command
in order to distinguish himself.-Geothe.
-TAhepublic opinion that strengthens
the right and keeps down the wrong
must be watchful as well as fearless and
honest. It must strike quickly as well
as hbard. It must aim at prevention as'
well as cure of evil-doing.-Christian
-If people wish to live well together,
they must not hold too much logic, and
suppose that every thing is to be settled
by sufficient reason. Dr. Johnson saw
this clearly, with regard to married peo
ple, when he said: "Wretched would be
the pair above all names of wretched
ness who should be doomed to adjust by
reason, every morning, all the minute
details of a domestic day."
: -What honesty is in deeds, sincerity
is in words-the best policy. It is a
policy, however, to which the artificial
habits of society are not very favor
able. The forms of politeness, with all
their utility, have this disadvantage,
that, in teaching to restrain the real
sentiments and ideas which can not con
veniently be expressed, they are apt to
lead to the expression of others which
are not consistent With truth.-N. Y.
-Not what a man has, but the way in
which he looks at it, is the measure of
a man's wealth of possessions. If a man
deems his present property as fully
enough for his needs, he is richer by far
than the man who, with ten times as
much property, is reaching out with
longing for a great deal more. Content
ment is of one's self, and not of one's
position and belongings. He who iscon
tented with his present lot, would not
be likely to find contentment in any
other lot in the universe.-S. S. . Times.
PRICE OF PARIS FOOD.
Interesting Statistls Recently Publlished
by the Prefect of the Seine.
The prefect of the Seine has pub
lished statistics showing the amount of
food consumed by, the inhabitants of
Paris during' last year. The yearly
consumption of meat per inhab
itant is 147 pounds, and of bread 324
pounds. The average number of eggs
eaten by each person is 183. So pain
staking are the city officials that they
discovered 741.622 bad 'lggs among the
supplies as they entered the city, and
very properly confiscated them. The
beef and; veal. are mainly of French
origin, 'but it is a distressing fact for
the Parisians that they must eat Ger
man mutton.. They are always pro
testing against this Teuitonic in
vasion, and appealing to the goe'.
ernment for protection, but there
are not sufficient native sheep to take
the place of the German product. The
French, however, are showing an in
creasing fondness for this meat, not
withstanding its nationality. The num
ber imported rose from 22,000 in 1883 to
84,625in 1887, and to 223,128 in 1888.
Attempts have been made to introduce
frozen mutton from Australia, but with
out much success.
The Parisians are also consuming
more oysters than formerly. The con
sumption rose from 3,000,000 kilo
grammes to 78,850,000 kilogrammes last
year. The increase was ,mainly in
Portuguese oysters, which sell at
less than $1 per 100. The price ofi
a good chicken in the Paris market
is from 11 to 81.50. Turkeys bring
about $2; hares cost the same as tur
keys, and pheasants $1 each.-N. Y.
lie Had Three Alims Which Governed
All Jie Invention
Setting aside minor inventions, three i
distinct purposes are apparent in Eries
son's labors, first, to improve the steam
engine and extend the scope of its ap
plication; next, to discover some
more economical and elfficient method I
for changing the mode of motion
we call heat into the mode of mo- j
tion we call power: third, to force
the great maritime nations into declar
ing the ocean neutral ground, by mak
ing naval warfare too destructive a pas
time to be indulged in, and equalizing
the conditions of the struggle between
the greater and the lesser states. On
the accomplishment of this last purpose
depended, in Ericsson's judgment, the
future of his native Sweden. Too weak
to hold her own in a contest withany
great power, under existing qonditions,
her only sure hope of defense is in neu*
tralizing the dominating factors of num
bers and wealth by the efforts of genius
stimulated by patriotism. Love of
country was with Ericsson a supreme
passion. In this controling sentiment,
in the traits of charactor derived from
his sturdy Norse ancestry, and in the
traininig and experienoe acquired during
the twenty-three years spent in his.
Scandinavian home, we find the secret
of that exceptiodal development of spe
sealisedl fnltls which hau pldad4 Ii
cin the froe t arak' of oolinatEnotiv
THE OKRA PLANT.
It Is Likely to Take a Prominent Place in
There seems to be a strong proba
bility that the plant. known as okra
(Abelmoschus esculentus) will be made
to furnish a valuable fiber. The plant
grows wild all through the Southern
States, and has been known for years
to farmers and stockmen as capable of
producing a very strong fiber, which in
Texas and other localities is now used
in making lariats..
