OCR Interpretation

The daily union. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1845-1857, April 15, 1857, Image 2

Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82003410/1857-04-15/ed-1/seq-2/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

MAILS. dli
The European mails by the steamer Niagara reached thia ) e
city on Monday evening. The Loudon '1'turtle o1 March 20 Ijr
furnishes the following oomparieou between the popular TO;
forma of government in the United States and Great Brit- the
aiu: *P>
grout the Loadou Tuuon, Match SO. up
By a coincidence of occasions the two great Anglo-Saxon
communities of the world will, in the space of a single ?
month, have laid the foundations of new governments for
their respective countries In America these alternations of 111 u
policy proceed according to tired laws, and with the regularity
of a machine. After four years of office the President kts
and administration of the United States are absolved from
their duties on the 4th of March, and as the clock strikes .
12 on that day the existing government gives place to
another. In England the course of atfairs is different. The J
Usher of the Black Ilod can, indeed, convey to our legisla- l)la
tive body in a few brisf words the tidings that dispersion c,l*
awaits them, but the event, except that it must occur once
in seven years, is not assigned to any fixed season or pe- Ike
riod. It is accident alone which on this occasion has ka'
brought the constitutional solemnities of the two countries kel
into signal and striking contrast, nor do we think that, dai
upon temperate reflection, a comparison of the rival insti- ?tr
tutions will leave us much to repine at on this side of the w>
Atlantic. ou
The American Congress, according to pure democratic
theory, may certainly appear to be more absolutely a ere- the
ation of the people than the British House of Commons, for ku
the numbers of a constituency determine the numbers of its c0>
representatives, votes are taken by ballot, and members are to
paid. We do not pretend, indeed, to doubt that Congress ke
does give an effective representation of American opiuion.
but Congress is not the only power in the State established
by popular election. Tho President himself, the head of tw
the administration, is aleo appointed in the polling-booths '
of the country, and we have recently witnessed the tlior- >*n
oughly-electioneeriDg character of which thia mighty con- the
test partakes. The President of the United States does, be- for
yond all question, personify the choice of the {people, but the ke
. suffrages are given without power of revocation, and they tlx
commit the great constituency of the Union tor lour rears ?=i
together, on many most important points, to the guidance del
and policy of a ' single mau. An American adminlslra<- del
tion cannot, except by a solemn and express renewal of po:
public confidence, last longer than four rears; but four 'oc
years, as regards its controlling authority, it must last, he
whatever may be its mistakes, its incompetence, or its per- Sh
versity; nor is any opportunity afforded to the public of jec
reconsidering its resolution. There is no " appeal to the ev<
country." no consultation of "the constituencies," no "want sta
of confidence rote" practicable. At tbs appointed period,
indeed, the constitutional fabric will be submitted to the
people for reconstruction, but until that hour arrires the 1
electoral decision cannot be rescinded. President Pierce j?e
might, if he bad so pleased, hare disturbed or destroyed ; !
the relations of the Union with any State in the unirerse, .!
against all the opinions of his constituents; but until the W1
4th of this month his authority could not bo impeached nor cu.
his policy effectually controlled. The attributes and power W>1
of this great appointment are derired, it is true, in the first 0411
instance, from the voice of the whole community, but when C0J
the community has spoken the word the vow is irrevocable,
iind for a certain term of years the President and the peo- on,
pie are indissolubly joined together.
With these institutions compare our own. The office of
Prime Minister depends virtually upon the votes of Par- 'm
liament, nor could it be retained withont the confidence of
the House of Commons ; but from this House of Com- ?
mons there lios at any time an appeal to the constituencies,
and Lord Palmerston is at this moment challenging the ?ttl
judgment of the country as completely as Mr. Buchanan
did lost autumn. If the verdict of the constituencies aDI
proves to be such us there is every reason to anticipate, his ttn(
lordship, as the first minister of the Crown, will represent ^.?
the decision of the electors with as much faithfulness as ,'u
tha American President. Here, however, the resemblance ?.u
ends, and the contrast?as we think to the advantage of 1
England?will be found to begin. Not only do our insti- PJJ!
tuiions provide other powers to ballast and trim the vessel
of the State when careering under the impulse of popu- , J
lar will, but this will, itself, is open at all times to correetion
or revocation. Not only can the House of Commons an<
be reconstituted, buteveu without reconstitution,and while
composed of the same elements, it can withdraw, at brief i
notice, that confidence on which the administration relies. It
ia underno necessityof waiting for a lixed period, or of endu- ]
ring the miseries of an ill-starred union till the appointed
hourof divorcoaud release. A voteof censureer waatof con- ,,
iidence can be moved by any member in the house, and, if j, J
carried, will subvert the gorernmeut. Such a creature as a j j.
