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Hl'KCIAL LKGI8LATI0N. It ia, we believr, conceded by all writers on the orif of society and government, that what is termed the loc compact bad for ita principal, if not aole, object the proti tion of person and property. To thia end a union ^ vii oeceaaary to the aafety of all; and tb'^ ,t tb? leg] mate original baaia ef all government for the protect! of peraon and property, it w-4 necessary that all shot unite not only in defend,ng them from enemiee abroad, I that the individual members should be shielded from I assaulta of ?tcli other ; that the weak should be protect from una strong, the peaceful citisen front the maraudi fobber, the honest man from the rogue, by lews opei ting equally on all, imposing equal restraints and granti equal immunities to all classes of freemeo, without exct tlon. One graat and indispensable requisite to the authi ity of human laws is that tbey derive their highest sat tiou from being bssed on those great principles of reas and justice, which, if not innate to the heart of man, t born the moment he is brought into an association wi hi* fellow-creatures?since men cannot live together wi out respecting the rights of each other. Human Invra t oot intended to direct the conscience, but the action ' men?the former being the province of the Divine h alone. Theeiaential difference between free and despotic gt eroments consists in this, that the former imposes no straints on the freedom of action and will, except thi which are indispensable to the attainment of the great? ject of the social compact?namely, the security of pers and property?and that its powers are limited to that pi pose alone; while the latter exercises unlimited discreti in regulating the action and will in cases where a ncrf freedom would not he in the least inconsistent with the curity of perron itnd property. In proportion a* unnec sary restraints on human will and human action are m ti plied, mankind become equally enslaved, no matter frt what power they proceed, whether a legitimate king 01 sovereign people. The fetters are equally galling, let w will pat tbem on. There is no tyranny whose pressure is so great and general in its operation on the people at large as a mul plication of unnecessary and vexatious laws incressi every day in minuteness and perplexity, until at length citinea can tell what are his rights or bis dnties, what may or may not do, without consulting a lawyer. T moral distinction is thus entirely lost sight of, and the i ercise of reason in the direction of our conduct rendei not only unnecessary but Bometiroes absolutely crimin Man is not a slave merely because he is property, and to be bought and sold, but because he possesses neither ! freedom of will nor of action, and cenoot, like his master, as he plaosrs in all cases where not restrained by a reg? to the rights of others. If we are correct in these preaii; the multiplication of unnecessary laws, imposing vexatir or unequal restraints, conferring unequal privileges, crenti new crimes, inflicting new penalties, and instituting a n inquisition into the private character, secret infirmitits, a domestic relations of citizens, is a species of the worst, m galling despotism, and no people subjected to its sway r justly boast of their freedom. In respect to governmec names are not things ; and though we may call one a m< nrchy, another a republic, though their names may be c fcrent, they may be so administered as to be essentially i same. There is a despotism of the lsw as well as a desp ism of the will of one man, and to be law-ridden is bad as to be priest-ridden or tyrant-ridden. Next to a multiplication of laws, imposing unneceesi tan mnioui restraints on tue private conduct or polili rights of citizen<), are those which ma; be classed under 1 general head of a fecial legislation, and whose applicati is confined to a limited sphere, a favored claee, or a sm number of persoos associated for a particular purpc That those laws are invariably antagonistic*^ or at le inconsistent with the great principle of equality on whi this government is boeod, cannot, we think, be qui s1 ion Tnat they con'er on a small portion of citizens certi valuable privileges, immunities, and exemptions, which t denied to individuals and masses, is certain ; el e tl would not be sought with such avidity, and sometimes pi chased at so high a price. By this system of special legis tion, a new species of beings has been created ; an artific progeny, which is neither fish, flesh, nor fowl; estrange s of luttu naturee, partaking of opposite, irreconcilable chan teristice; in short, an amphibious animal?to use a west* phrase, "half hors*, hilf alligator." Though the constitut members of this hermaphrodite body aresupposedtoposs souls, it is universally conceded the aggregate body, thon gifted with a species of immortality, is altogether dives! of that high attribute, and that, not coming within I class of rational beiug*, it is relieved from all responsib ty, at least here, if not hereafter. Anatomically dissected, it is found to consist of indiv ual men of flesh and blood ; but taken as a whole, or te< nically in its corporate capacity, it is, as It were, a sort a nonentity, Invisible and intangible, which, to attempt catch, is like a man striving to overtake his own ehadr The constituent jmrts?thax is to say, the individuals to posing this mysterious, indefinable body?are, indeed, 1 other people, subjected to the smne lews, enjoying only I same rights, and restrained by the same duties and respt nihilities; bnt when they coine together, when they act concert, and form a unit, they at once become a separ class; they are no longer confounded with the rest of I rabble of mankind ; they are privileged exceptions to I general laws by which all others are governed; they hi a code peculiar to themselves, and one so convenient I all purposes, good, bad, and indifferent, that we belit there is no example in the records of our legal procetdlr of one of these delinquents ever having been brought cindign punishment for any fraud, however monstro They escape like Ulysses, by being "nobody." They bli up like our steamers on the Mississippi, and the fragraei can never be found, or at least never united again. No c can tell whether they ever had anythiog to lose, or, if what has become of it; and the bewildered creditor, af chasing them through all the inexti icable mnr.ee of thele Is finally loet in a vacuum. It tnay be urged that the creation of these artific bodies cannot justly be called special