Ten years ago the Department of Ag
riculture had samples of the plant grown
in its green-houses, and a report was
made on the quality of the fiber, but
nothing seems to have come of
it. Recently, however, the sub
ject has been revived, and the
Commissioner of Agriculture of
South Carolina, Mr. A. P. Butler, seems
to be very confident that a new industry
with vast possibilities is about to be
opened up. A specimen of the fiber
which has been received from Mr. But
ler through the department at Wash
ington shows a long, strong and glossy
thread somewhat resembling hemp,
though darker in color. The fruit
which this okra plant produces is
prized as a vegetable, the mucilaginous
pods being used for thickening soup and
to form a peculiar Southern dish called
gumbo. The Southern soil is especially
adapted to growing the plant, as the
abandoned rice fields and undrained
lands generally. could be utilized for
raising vast quantities of it. Okra is
also a native of the West Indies, nota
bly Cuba, where it grows in almost all
soils, and is indigenous to Africa,
where it grows wild. It is
abundant on the White Nile and
near the Victoria Nyanza, and has long
been naturalized in India, where it is
cultivated for its edible pods. The
fiber which has been produced abroad
is described as long and silky and
generally strong and pliant, its break
ing strain according to Roxburg being
seventy-nine pounds dry and ninety-five
pounds wet. When well prepared, as in
the Southern, Presidency of India, it is
adapted for the manufacture of -rope,
twine, sacking and paper. It is 'used
to adulterate jute in Decca and Mymens
ing. In France the manufacture of pa
per from the fiber is patented, and here
it receives only mechanical treatment'
and _produces a paper called banda,
which is said to be equal to that made
from pure rags.
It is claimed for the okra fiber, that,
inasmuch as the wood surrounds the
fiber instead of being mixed with it, as
in jute, andtblso that the work of prep
aration can be done by machinery, the
cost of production can be reduced to ne
cent per polnd: Jute can only be profit
ably produced in countries where man
ual labor is very cheap, as in india and
China, because no machine has been de
vised for separating the wood from the
fiber. Vast quantities of jute are im
ported by' the United States, and it is
used in making gumny cloth, cordage,
shirting, 'coat linings, and it is exten
sively employed in mixing with silk,
cotton and woolen fabrics, and in paper
making. It is believed' that okra fiber
can be substituted for jute in the coarser
of these lines of manufacture, and some
even claim that it will be found availa
ble wherever jute is now employed.
It is easily to be seen from this that
if the okra fiber. stands the test of fur
ther experiment, a new and most im
portant industry will spring into being.
The Agricultural Department at Wash
ington states it has not yet been deter
mined how the plant will bear cultiva
tion and propagation, and the depart
ment is now gathering the seeds and
roots to experiment with next year. As
the okra now grows luxuriantly in all
parts of the South, the production of it
even . in, the large ;quantities -which
.would be required in case the fiber comes
into general use will not probably prove
a serious barrier to progress in. this di
rection, while the well-knorixt inventive
genius of Americans can be depended
upon to devise machinery for preparing
the fiber, and to make constant impprove
ments upon it.--Farmers' Home Journal.
A Practical ECrmer's Views on This Imr
Breaking colts is an easy mnatter if
not deferred too long. Colts, to make
good, safe horses, must be handled
young. As a matter 'of course, they
vary in disposition. But there is one
thing, you must make the colt under
stand you are its master. ' Halter it at
four 'weeks oold, tie it beside its 'dam,
give it oats; if it struggles atthe halter,
pat it, talk to it, treat it about as y.ou
would a boy, Never Iave it until ,t
hars done as you wish it; do not tease it,
reseht its inclination to- 'bite, strike or
kick; rub the: fork-haddle and shovel
against its heels and legs; makk it
used to noise, belie, blanmkets
and robes; if frightened, .pat it,
talk to it, give it.. to understand
you are its friend, and it ,will
have confidence in you. Teach it to
come 4t your whistle, and give it some
thing when it does. No mnatter. -how
dark it is, or where my colts are, if
they can bear my whistle they come on
the run, and I always greet themnkindly.
I think a colt gaier and truer, better
horse if broken young to harness; but
nothing but light driving should be ex
e~tsed until rising four years old.
Break your colt with a quick, active
borse. It makes a better walker and
driver. When you ifanit it to 'daw,
comimmence light, increase gradually,
and' the colt will think it can dsww any
thing. Teach the coit to stop'at-"who.'
and use the word "steady"' ift' you
want him-to go slower. Shove the
gearing onto him, rattle the whifle
tree against - his' heels, . teacl
him it is nothing that. will hurt him,
and shoul4 any thing give way, it will
hold the load coming down hill-at
least, such is my experienice. Feed the
colt any thing it will est. Inever had
a ease of colic by changing foeit but I
always used saltwhen I ehanged:~ Never
feed heavy; wate.rfreely while.bna the
road. Thereiasnore 4aiges pu ater
up, giving hay first, water. in sbot -a
hour, and then feed oats. See that he
is well taken care of, and he willjp-ail
right in the morning. I have -hikl.
twenty-five years' experience handling
horses, and never lost one yet nor hads_
runaway, but in break-downs, tip-oversn
and accidents I have had plenty, and
oame out O. K.-Farm ahd Firieside.
Pure Water for Horse-.
If the importance connected with
furnishing pure water for horses was
carefully understood, we hgve no doubt
but that many farmers would provide
better means for watering their horses
than they now have. Many diseases
which horses are subject to are the re
sult of drinking impure water. The
owner of a large stable'in New York
City began some time sine'ato filter the
water for his horses, and states that
since doing so the cases of: colic have
decreased seventy-five per cent. Pure
spring and well water do not need to be
filtered, of course, but where horses are
watered from ponds, or pools, or 'streams
which are liable to become stagnant or
anywisb' pollutid, sonime prpvin should ..
be made to purify the watbr before the
animals are allowed to drink it. A cheap
filter could be made that need cost but
little except what labor is put upon it.