" dospotic" Minister exists, as far as this country is concern- j,
ed, only in tho imagination of Mr. Cobden. Applied to Ameri- j t ,
can institutions, the phrase might, indeed, be more jnstifia- ^
ble, for there the country stands inextricably to its first
vote ; but in England tho offices of government are always '
held during pleasure. The very Parliament which Lord wj(
Palmerston will hare to meet, however his popularity to'
"dcrht hi^ve influenced the elections, could abandon him us
soon as it was tormeu, uuu, n ineie were goou reasons lor j'_r
the proceeding, the opinion of the country would support Kj
it. The approbation justly yielded to the Premier's past an'(
services gives him no kind of impunity or irresponsibility |)u,
for the future. His security does not extend to his forth- ^0(
coming policy, sxcept in so far as that policy shall con- j^g
tinue to receive public approval. The country will not be S|T
tied or boiuid to him in any way whatever. He cannot
commit us to any unpopular or unpatriotic course. If, instead
of despatching such reinforcements to China as will Tl11
place our countrymen beyond the risk of harm, and establish
our relations with the Chinese on a safe and respecta- 1
Lie footing, he were to adopt the alternative he has him- tin
sslf described, and sun ender the honor of England to those for
truculent barbarians, Parliament would terminate his ad- Ku
ministration without waiting for the 4th of March, 18C1. A'o
The country is answering the appeal of the government, j
not as exempting that government from future accounta- on]
bility, or as voting it a definite lease of power, but simply ph,
as acknowledging service rendered, and accepting it as a wk
pledge for more. Wo can only augur the future from tho me
past. Lord Palmerston and his colleagues have earned the tht
approval of the country by what they have done, and it is ha
not only in the hop?; but, what is far more important, on dri
the notorious condition that their policy shall continue to '
be satisfactory, that the suffrages of the' constituencies, as bet
wc confidently expect, will confirm them in power. hei
We cannot but considor that in the balance of those in- of
othufinna IVia ami* nf Itritiuli crmtdnm nrpnnnilai'alafl and *? !,
we believe, indeed, notwithstanding the demonstrations to nol
the contrary which might be offered on paper, that we are lta
in the enjoyment of a much more genuine political liberty sys
than our transatlantic kinsmen. They stand now commit- ]
ted, as regards their foreign policy, to Mr. Buchanan?a nit
man of high abilities, no doubt, and unquestionably the wi
President of their own free choice; but, though they chose for
him, they must also keep him, whereas no electoral judg- tak
raent, however strongly pronounced, will commit us to lov
Lord Palmerston any further than as regards the approval an
of his past acts. If his foreign policy should become pu- tin
sillanimous or perilous, weak or wanton, "turbulent" or em
"aggressive," in the eyes of tho legislature, he will lose
the support at once on which he leans, and the impending
verdict of the constituencies will not avail him one jot. If y
he should point, under such circumstances, to the sufTingrs .
this week recorded in favor of his policy, he would be
promptly told that the favor in question, to be worth any- 1
thing, must be continuous, and that, whatever willingness fro
to support bim might have been entertained by a Parlia- cifli
ment at its first assembling, tho confidence of that body r
could only be retained by the same merits which acquired .
it Lord Palmerston and his colleagues have, in our opinion,
deserved the approbation of the constituencies, and we 1
believe they will obtain it, but they will not be taken for in
better or worse for four years to come. '
The Liverpool Times sums up the progress and pros- int
pects of the contest in the following paragraphs: led
" It will be seen by reference to our election news that
Lord John linssell bad the largest show of bands at the
city of IiOndon nomination ; that the popular candidates at .kj
Manchester, tested by the same standard, were Messrs. nj,
Bright and Potter, 20,000 being present at the nomination; L,
that Mr. Massey, in Salford, had the show of hands over r
Sir E. Armitagc; that the show of hands at Sheffield was
in favor of Messrs. Roebuck and Hadfield ; that tho show >
of bands at lluddcrsfield was in favor of Mr. Cobden ; that j?,
Westminster has returned Evans and Shelley without opposition;
that the brave old General Thompson, of anti-' vfl
corn law notoriety, has been returned for Bradford ; that
Sir James Graham is in for Carlisle; that Mr. Weguelin .