legislation, inastnu as they exist, at least in some of the States, under a gene: law, and no portion of the people la excluded from shari the benefits of acts of incorporation ; that is to ear, no but those disinterested children of all governments, wl having no money, have therefore no claim to legisla!! patronage^ To this it might be answered that this cli oonstitntes the great majority of every 8tate enjoying 1 boasted bleeeines of a hiirh decree of civilisation >nS tk from the very nature ot things, it cannot partake in thi exclusive privileges which are, of course, monopolized the monejed classes. It may share in the benefits of a m nicipal act of incorporation ; but when it comes to a oo pany based on capital, it is as effectually excluded by poverty as by an rxprees law. All tbese corporations, h? ing for their object a concentration of capital for ptirpoi of (t*io, are theiefore, we conceive, inconsistent with t great principle of equality, inasmuch as they confer on t rich privileges of which the poor cannot partake. Th belong, therefore, to the brood of special legislation, whi is becoming the principal business of our legislative bodii that are now incessnntiy occupied in cresting, fbsterin and aggravating those conflicting intereats among the ri and the poor which, left to themtelves, and under the me i (able ei-rumstancoe. nro always fruitful sources of di wnsion and heart-burnings. It Is the proper business of wise governmuit to counteract, instead of admiaisterir force to, these Inevitable tendencies. Thert Is snothir variety o' special legislation which v conceive to be, If possible, still mo,, iaCoiui*t?i wltl greet principle of equa'^y We allude to legislative gt [in of public oer| or pUt>lic lend*, for tbe exclueire be iel of parl>",ulmr districts of country?eucb m railroad cc tc~ ".none, for example-which now teem the peculiar pr all legialalion, eepecially in Congress. Independently o iti- constitutional objection*, it cannot, we think, be questii on that three donation*, of what belong* equally to all, ?ld particular portion of the people, operate partially and iuI equally, and all directly tend to monopoly, the Alpha he Omega of all bad government. They enable one sectii :ed a State or community to run ahead of the other*; ng concentrate on a aingle line that travel and transport* ra- hitherto diffuaed through variou* channels, creatit ng wholesome activity everywhere, they degrade industi p- firmer* into restless speculators ; and are as irjarioi w- the general health of the body politic as a deraugemei -c- the circulation of the blood is to the human frame. T on Unlucky portions of a State or community which are ue remote to share In this g.eat public benefit, as it ie ca Ith must either come begging or bribing for a similar b th- resort to tbe log-rolling system, or remain lagging bet ire content with tbe advantages beltdwed on them by &d of and Providence. iw No hiug is more difficult, not to say impossible, in 1 lation, than to divide the loaves and fishes equally >v- to confer benefits on one portion of a State or con re- nily without eitber directly or indirectly injuring i Me other. Almost invariably in relieving one from a bu >b- we shift it on the shoulders of anothsr; and of all on impracticabilities of this cross-gratoed world, that ol rr- ing good without some alloy of evil is tbs most ira] on ticable. Thus, while legislating for the benefit of tut consumer we are injuring the producer, who, in pn ft- of time, will appeal to tbe legislature for relief, as i( e?- custom in Oreat Britain, whose history is nothing h ul- perpetual struggle between the commercial, manufactni om and landed interests; and thus legislation goes ou ra sawing like a pendulum ba kwards and forwards in ho rain attempt to balaure conflicting interests that can n be reconciled, and to adjust the decrees of ProTideuc eo the infallible standard of the wisdom of Congress. W Iti- it be uuoardonable to suggest that it might be it ng times advisable to "Let us alone," and leave the trou no waters of life, as we do those of the ocean, to find 1 he level through the operation of the great law of action 'he reaction ? Not all the wisdom, wit, or power of bx- can evade this law, or arrest the force of these great 'ed verssl canses that constitute the instruments of the al, nipotent in governing the universe. jr The conclusion we draw from this view of the snbje the that the world, in its approaches to perfectibility, somet do advances like a crab, backwards, and that great refor ird an 1 philanthropists are often very mischievous per tea, They aretver in too much of a hurry ; they see but >us thing at a time, and lose sight of the great truth exei ng fiei by pest experience, 1h;it all salutary reforms, dest ew to exert a listing moral influence on the welfare of nd kind, are slow in their growth, and long in comin: ost maturity. They cannot be struck out at a single t an they are generated in the bosom of society, and nurt its, by the progress of the human mind ; they require no >n- ing proccfs, and all attempts to bring tbem to a premt lif- maturity by cobbling and tinkering legislation only i ike to re'ard their growth or produce a reaction. Ar ot- zealots, or meddlesome busy-bodies, smitten with an as ing des'rj to achieve that nine-days notoriety which 1 men mistake for lasting fame, or determined to bet iry great benefactors of the world in spite of its teeth, are ml unskilful surgeons, who probe the sore before it comes ;he head, and thus only prepare the way for a near and i on painful gathering of the morbid matter. It is by all impertinent interference of meddling man in precipits >3e. great reforms that they have almost always been so ast panied by civil dissension and bloody terolutions. \ idi is railed the Reformation did not originate with Mi ed. Litber. It had been tra'uring for centuries. Yet un ttaut matured it cost tbe lires of millions, sod convi ire * world. Might we not rentnre to a>k if this did irj wiie from man taking it into bis clumsy hands and j ur. lag it against wind and tide, instead of leering it to |a. wisdom of bis Maker 7 ;a] But to return to our more immediate subject. This Brt cial legislation, this discretionary distribution of legiali ,c_ boons under pretence of administering to the "general >rn fare," is a fruitful source of legislative corruption. All >n( cial grants of money, lands, or pririleges are worth ing, and will assuredly he Itought, if they cannot be ob gh ed by political influence or dextrous intrigue. Whet ted gislatire bodies