Take agRood-sized barrel .and fill it with
charcoal, coarsely.ground, placipg brush
and gravel in it to keep the charcoal in
position. 'If the water is allowed to run
through a barrel filled in this manner, it
will be even purer than the best spring
water. It is recommended that sulphur
be pint into the charcoal. Thiis s said
to give the 'water a medicinal quality
which is very valuable in keeping horses
in good condition.-SouthernCultivator.
Fruit and Vegetable Psrmlin% I West
From an interview with Mr. W. If.
Horrine, ipresident of the West Tennes
see Horticultural Society and np' of the
most successful and enthusiagic fruit
growers of the South, the Nashville,
American correspondent learns, that
there are now about 1,809 shippers In
West Tennessee who are engaged in sup
plying the teeming thousands in -our
cities with fruits and vegotablts.
Mr. Horrine thinks that with an aver
age crop West Tennessee will be able to
ship this season about 1,000 . carloads of
strawberries. This means about .6,000
crates, or 12,000,000 quarts. The prices
realized go from 15 cents to 50 0ents per
cquart. At an average of 25 conts per
quart we have the magnificentsum of
$8,000,000! Put it at 20 cents and there
still remains $2,400,000.
The iurden of Tauatlqn.
It is estimated that the annual, pro.
duction of the farms of, TenneseOB are
equal to thirty per' ceit. of theirl viae.
If this be true, then the ftarts' 6f the
State pay taxes equal to about "Ive .per
cent. of the value of their anhti~l p ;$
ucts. Now if our corporotioiie a; will.
ing to stand along with our ,fatmersid
bearing the burdens of taxation, we sug,
gest to the Legislature, as fmeans -of
avoiding all possibility of>1double tans.
tion, that it pass an- act taxing aill' o
porations' five per cent. of' the gj'
earningseof their buslnes in; the i3ate.
of Tennessee. What will our corpor
tions say to that?-Clarksville Demp
HERE, AND THARg.
-Never permit a tree or vine to Doeg.
bear. A tree or vine that..is.almost
'breaking with its load of fruit, may be a
handsome sight, but it is not the mbt
profitable one.' - '- -
-Cats and young chicks do not thrive
in the same yard. The felfie natui p
gets the better, of the beast ,pul?yin
your chicks will disappear. Keep the
oats away, from the temptation., . ,:
-Stop croaking, is the adviis girven
by a newspaper to farmers. 7Y6, ste.,
croaking; consent to being 'robbed anvdi
let the sheriff turk you lout cf deoi
Don't grumble; be happy.
-Always be careful about fire. In
this connection it is well to aduvise .
watchfulness of the lamps to keep them ,
in good order. It was an exploded rlam
that set fire to Secretatryio hhe oise.
-Recent eperiments pove that lt ,
is a necessity for fowlsamid that when it
is supplied them they keep in better
condition and: lay a larger nimberof
eggs. Salt is onsoe~- constituents of
eggs andm what be provided.
-Asa-general rule, for thp atehingl
of chickens 91 days are required; for
partridges, 24 day.; ion phessPnts, r
days; fo.r duinea;hens, 5 .da.ys; for coim
mon ducks, 28 dayss for oiea fowi 1
days;. for turkeys, -28 day, for ]Biarbary
diucks, s0 days, sad fo~i geese~ 80ayi:
-In planing thi~l gaden narrange so
Ihat as one crop miitures -thetpie- iwill
be occupied by ,another ,omglyg :a.
Some of the.smaller.ndqsrly.matripg
varieties can beeadily grownbel4een
tie row, of the X4rger, .nd 1ati .wrld
Is needed. - t " "" .
-Th'he atrmerhrh& doe~izto trs pes
care of h;is stock oi of his fatniim:bfi
ments -oight not tO aat mUshh abent' the
taitor any ther question. ,Thd: man
who makes speeehes .against -he- taiff
and lets -his mOwing- macli rot-a ,
rust in the field, h.,not. got ·itd~f t
biggest end of his aoijobls by a ju-fl~.
-By growing, cpver ~an4 aelirag the
hy or allowiong thesecond cop to m~
ture and selling the seed t 2liand a·n
be impoverished li-ihor Idloiner;i -p
idly as in the growing ,of al~t anyi·rt
other croep, as it- asi be KFtO eio
tinuously as to make them laudlover.
-An exchange advises:the ; afs ei. to.
keep a strict aouont with blehsi h aM
and gardep.; JJLe Pan't, 4o itori;f-e -
did hve would give It for .
thealoctor's bills w..ich wbou~4p_ basl
have to be .i If if.ke dldiot 'IAtVan"
orchard and hate oapot tell
exactly bow a
hot wiatertppltadl lte s ot
sad hold the zane't- cb.ei
oi to the.
seconds ass tac.,et w;f
milk d4aw it opt; ii