has succeeded at Southampton ; and that at Birmingham ,.i
the old members wore returned without opposition. ,
" Lord Palmers ton's personal popularity, which three weeks ,
ago stood so high, will be tested in this struggle^ and we ]
shall soon see whether his majority in the new House of l|R|
Commons will be such us to enable him to retnin perma- nQ
nent power. At present, to make use of an expression of nR
his own, ' he is master of the situation,' and in the course ol|
of a fortnight we shall be ennbled to judge whether this
advantage can be maintained. New party combinations CAl
are certain to arise out of the existing chaotic confusion, i
which may ultimately advance those domestic reforms of _.]
which the country stands so much in need. To show the J*
interest which some of the leading statesmen of the age are
taking in the composition of the new House of Commons,
Mr. W. E. Gladstone presented himself at Mold on Thurs- col
day. avowedly to eject Mr. Mostyn from the representation mf
of Flintshire, and substitute Mr. Gladstone's brother-in-law, ,
Sir Stephen Glynn. The speech on this occasion, like all Ar
Mr. Gladstone's, was a great effort, and a strong contest
may be expected in that county." 'w"
With regard to the latest news from China the same jour- dil
nal sayi: "
Lord Palmers ton is the most fortunate of ministers. His we
star seems to be always in the ascendant Compelled to ofi
dissolve Parliament because he justified the course which ml
, the agents of the British Crown pursued in China, we now nt
to, by telegraph last night, that the Eui|>?ror of China '
approves ae strongly of the proceedings of < oinmUsioner ere
h at Canton ae the British Premier himself Not only 1
the head of the 'Celestial*' anxious to conciliate the em
itisb, remembering former trouble* in which he was in- 1
Ived with them, but he will have no war. In a word, on
) 'Chinese difficulty' may be said to be arranged by the be*
rit of Lord Palmerston ? a (act which cannot fail to tell era
on the elections which are now pending. las
'At a moment of excitement like the present, intelligence
stirring must have an important influence on the conluencies
; and on that of Liverpool more especially, which '
st feci thp necessity of returning to Parliament the old 'e>
mbers who supported Lord Palmerston In the crisis of ?'1
fate, arising out of this very Chinese question." the
rhe following appears in the Journal Dee Debate : La
V circumstance of considerable Interest which lately took r>
M afforded the Emperor of Japan au op|?orlunity to de- '
re officially in favor of the execution of the treaties some
le back concluded with several Kuropeuu powers. On ,
i 11th of December last, two English vessels of war, after .
ring visited the ports of Simoda and llakodadi, appeared .
ore N&ngasaki, but were refused admission by the manrin
acting as governor. The two captains, however,
ong in their right, penetrated into the port, and anchored J;?
thin gun-shot of the land batteries, which remained witht
aDy act of hostility against them. ??.<
rhe next day they repaired with a numerous escort to
i residence of the mandarin, who refused to receive them, I1*'
t who, at the same time, sent word that, if they had any
nplaint to make, he would forward their representations
the imperial court, and transmit to them the reply. This
did most scrupulously. The two captains wrote to ?'1i
ldo to claim the right of remaining some time at Nanmki,
in conformity with the treaty, signed in 1850, be- ro'
sen England and Japan. ,'
In about a fortnight alter, the Emperor's answer arrived,
nounciug that bis Majesty, being desirous of executing , '
i obligations which he had entered into, had given orders CB'
the three ports of Simoda, llakodudi, and Nangasaki to
open to the vessels of France, itussia, England, and >m'
) United States. Such vessels were to be permitted to
ii mere, iu bu (iruYisiuus, uuu tu vrt&uc vu a wouuiu j
iued extent The Kmperor, in order to carry out tbat fr0
emanation, issued an edict, which was without delay ;nB
ited up in every part of his dominions. The seatusn be- r
iging to ths rassela admittod to enjoy the benefits of the ^
atj are not to penetrate into the interior of the country. to
ould they contravene that provision, they are to be sub- j
ted to an imprisonment, the leDgth of which will be <jet
try time lixed by the Kmperor, according to the circum. tj0
nces of the case. me
K Madrid letter of Mareli 21, in the Pays, states tbat
! Mexican affair appears to be entering on a new phase. ltre
leems eel-tain that even in the case of an arrangement roa
ng made the Spanish squadron will land a force which ve!
11 occupy a point on the Mexican territory until the exe- .