can, by a single act, place millions of mi l)i? or millions of acres of land, at the disposal of a com) jjj_ ti(>n of"h limited number of indiriduals, to be disport for their special benefit, or from which tbey expect ti id. rive great adrantagec?where, in fact, they become L-h- gr"Dd almoners for tbe distribution of charity, not to 0I pers but millionaires, it must be obrious they will be t0 jecled to grievous temptations. Those who exercise )w greatest political influence, or are most dextrous it m. mysteries of intrigue, and most especially those ;ke are willing to pay bighest, will uniformly be sue [j,e ful in tbe great rcramble for special boons, sp >n. benefits, and special pririleges aud immunities. in legislator will be aesailed by those artful men < atp monly railed lobby roftnbtrs, adapt* in all the ijje terirs of corruption, who can scent carrion further th: the turkey buzzard ; bunt game with tbe instinct of a Be' lre smell out a frail member with all the certainty of a for Mason or a know-nothing ; and (for example) dispose ;Te thousand dollars to a philanthropic editor with ,g( matchless dexterity that be himself dors not know wh (0 was for, or what hs* become of it. These vermin llg_ utterly unknown in the body politic until the advei nw special legislation, and its progeny of corruption, bu n|g now eeen to swarm about legislative bodies like ci ,nr round a rotten carcass. go The power of giving sway the common fund or < jpr mon property of tbe people without a substantial eqt w lent, which can be estimated by some precise rule of ai nietic, has not betn expressly or incideotally conferred jftj tbe constitution on either Congress or the State leg c}, tures. It is a dangerous power?a power inevitably 1 rat ing to great abuses and great corruption, as we have ng in a late memorable instance which has iDflicted an it inn ible stain on the fair fame of the republic. It is equal), l,0 jurious to the general welfare as to the general right [rr the people, moet especially when exercised in tbe end l?# mmt of corporate bodies, because it creates an influ Willi whii-h nn imti?iit.1*1 rillun f.r. I ..II II n, Naivber in ltgijlatlre halls, in court* of law, or in the< mon intercourse of basinets, can he withstand the cor (rated influence and concentrated capital of tbeae beat lu. of special legislation, which may now be eaid to en re_ greater away in politic* and legialation than the w jt8 collect! re body of the people. Tbey combine together, lT_ are irreeiatible. )nl la it aot high time to arrest thii species of rpecial li ht lation, whicfc now occnpiea *o great a portion of the lie aions of our national end State legislatures to the ei ey aion of all great general object* T la it not high time eh they tboti'd legislate for the people at large, the poor m, needy at well at the rich capitaliat and the gn ig, apeculator ? In short, i* it pot high time we should 1 rh aome better eiemplificatiou m the great principle of eq at ity than that of conferring pririltges and monopo ia- from the benefit! of which ninety-nine in a bundrei a onr fellow-citii?ns are necessarily excluded, not beinj ig ' possession of the golden key that unlocks the door of I temple of Mammon? Yesterday can nerer be recal re and it it much easier to inflict erila than to remedy tt i the The old men of the sea baa got taisty on ottr beak, e ?nU wo cen&ot oheke htm off, do whet wo wilL But this t nefit people ein do. The/ cen prevent him from orexiag irpo- tot and heavy that be will crnoh them at loot They e to of slop trktre (hey are. They can throw out en etcher t ell windward nod (till keep deer of the breakers. ?ned A RETIRED 8TATESMAN. to a _ ? rroM llw 61. Luuw ErrUn| New* un THE ORIGINAL DRED SCOTT. *"d The tl't'ioguisbed colored indieidual who haa made su ?" a noise in the world in connexion with the celebrated a they of Scott te Hertford, and who boo tecome to tangled itlon with the Missouri Compromise end other greet subjects ,g t Died Scott it a resident, not e citizen, of SL Louts, lis ious w*" ^nown to many of our citla>ns, end msy frequen ^ to bo seen passing along Third street. lie is an old inha J* ? tent, baring come to this city thirty years ago ttt *n Dnd Scott was born in Virginia, where be belonged I10* Cept Peter Blow, the father of Henry T. Blow and Tayl too Blow, of this city. He was brought by bis master to i lied, Louis about thirty years ago, and, in the course of tin ,oon be a rue the property of Dr. Emerson, a turgeou in the arn liud " bout he accompanied on that trip to Rock Island and Fi iture knelling, on the ground of which he based bis claim freedom. The wife of Dr. Emerson was formerly M Htuford, and is now Mrs. Chaffee, wife of lion. Mr. Chafl cgis- of Massachusetts. lie has been married twice, bis ti r, or wife, by w hom be had do children, having beea sold fri idju- bitn. lie has had four children by his prerent wife, t tome b?yi, both dead, and two girls, both living. I)red was rden Corpus Christi, at the breaking out of the Mesican war, the servant of Captain Bsinbridge, whom he speaks of a r * * "good man.'' r On his return from Mexico, he applied to his mistrt Mrs. Emerson, then living near St. Louie, for the purchi the of himself and family, offering to pay part of the uior tceee down, and give an eminent citixen of St. Louis, an offi i the ln ln* Hrm7i M security lor me payment ot me rematna ut Iiii mistress refused hi* proposition, and Dred, being formed that he was entitled to hi* freedom by the ope rlDfi>* tioa of the lew* regulating the Northwest territory, for 8ee" with brought suit for it The tult *u eommeuced abc > the ten year* ago, and b*a coat Dred $500 in caah, beaidra lerer bor to a nearly equal amount. It ha* given him a "h( e by o'trouble," he aaya, and If he had known that ''it was gwi ould '48t 80 'onffi" he would not have brought it The a waa defended by Mr. John Sioford, as executor of Dr. E )tneeraon a will. Dred doee not appear to be at all discouraged by the 'heir |Ue of the celebra'ei case, although it doom* him to a and very. He talks about the affair with the ease of a Teter man litigant, though not exactly in technical language, and nnl- hugely tickled at the idea of Boding himself a personage Qm_ auch importance. He does not take on aira, however, 1 laughs hta'tily when talking of ude fuss dey made dar Washington 'b->ut de ole nigger." ot "> He is about fifty-flre years old, we should think, thou imes he does not know bis own age. He is of unmixed Afric mere blood, and as black aa a piece of charcoal. For two sons, three years past be has been running at large, no one < one sreising ownership over him, or putting any restraint bis movements. If he were disposed to make the attooc ined COQ^ gain bis freedom at a much leas coat than ev one-tenth of the expense of the famous suit. He will 1 nan~ do so, however, insisting on abiding by the principles ? 