:ion of whatever tnny be agreed to be done. This force 8 a
tl protect Spanish subjects, whom, it is alleged, theMexi- a.
j government is not in a condition to protect on ac- t11'
int of the state of anarchy in which the country now is. 8J?
rhe Madrid correspondent of the London Post, writing ij
the 21st of March, says : . .
' Nothing further has transpired as to the intentions of the "
rernment with respect to Mexico. The agent of that reblic
has not yet arrived in Madrid,-but he may be ex- i
sted this evening, as by telegraph we have heard of his j.j
>arturc from Paris. Although Senor Lafragna will not 1
received officially, the government will hear what he 0f,
i to say. It is doubtful if anv large military force will prj
despatched to Mexico. In the first instance, Tampico ?ot
1 San Juan will be taken possession of by the squadron, ure
1 held until the assassins are punished by the Mexican Bto
rcrninent, indemnity granted to the families of the vie- wy
is, and the expenses of the war paid. By such cautious 8UI
t energetic measures the government will sustain tho
;nity of the nation without incurring the risks of a cam- wjf
gn on shore, and a large attendant outlay they can ill 3rd."
A telegraphic despatch states that the first division of ja],
i Spanish squadron for Mexico was expected to weigh
chor for the Havana on the 28th. tj|(
[Naples corrcaponilvDce of (lie London Times, March ID.] tin
[ 'or several days the report has been circulating on the
change and in the city tbat the difficulties between the
ied powers and the government of the Two Sicilies were,
lot arranged, at least on the point of beinj^ so. All that
new for certain is this, that a communication was made,
octly or indirectly, by this government, to the effect that r
was ready to consent to a pourparler on a given basis,
is communication would arrive, it was expected, in Paris ..
t Saturday night. The basis I have heard mentioned is
enlargement of tho Argentine treaty?that is to say, a S.01
der system of transportation is to be adopted, which is ?
be baptized "an amnesty," and so his Majesty is to come
th clear from his present embarrassment. It is asserted ne{
those wno are supposed to he well informed, that the ,
ng be<rin? to feel th? xtrema i?qi-'L ,
1 would willingly enter again into the comity of nations; 1
t if it is by such a way as is now suggested, it will re
it great, msuonor -on uiosc wuo nave wnuarawn irom ?
friendship and leave all the elements of discontent and nla
ife ns active as ever, because not a single social or po- ?.
cal evil will have been removed.
rhe Austrian government, in recalling its representa- m?
es from Turin, addressed a circular despatch, setting 1
tli the reasons by which It is gnided, to its agents at the dth
ropean courts. A letter from Berlin, published by the det
rd, contains a summary of the despatch on this subject. an<
According to this summary the cabinet of Vienna is not Mr.
ly dissatisfied with Count Cavour's reply to its com- ten
.ints of the Piedmontese press, and of the tolerance with hut
lich these attacks are treated by the Sardinian govern- the
nt, but it sees a new offence in the language used by soo
it government on the occasion of the debates which tioi
ve taken place relative to the fortifications of Alessan- 1
ia. vai
rhe despatch adds that "the Austrian government lias go'
lomc convinced that Piedmont seeks to place itself at the ^
id of the revolutionary movement in Italy?a movement the
which the success would be the destruction of the Aus- S>?
an domination in Italy. Piedmont pursues, theD, a sue
licy which not only tends to disturb social order in Sta
ly, but even to totally change the European political a"
items established by the treaties of Vienna." 1
(n presence of these facts, Austria deems that her dig- m<>
y will no longer-permit her to maintain official relations the
th Sardinia. Nevertheless, Count Buol, in informing the sta
eign courts of the step which Austria has determined to ^ul
:e, declares formally that this measure will not he fol- 1
red by others of a more hostile character, and that in fr?
y event Austria will avoid, up to the last moment, all up<
kb uau wuipiuiuioo tuc mmuicimucc ui prow? ur tr^lC J
harrassments amongst the European cabinets. Hr
3y the arrival of the steamer George Law at New York poi
m Aspinwall we have received full files of San Fran- ?s
co papers for the fortnight ending March 20.