1? voiced in the decision of the suit. He declares that be w teat; stick to bis mistress as long as he lives. His daughte urei Elixa and L:sza, less conscientious about the matter, to foro. ?dvantage of the absence of restraint on their movomei tture * 7<*r or '*0 since to disappear, and their whereabout* main a mystery, terve Dresi, though illiterate, is not ignorant. He has travell dent considerably, and has improved bis stock of strong co itch-' mon sense by much information picked up in his journt little iugs. He is anxious to know who owns hlci, being igi xtme rant whether he is the property of Mrs. Chaff-e or Mr. 8t ford, though we presume there is no doubt that the forn () n la his real legal owner. He seems tired of running a be with no one to look after hint, while at Ihe same time be ino'e a slave. He s <ys grinning!/ that he could make thoiisac thi> of dollars, if allowed, by travelling over the country a iting telling wfco he is. com- ?? yjjat Srcai ike N. V. Journal of Con merer NEGRO SUFFRAGE. xrtin According to the eiisting constitution of the S'ate New York, no man of color, unless he has been a citisen Jlsed ^ state for three years, and bas lor one year posrest n?l freehold property of the value of two hundred and fifty d >ttah- lira, on which he hu paid taxes, can rote at any electii the The republican member* of our State legislature hare ken the first step towards a repeal of this feature of t spa- con8''tul'on> 'n ?tder to place negroes, so far as suffiage concerned, on a footing of equality with white men. It * 1Tf fortunate that those who initiated this so-cailed refo wfl" hare not the power to give it legal effect, but that it mi P*~ he approved by a subs<quent legislature, and then snbni buy- ted to the people, before the change can be effected. p tain- openly avowed by the republicans that their object is t it. censure the Supreme Court of the Unite! Suites for on recent judgment in the Pred Scott case, in the he th?t other State legislatures will ful'ow the exemp MDa~ It remains to lie seen whether the good sense of t ?' people, to whom ample time for r.fltctlon is wis* > de- allowed, will sanction a hasty, passionate, and ti i the necessary measure, for the mere put pose of cnabli pRU. a few political agitators tj achieve sn empty triumph ot sub- "le we""consi^er?^ aQd authoritative dictum of the i ^ preme expounders of the federal constitution. We say i ( empty triumph ; because, were negroes permitted to cxi ' cite the electite f.anehise in this or in any other State the same conditions as wbile men, this permission wot) cess- not mend beyond the limits of the State in which it w ecial accorded, and could not in the slightest degree affect 1 The judicial decision that the Africans and their dcjcendai om- ennot, under the constitution, be cit:z?ns of the Unit States. The judgment of the Supreme C'jurt dees not i feet or interfere with the power of individual States >n a confer political rights within their own limits; it only i lt*r firms that State citizenship conferred upon persons constit Free tionally unqualified to become cltisens of the United SUI of a does not remove their disqualification. The Supreme Cot suct, has Dot decided that New York, Massachusetts, or Kbo Rt |t Island ia not entitled to oonfer citisensbip for State purpo; on free negroes, any more than that thrj are not entitled, they think proper, to grant the right of suffrage to onnat 11 of rallied aliens; but they bare decided that the conferring ' ,,;f this right upon "an alien or any other deeciiptioo or cl? ows persona'' does not constitute its recipient "a citiz in the sense of the constitution of the United States." ' :ora- use the language ot the Albany Argus : "The Dred Sw lira- decision will not prevent the elevation of the negro here rith >nJ ?f privilege. He may have the right to vo the right to hold the highest offices, the right of equal ed ' ' cntionsl privileges and political franchises ; he may be ev isla- above the common level, and be made a superior cas and the Supreme Court of the United States will not gat seen en; it. They leave to each S'ate the full power within t idel- S'ate ; bid he cannot carry hit privileget beyond the boundar y in- ,ht ,ftai 1**?"' Tbi* '* wh,t the Dred So< # opinion meana." More than this, a State can, within own limits, if it pitases, make negroes a privileged cla as seems to be contemplated by the republicans of tl ence State, by giving theta all the privileges of citiien* witho *"d. the burden of citiiens, such as m.Iitary duty, jury duty, al 'otn- tbe like. lCen- While we deplore the disgraceful misuse of (he legis1 ards authority of which the republican members of c StAte legislature are guilty, we do not believe that even rcM? majority of tbeir own faction will sanction their procec k?le ings, and we are confident that a majority of ?h? peo| "n(^ will indignantly repudiate any proposal to alter their pr> ent constitution for the mere purpose of rebuking that a .gjj, tbority which has been aptly designated "the protect! see pow*r of the whole government." telu- When Secretary Toucey was called to the cabinet President Buchanan, the Tribune and similar print* affe. ed to consider him the representative of a hopeless niinoi M,(1 ty in his natiee State. The people of Connecticut, bowerer, hare regarded t ?aee question from a different poiiM of eiew. They hare i ual- rcreed the political decision of 1856, hare driven the blai He* republicans and proecriptire Americana into coalition, at ! snhetantially defeated them thna nnited. Connecticut, ,n not already a democratic State, will he fully so In anoth f ,n year, and has given earnest of her intention now. Senat ,b* Toucey Is approrrd, and the Tribune and its echoes rwp !'*d< disted, by the Intelligent people of the State, tees. ( Albamy Aliai nn<l Argua. ' - L. II ' 1 VV AM11NGtON CITY ? BATUB'UY MORNING, APRIL II, 1?67. on j ? . . i(O W" *' C- H) Ja???, Nu. I Hvnwi whi, UurinuU, Obio, i ur frbTbl mil-runt a(*iil for Ilia Wratrin Slate* and Tetai iMian d by II. J. 1 iiumaa, ffiuira H. Tao?ii,Tati. M. Inn Dr. A. I,. 