rhe Alta Californian gives the following summary of the '
tnight's news: jit
No events of more than ordinary interest have occurred reji
our State since the sailing of the last steamer. the
rhe weather, upon which California is so dependent for lun
prosperity, has been, during the past fortnight, of the I
>st favorable kind, both for the mining and agricultural cur
crests. And, inasmueh as these two great branches of
lustry are the principal sources of our wealth, we may
rfidently count upon a season highly favorable to every "
artment of business. In fact, every species of labor for 1
lich there is any demand is now being well rewarded in giy
s State. We have never before had snch a copious sup- lie
' of rain, and at the same time so favorably distributed a be
'oughout the season. to I
The news of the passage of the wagon-road bill has use
in received by our people with great satisfaction. era
Icnry Bates, our lnte State treasurer, having proved a lem
aulter to the amount of $121,000, has since been !m- \
iched, tried, and convicted of the offence, and declared ed
ompetent to ever again hold any office of honor, trust, gle
Erofit in this State. He has also been indicted, and is aid
e proceeded against criminally. Rowe, his accomplice, dee
II remains in prison. Comptroller AVhitman has alio cot
m impeached for malfeasance, but has not yet bad his I
?! wh
It is not to be denied, our finances are in a state of em- the
rrassmcnt and confusion, which may bad to a temporary the
n-fulfilment of our obligations, but that we shall event- the
lly, and we mar add speedily, redeem every dollar of vin
r indebtedness faithfully to the letter, no person acquaint- the
with the public sentiment of our people on this point wb
1 for a moment doubt. 1
3ince the summary executions of the robbers at Los An- the
les, great quiet has prevailed in that quarter, and the em
at happy effects are likely to result from these severe but wit
11-timed acts of retribution. The late copious rains give ers
lurance of abundant crops of grass, grain, and fruits, the gat
ning season, and the prospects of the people were never
ire flattering than at present ,
(fold is reported to have been found on therisland of ,
larapa, near Santa Barbara, and also on a branch of the
n Buenaventura river, 45 milee northeast of the city, near *n<
lere the old mines were worked previous to the late gold am
icoveries. the
All kinds of business have been much impeded of lats in brf
) northern part of the State by 'eep snows; these, however, an(
re melting rapidly at last accounts, and will be the means 1
affording an abnndant and durable supply of water for
ning operations, thereby infusing additional activity the
o every department of business. nsx
rbe rumor??l finding of the 100-pound lump at Kucha
ek is confirmed.
'arming will be carried ou to a large extent in the north>
mining region the ensuing summer.
rhe clipper Great Republic, Capt Limeburner, arrived
the 9th ult., 91 days from New York, making the fifth
t voyage between the two ports. Khe attraets contidbleattention,
and was visited by thousands on Sunday
rhe weather has been severe, with some snow in the valthe
past winter. The Indians have driven off some
the wnitee, who were unable to make pursuit, owing to
Phe Mormons are a little more shy of the Gentiles.
1 there is a rumor of their having been ordered to Sail
Phe miners in the vicinity are doing well,
loods at last accounts were scarce and dead.
Phe News of January 28th says Mr. Uarrish arrived al
it plaoe on the 19th from Missouri, which he left on the
,h of November ; reports passing at the Platte Bridge
ne old mail matter for Salt Lake ; met at Independence
ck Brothers Peramora Little and Ephraim Hanks on
iir way east with the mail; they were well and making
jd progress.
>ver eight feet of snow had fallen up to the 24th of Janry.
November, December, and most of January, bavc
in remarkably stormy, and many grass ranges have
iwed under where heretofore but little snow has fallen
me stock has been starved to death, and some roofi
shed by the depth of the snow?a good bint to prole
shelter and forage for stock and make stronger
Phe department have awarded to Hiram Kimball, esq.
Utah, the contract for transporting the mail between lu>endeuce,
Mo., and Halt Lake City from the 1st of Dauber,
1956, until the 30th of November, 1800.
Sreat efforts are being made to introduce cuttings ol
proved fruits and vines into the Territory.
4y the arrival of the steamship Columbia, Captain Dnll
m Oregon, we have dates from Portland to the 12lt
f hfinur twn wtwlffl liter.
Plitt democrats ure moving in the matter of a conventioc
beheld iu April for nominating a candidate for delegab
iiuch feeling teems to hare been awakened, and a good
il of dheuuion ia going on, in regard to the introducn
of slavery into the Territory. The popular eenti
nt would appear, however, to t>e strongly against thi
rravellerg through the Willamette valley say that then
i a great many dead cattle and horses lying aloug tht
id, that have died from the eflecta of the late very se
e winter.
?UQET Sound.?The Pioneer, published at Olympis
tea that fifty-two vessels obtained cargoes of lumbei
Keller's mills, Puget Mound, within the last year
it the coal mines at Bellinghum Hay are worked bj
am; and that the Bteamer Resolute is to be placed or
i sound.