1'iii.n, Gcoks* Muiur, and Hitman l.bibb. Hi ealpta of eliliw will ba food. (K/- Mr lab, xl E. J amu. No. UN SoaUi Tco'b inert, fblladr phia, la uirt ganrtal uaeelliof i|m, aa-i,ird b> Wa. II. Wmi.i . Joaa I'OLLiaa, Jamm* Daaaiaa, J. IIammitt, R. 8. JaMba, Taoi 1 D. Nick, K. W. M'.aai.oa, W. Wilit, Wa. L. WaTbbMai Alii II. Cabana, II K Mi ni*. Bib. f. twain, T. AauMaM, bb up f. Daaia. '? OFFICIAL. lly ? l,i_ APPOINTMENTS BT THK PRESIDENT. Jess# B. McClendrn, of Louisiana, to b? recrirer of put to lie moneys at Oreeosburg, Louisiana, r ke John M Veroti lor whose term of office has eipirid. Henry SV. Pa'frey, of Louisiana, reappointed, to be r? Br' ceirer of public mooejs at Naw Orleans, Louisiana. Louis Palms, of Louisiana, reappointed, to be register 1 to the land office at New Oileans, Louisiana, ias Henry B. Welsh, of Iowa, to be receiver of pul lie money e?i at Fort des Moines, Iowa, eloe T'.r .eas M. Casady, r? r8' signed. )m Christopher Carson, reappointed, to be agent for the It t aians id tne territory 01 new Mexico. M Stuiatl M. Volt, of Missouri, to be agent for the Indian i a ia the Territory of New Mexico, vice Abraham G. Mayen resigned. ?' , ' " ~lge MAUDS AND SOFTS, AND OPPOSITION FAI.SEtej HOODS. cer Ths democracy ia New York were atone time divideder. growing, at first, out of State matters, and snbjrquentl ln" extending in some degree to national questions. Owing t time divsions, tbey were overpowered by their advcrsi ^ riei. The State government fell into imbecile and coi lRi rupt bands, her S'ate debt was greatly increased, and ht .Hp financial independence eeriouily jeoparded. The san Ine cause threw the administration of the national goTeinmer nit into the hands of those opposed to democratic principle fl" The different sections of the democratic party were ehri: tened by their enemies "harda" and "softs," by way of d< ^ rision and contempt. All matters of former difference wet adjusted and finally settled at Cincinnati last year, and th ; jg two former organisations melted into ouo, and the whol of party, with energy and seal, united in Supporting the prir >nt ciples there avowed and promulgated, and in electing th it candidates there nominated. Local candidates were nominated ncd supported upo ^ the same grounds, and the ntmost harmony everywhei or prevailed. The triumph of the democracy has beconc ,j. matter o( history. Those who bad been deceived into tL on support of tbeir enemies are fast returning to the dcm< ipt critic standard, tearing the opposition little hope fc the future. With them everything depends upon ri [ot riving and perpetuating divisions among democrat '."l Ilrnee their organs pretend, in some places, that M rg^ Bncbanan farters the "softs," and recognises them t the soIj democratic party, and in others that be rept its diates them and adopts the hards. They know tbi re- both statrments are false. He recognises tba democrat] party, and not cliques or divisions, as the friends of b administration. His acts and appointments de.monstrtv J11 this, and we have good reason to believe that he wi 10_ not consider those as friends who seek to perpetna in. diffeiences and difficulties in the democratic ranks, an irr therebv render it weak and a prev to its enemies. He >ut too wise and prudent a representative of democratic prii ' ' o:pl<s to favor those who, either direclly or indirectl.v, g'r "aid and com'ort" to the memies of our glorious Uoio Those who wish well to bis administration will devo themselref, not to perpetuating jealousies and diOerenci among hU friends, but to the dissemination of those prii c!ples upon which he was elected, nod which alone can it of sure to our descendants the blessings of a wise self-govrri ment. ted ol. AN UNJUST ASSAULT UPON CHIEF JUSTICE ,n. TANKY. ta- The Buffalo Commercial Advertiser of the 8th iostai 'be saya: 1 " " Chief Justice Taney's decision that negroes are not cit lis sens of tho United States, and consequently not entitled I rm suo in the federal courts, is not only in contradiction to tt 1st action of the executive department of the government an lit- some of the laws of Congress, but is in the very teeth of [ ja former decision of the Supreme Court, delivered by the Chii l() Justine himself in 1843. An Albany contemporary copii j g from tho first volume of Howard's Reports the decision i the court in the case of James Ash, a Maryland negro, wh sued for his freedom In the circuit court of the District < ' '' Columbia, as Dred Scott did in that of Missouri. The car ?>e was in like manner carried up to the Supreme Court, au the following decision wae delivered by Chief Justic in- Taney." This docs great injustice to ths Chief Justice and th cr whole court. The case of Ash and Williams, referred t? ? was instituted in the circuit court for tho District of Ct fttl pr_ lurabis, which U the only emitting court sf record havin on eivil jurisdiction therein. It has full and complete jurii ild diction in all cases. The act of the 27th of February, X30i M presides: he ? That there shall be a court in the said District, wide 118 sbali be called the circuit court of tho District of Columbia, fd and "that said court shall base cognisance ol all [crimes an uf- olf inces committed within said District] and of all cotes ? to law a <i SffitjT between parties both or tither nf which iho if- be resident or be found within said District." n- In short; the circuit coart has all the jurisdiction in th 188 District which both State and national courts hare in ih several 8 ates, without regard to citizenship, alienage, or res deuce. This is not so out of the District, and in the StaUl ea jj- where the United States circuit conrta have only a limited jti ;u. risdiction. Ry the judiciary act of 1789 the eivil jurisdictio of of these courts in suits of a civil nature of ro wmon I iw c 1,8 in equity is confined to cases where tha United States ar *n parties p'aintiff, "or an alien it a parly, or the mil it he licet '"? a citizen of the State where the tuil it brought and a eitize )tt t of another 8: tie." This s alute, based upon the words < ,f the constitution, remains unaltered except in patent rasa In the case o! Dred Scott the plaintiff did not sue r.s an rliei en nor claim to he such, but alleged that be was a "citizen, Is, aud insisted lbs court had jurisdiction on the very groun " of utiietijhip. The Supreme uourt, following the past ju diclal decisions nnd the opinion of William Wirt, as Attoi j(t nay General, held that he was not a citizen. jt. The opposition must be hard pressed for arguments t m, refute those of the decision of the court, when they reeoi lis to such gross efforts to (Tsceive the public in relation to th 'tit past action of the court. The authors of this attack we] knew that the question of citizenship was not involved ii At'uo's esse, and (hat the courts had jurisdiction under tl liwsof the District, where Gongrees, by the constitutioi H had the power, and exorcised i', to pass laws, which the, d- could not in ike applicable In the several States. The* )le deceptions most deprive (hose engaged in making them t * the tonfidence of those whom they intend to deceive. ng 110*. A. K. MAXWCLL. The numerous friends of this pentlemin, who has r? 0f snmed the practice of law at I'eosacoU, will be pained t ;t barn that be has been rioutlv indisposed with bemoi ri- rfaage of the lnngs since his re'ura from Washington city the auihority for which statement is contained in the Pen sacola Democrat of the ltr.h ult. e- ' A JUDGK UAKK1K. 1(1 The Philadelphia Argns says: " Jadge Csstie, the distinguished representative In Con *r grees for the last six years of the Richmond district, Virginia or Is again ia the field. Ills re-election is as certain as thai tli day of election will arrive. Judge Csikie Is one of the tmes democrat', most estimable gentlemen, end moet eloquent an< able exponents of constitutional principles in the country." ' A J I'ST ENDU1SEMKXT. The New York paper* contain the proceeding* of ? larp and enthusiastic meeting of the indomitable democracy o s the 14th ward of that city, from which we are gratifitd u ? learn that the sterling devotion of their able reprraantatiTi | in Congress, Hon. John Krlly, to the principle ao signal!; t sustained by the wares throughout the Union In the re eull of the lata election, baa not abated since bis retun ( home among bis constituent*. The compliment paid t< Mr. Kelly in one of the resolutions is eminently due to thi ' c.al, judgment, and great ability with which this dislin guisbed - gentleman has always addressed himself to tb< settlement of questions affecting in any way the Integrl"; of the great democratic parly of the city of New York while the unanimous approval of the New York city ap pointments recently made indicates the gratify ing fact tba i in reference to the administration of James Bachaneu th< democracy of the Empire City are united in one solid, un ^ broken phalanx. , The following are smoug the reeolu'ions to which wi , r ;fer: if " Whereas it la desirable that peaee and harmony iboalt exist in the rank* of the democratic party, based upon th 1 will of the people fairly expresaed ; and whereas the plan pro >- poeed by the lion. John Kelly for the consideration of tb aohems of Tammany Society, and adopted by said sadisms will, in the opinion of this meeting, be the means ot securing to each and every voter in the democratic ranks a voice ii our primary elections, and thereby place beyond donbt o is cavil the troe representatives of the people : Therefore, ? ' Hcolwtd, That we most cordially approve of the plai proposed by the Hon. John Kelly, and adopted by the Conn cil of Sachems, for the pacification of the democratic part; in this city, and believe that If strictly adhered to it will b the means of bringing about a regeneration in the party, am be the signal for renewed action on the part of tboee who b ~ Here la consulting the wishes of the masses. > " Hfolvtd, That we approve cf the reooat appointment 0 of the 1'resldent of the United States for this eity, and ar satisfied that the best interests of the country may wit l~ safety be confided to Messrs. Schell, Fowler, Hart, and others r" who have boen the recipients of Executive favor, sr " Rttolvtd, That wc hare unlimited confidence in the lion lr John Kelly, ills fidelity to his country and friends has en deared him to all who admire justice sod its rewards." t. NEW YORK DEMOCRACY. I- At a meeting of the council of enrhems of the Taraman ?- Society of New York, held on Tuesday last, the Hon. Jobi ir-11 1?I...J .. ?......Ji; ? i. n,. .(?' le lion, existing of fire from each ward?the sachems to b le entitled to one?should be called into existence, to whon i- should be referred all difficulties and differences of opiniot ie that may exist among the democracy of that citjr. Afte much debate, the proposition was re'errtd to a commltte n of fire, of which Mr. Kelly was chairman. This commit 'e tee reported the following resolutions, which were unnni ie mously adopted by the Council of Sachems, ro that we est ie announce the gratifying fact?the more gratifying, inas )- ranch as the federal appointments for New York bare ?1 >r. been made?that tho democracy of the Empire City ?r c- henceforth a unit in tho cordial support of Mr. Buchanan' s. administration. The moral effect of this harmony an< r. union will soon be felt throughout the entire Stale of Ne? is York: l- Whereas this Grand Council, justly appreciating the dec-re sity of preserving the harmony of the democratic part' by which the better to sustain i's principles and to give ?f lc ficient aid te the Administration of James Bu hmau j an' is whereas, to accomplish this desirable result, it is essentia [e tbnt the primary system as now adopted with reference ti the election of delegates to conventions or committees ehal " be materially reformed : Thereto.e, bo it le Rrtolvtd, That the five d< lega-rs, or a majority of them ^ from the peverel wards of this city to the committees o which NYilsoo Small aed Johu Y. Savage, jr., are chairtnei '? respectively, be requested to certify from each dele/atior i_ in writing, to this council, on or before the 13ihdayo April next, the names of two of their number by their lis f as nt i resent constituted, to meet with one delegate fror n each ward to be chosen by the council, in Tammany Ilall on the 16th day of Aprii instant, at 71, p. tu. Jtuolrtrl, That snth convention shall on or before the Jj ? day of July next perfect and adopt a plan for reforming th 1. nriinurv t>'n.>li/tn wirrtil??r (n tho Arto ulrani) v cilnttloil hv lli j. Grind Council, or such other as should he deemed alvisa ble by said convanl.ioo, and having adopted ths gam*, b '* make ihe proper calls for the ehclinn of a gencrul commit tee in accordance therewith, and that ou said day l' eir rx isteoce shall cease, and It shall not be codi|m tent for then after that period to fit in Tammany Hail without the fur ther action of the Grand Council. Rcf'lr*f, That in cose n->y vacancy, except as hereinafte mentioned a d provided for, shall exist in Buch convrntict from any want of negbctor refusal to act or otberwia* then the representative f.om such ward in said conventioi ;o shall h ire power to fill such vacancy, j RhJi cJ, That such convention shall, during such perlo^ . in case of necessity, he clothed with the power of, and ac 1 a', the Democratic Republican U-nsral Committee of lh< * citv tid county ofNew York. B' Rttolvol, That in case of the entire failure of the delepra '' tion of five from etch ward, of the Small and Savage com ?' mittei b respectively, to present names for delegates in tic 10 specified time, that then, and only in such case, the Oram if Conn it shall, on consultation w ith the democracy of th ie dklinqucut ward, have the power to supply by appoint lien (j ths omission. ,e Rtsolvrif, That the action beret ifore taken by the grant council iu relation to a cull for the holding of an electioi for the Democratic Republican General Com oitiee for lb ' year 1857, and sl o as io the appointment of inspectors o j, said rlccS'Oc, be, and is hereby, so fiir modified as to be ii harmony and in accordance with the above preamble ant resolutions. 8 R'tolvcl, That tfce additional person from each ward ti i. said convention or otherwise be selected by a cmimtto . coaniiting of Sachems I'ur.iy, Kelly, Rim1, F.'tvler, an 1 Marsh, and that siid committee teport laid imoi's to tt.? council on Monday next, at 12 o'clock, m. signed by tIn h Sachems. i? .lohn K?Uy, Tbos. Dunlup, d Elijah F. I'urdy, Joseph Hose, Joon Cochrane, Andre Fromcn', Isaac V. Fowler, Michael B. Connelly, ' Joseph M. Matsb, Thos. N. Adams. WM D. KENNEDY, ,r Father of the Council. r James B. HrrnuiiiwoTOB, Grand Scribe. I- FINANCES OF MASSACHUSETTS. E? The good people of Massachusetts begin to find ou'. ths i- the administration of Governor Gardner and hii rrpuMi n can allies is rather an e*pen?ire Insur/. The d-ni*r .ti ir journals arc exposing the extravagance of those in oflhe c and we extract the following patagraph from the I'lttafir!. n Sun, which gives a brief exposition of the way in which tl i n finances of tho Old Commonwealth have been mismanaged >: " Within the short space of four years, whits the attcn tion of the people baa been diverted from the vital in>er*>ti of the 8tat? by exoatieous political issues, the expense* o > government have lawn enormously increased. The ordi " na>-y expenses have b en doubted, the extraordinary ex . pencil have ixen increased from 840,000 to 1 ,.' '0 00' dollars; the toial annual expens.s hate been cartiec I- up to 2.500,000 dol'ars; direct taxes to the ainonni .. ot 1,650,000 dollars have been impoael upon the , eople and the ti u'e debt has been inrrea-.cd 1 100,000 dol'ars Among tho particular results of this exieastve rxtrara0 ganeeate tee facte that our State expentes are now great* i ,t than those of all the other New England States conjoint d that tho c >st of our legislu'ijo i> twice as much as th?t o c the great S'ate of New Vork, and equil to the sum total ol II the ordinary fi;enirsot the Stale in 18J3; that while out legislative expenses n?? raged previous to 184et about 65 Otic " dollars, they arc now three times that aoiOUD'. Tnepaycl * clerks aud unsjcngers to the legislature, which, previews u. 1 1850, averaged only about $4,00O, is now $16 000. Tot ' daily pay of members has bueu increased by ilieir own J vote from $2 to $.1; the extra expenses of the legislature, e for travelling of committors. Ac., have b e i increased from ,f $200 to $C,.MK>, the executive council now ions twice at much as in 18M, and three times as much as the averagf of twenty years previous. The amount pa-d for talari i of public officers is now nearly double what it wis ton yean ago, and is actually greater than tbc aggregate aiu mel i- paid for salaiive in all theo.ber New England Stales. The 0 cost of stationery lor the State-bouse waa last year about $9,000, while the average of the twenty years previous * alewa that $1,400. Tnc cost ol State printing has hern in r creased to $50,000; tlte average of tne tweuty years previous to 1851 baviug been only $10,000. Tbe expooeet ol copying index: s and Journals lor the xenste and house has boeu increased from $680 to $'28,000 ; the expense* of the military hat risen io $75,000 a year, three times as much as tbe amount expeuded for that object prevtoa* to 1851 ; and that, while th* ordinary expenses of government could not be met without resort to direct t nation te tbe onpre' cedeoied amount of $1,650,000, the extraordinary ex. ? pen sea have been Increase* in a frightful ratio. " This hasty enuineraiion gives an inadequate idea of the t effects of tbe receot rule of extravagance, but it is enough 1 to show that rttrmchment is not a hobby to he ridden, oi an idol to be worshipped, but an indisputable necessity.' CRAWFORD'S EQl'KRTBIAM BTATCI OF WASRija TOM. We bare recetr<d ( apt Ui? ll.ihuu>ad Koquim) a p,,. letter from Parte, dated March lirih, which inform uj that Mr. Crew'ord, although far from wrll, has turned hi* attention to tha important subject of having the hrotue equestrian statue of Washington transported to thia city for the monument on the Capitol square. Mr. Crawford bad just tad an interview wi'h Mr. filler, the director of the Rural Foundry at Munic'i, where tbe statue now ii, fully completed. A contract has been made by which the statue is to be brought to Frankfort, on tbe Maine, whence it is to be transported down tbe Rhine to Amsterdam, tt tbe latter point it will be placed on board of a res el, whose decka will hare to be cut for the purpose, and win be abipped directly for Richmond. It is eiptc'.td that lb, f, reasel will sail from Amaterdam about tbe 16th April, and . we may r?>t?sUr expect that tbe statue will arrive i. Richmond ijJRuio to he [Atced on the monument ? augurated on the Foorth of July, M deemel projer. On box twenty feet high, ?ix'een feet ioog, and eight fa i broad, and weighing some 30,000 pounds, will c.ntsin U* ' whole statue, with the exception of the horse's tail, * hit fa can readily be attach-d wben the group is placed on it| pedes -al. ( The accoun's we bare of Crawford's heal.h sre sot ti 1 favorable ?s we hsd hoped for. We sincerely trust that hi r may be spared many years for his country and his frirsfo. a Young as h? is, his noble genius bas already placed hiiowi - name, an i the artistic glory of bis natire America, on the T topmost round of fame. t ? rt PHILADELPHIA DEMOCRATIC COXVENTIOX. The democratic city coneention of Philadelphia met oil t Wednesday Just and ncminated W. V. McQrath for treate nr?r and James Logan for commissioner. Tho fol'owioj h resolution were unanimously adopted by the convention: - " Retohnl, That we bare the highest conlidsnco in thi ability and statesmanship of James Buchanan and John C, - Breckinridge, aad believe that tbroagh the nudom of their administration peter, prosperity, religions freedom, hap. Dincse. and the equal rixhts ot the whole people will h. ; strictly maintained. I ' Hfo'rul, That the democratic party, in the salectioa of r : Oineral William F. Packer as iu standard bsarer in tbi :i coning gubernatorial election, ha< act*! wisely, and that we .! hare undoubted confidence in hia experience, ability, and isg | swerring integrity, and are hereby pledge to him onr firm and undirided support. 9 " R'toU-4, That the nominee for canal commie loner, ? ' Nimrod Strickland, prelected for the aufTragu of the demo r cratic party of Penney I r aula by the recent State convtaUog, ! meets our meat cordial approbation, and will recede oar earnest and ntidirided aupport. " Ruo'red, That we bare the fulieat confidence in William - ; V. McUrath and James Logan, nominated to-day by this cotj rention, and that we recommend them to tLo democracy if tbia city aa gentlemen of ability and unbending integrity, and true to the prtnciplee of the democratic party ; and ask ' for them the undirided support of the democracy of the c ; city. g I "Rented, That this oonrention endorse with special prida and satUftctinn the measures and policy of the late national administration, which, by the boldness of its assertion of oar f national rights in ?U its foreign policy, and the moat rigid I observance of the constitution in conducting our domestic if. fairs, baa end oared itself to the American people, and made lustroue those pure principle* of republican government ' I wbicb hare erer been the landmarks of the national demoora1! cy ; and we extend to ex President Pierce the moat kaarl; 1 approval for the ainglenees of purpoee that baa marked kit 0 administration." 1 WK4LTH OF MISSISSIPPI. '< From the report of the auditor of public account!, mad< ? j at the recent session of the legislature, the Natchri P,n i, - Trader make* np the following statement, showing at l ' glance the wealth and resources of the State of Mississippi! n ! Money loaned nt interest $6,113,658 I, | Merchand se add by regular merchants 15,532194 ' Amount of bxnk stock 615,100 i Merchandise told at auction 51,171 e Number o> pleasure carriages 11,480 g I Value of rnrae 1,666,079 . j Numb r of watches 13041 n! Value of sum- 815,10 . I Number of tlocks 18,599 -j Value of same 168,049 3 Number of catile orer 20 head 210 664 - i Number of tax ible horse? 0,413 I Value of taxable horses 896,044 r . Value of gold and silrer plate 232,171 i j Number of pianos 2238 I Value of same 494,628 i | Number of slaret raxab'e 334,886 Number of free wbie polls taxable 33,301 ( Amount of State tux ou personal property 2 2 7,114 079 i Number of acres of laud now taxable 159I3M2 e Value of same 89,106,208 Number ot acres h -id by State lor taxis 411,553 . | To'al value of lauda hi-1 J by 8tve for taxes 501,315 , om e tux on mans now taxaote Utnu:,l?i 1 OUU ALEXANDRIA CORRESPONDENCE. Alkxanhhu, (Friday evening,) April in, 1857. The Diamond State, Cap'a in Kirwan, arrivtd punctually at her dock last evening from Baltimore She procreW 1 to Wisbirg'oa to-i.xy. j T.ie schooner Ctrolioe, Captain Hatton, arrived Ihir ; morning from P.scatawsy with wheat and corn fjr I), t I S. Blacklock, and tobacco to be shipped to Baltimore. 1 j Toe punga Prince William, Captain Batcliff, frnm Port T ?banco on Wednesday, with corn and wheat for Sbloni ^ Sid, baa been unloading to-day. The arrival of fuh laat night and to-day has hreo tb? largest of :h" fensin, owing to the line weather jeataidey. Prices to-day have ranged from $11 to $12 for ?hid, aid Trotn $8 to $8 25 for herrings. Wagons aie daily ?riving from all parts of the country for fish. Some foot a'd six-bom covered wagons come as fsr as fi t v snd sixty mil< a. The operations of the Corn Exchange to-day have b?n as f Hows : Flour?sales $5 62$. Wheat?no tales, buyera and sclic-s not bciug able to agree on price. Corn? t sales of wbi-e., 59 cents. Rye?small lots, 6t> cents, not pr:m\ ' Tor stone bridge of the Alexandria, Loudon, and Damp1 eh:r.i r.iiiroad across the waste waters of the canal, in tha intersection of Water and Prndletoa streets, is now com1 plcte 1. e Mr. Lewis XcKmale and Ur. U. I). Clanghton have bten : put in nomination by iheir respective friends here nt ran. didatcs for the next Virginia house of delegates, i Among the ntaanfar'orirs in active operation taeie, I no* I l:~e a fine machine shop and fo indry, h. longing to Mr T. " 8. Jamicson, on tV corner of (loyal and Wilkes street! I' J employs a large number of hands, and appears to tedohg a prosperous bus. ties*. N rtir this U Stnooi's tannery, on the corner of WW" and Washington streets. It also appears lo be doing" extrnsire businc**. B (J. Milburn's poUerj,*on Wiikw street, betseeo S'Ami.'hand Washington, turns out a fine quality of ^,oll, ware. His wholesale price* are?per dor.cn piecei, pint' ce i's, quarts $1, ha'f g tllons JI 331. gallon* andnp?*' !" $2 i*: doasu gallons. VIBGIN1PS. The a 'poiotiueu! of Hon. Muses Mncdonsid as ?oIler|?r "I i'ortUnd, Msit.e, is ?'i act o justice which must gratifr eeerjr lru? and laithful democm'. Mr. Macdonald it onr of the tew men in Cingrras Iroro New Knglan 1 who dared I" m ft thecriaia which came upon the country in the Nebrstk iftrnggle. and to Man t by the cou.titutu u when tbelloi? of popular fanaticism rage 1 about us. Whtn man.T f" wln? now boast of their nationality were shelterir.g their' selves in tb mfeiv orretirement, he ?t..od in the front l?t? rap aed to all the lire of the enemy end did hil dnty. i1" election of inch a man is fall of significance and eoco't" agemsat.?P*of>lei .1 Iroralt. Tnn collkitob OS Ismmi?The Bangor Democrat tW notices Iremark* ol an opposition paper on the PP01"' . meul of Dudley F. Lear ill, esq , ss col If c lor of that port: " The Whig soys Mr. l-eaeitt is a 'shrewd ?nd iodef" i gable 111 mager,' or perty tu?o. It speaks from a k"0*1' ' edge of hi* tjtiaency us * democrat, running through ? I*" riod of nearly twenty year*, during wtrirh h? has bo"1 '* tensirety known ami leit as a 'abroad and indefstif*'" woittng tncniW of the democratic party. If there is ??' thing in claims for party service* rendered, be certst" poasea^s lheni; or if theie is any merit in a long, and consistent derotion to correct prineiplea, be m*J *" 1 lay claim to it. The appointment baa been given to??<* denerving and worthy democrat, who will no doubt J ^ ' charge the dnliea of the office In a manner entirely a?*r able to all having business with it."