Phe weather about the sound continued pleasant, and
;hly favorable to vegetation.
We are in possession of dates from Honolulu to February
being two weeks later.
Prade still continues dull at the islands. In the absenci
shipping the demand for goods is light, and confinec
ncipally to domestic wants. There appears to be littli
kfidence felt iu the approaching spring trade, and dealeri
i disposed to make no addition to their stocks. Tin
ck in the market, together with the cargoes on the way
il form a large supply for all the wants of ths spring and
nmcr trade.
Phe weather of late has been very fine, with strong tradi
Phe King's birthday had been celebrated by all classei
th unusual festivities. Fruit trees introduced into tin
mda from California and Oregon were doing well.
I'here is a rumor that the islands are to be visited duiinf
i coming summer by his Roval Highness Duke Constan
e, brother of Alexander II, Emperor of Russia, in a line
battle ship.
i'he past winter in Hawaii, as in California, seems U
re been one ot uncommon seventy?tne most, says tin
deat inhabitant," of any sinre 18*27. Italu in largi
untitles has fallen, accompanied with terrific thuude;
1 lightning.
rhe Panama Star of March 28th aayi:
)ur readers will not be surprised to learn that Mr. Bow
, the United States minister, and Mr. Morse, the specie
nmissioner, jointly deputed to lay before the executive o
gota the proposition of the United States government
ativoto the 15tb of April, have been unsuccessfu l t'1*
:otiations have been suspended, and that now all furtbei
ion in the matter rests with Mr. Buch?nan and lus cabr
ltle lJnited States govern
nt been refused, but, according to our private advices
refusal has been so insultingly conveyed, that there reins
but one of the two courses for the United States to
>pt?namely, either to be insulted and brow-beaten bj
w tiranada, and quietly to withdraw ber claim, or t<
>pt that principle of " self-preservation," of which the
v President's inaugural spoke, and take by force the Inanities
and guarantees that have been denied to her do
nds for redress.
L'he Titmpo of Bogota asserts in its issue of March th<
i that the ultimatum of the United States government
nanded $400,000 as indemnity forthel&thof April
1 that this was rejected by Mr. Pombo, and further that
Morse was about to leave the capital. Whether th<
ma of the ultimatum are correct or not wc cannot state
; we are in a position to assert that both Mr. Bowlin
minister, and Mr. Morse are about to leave Bogota as
n as circumstances permit, and then all further negotian
is broken off.
L'he Titmpo considers this a victory, and ascribes its adltnge
to the assistance derived by the New Granadian
rernmcnt from the reports of the foreign consuls here.
rVe are very much inclined to doubt the correctness ol
i 'Titmpo'? statement relative to the ultimatum and the
)0,000, or, at least, we believe that the payment of thai
n forms but a part of the demands made by the United
.tea. The Titmpo is assured that $50,000 would covet
the damage done.
ifr. Morse, it is stated, left Bogota on the 8th of thii
nth, but did not arrive at Carthagena in time to meet
British steamer for Aspinwall. Mr. Bowlin, we undernd,
will leave the capital so as to reach here in May ot
fliere remains nothing now but to await intelligence
m the United States as to bow the matter will be looked
sn by the new President and bis cabinet,
n regard to other news from the capital, we learn thai
Ospina. the President elect, is in parts unknown, having
: Medellin, It is said, for Bogota by a circuitous route, foi
r of assassination.
rhe Chamber of Representatives have passed the third
,ding of the bill for the settlement of the Mackintosh
?tion, and also the treaty with Prance, which was sun ted
by the conservative party and opposed by the lib,1s.
rhe Senate has read the Mackintosh claim bill for the
rd time, and also the new federal constitution bill. The
ne has l>een changed from the Columbian to the Granan
confederation. The Chamber of Representatives bat
acted almost unanimously the proposed troaty to settle
i debt due by New Granada, on account of the old Oonbian
confederation, to Mexico.
'adre Vigil, of Nicaragua notoriety, has been appointed
ate of Mompos by the Bishop of Carthagena.
aspimwall visw or walkrb's affairs.
rhe Aspinwall Courier of April says:
rhe present ap[>earance of Central American matters
es assurance of considerable changes of which the pnbgenerally
ha'e na ken. We have less doubt than ever
tut the success of the cause. But we think the work ia
ae accomplished by a much more direct and immediate
of the weapons most familiar to the commercial genIs,
commodores, and would-be presidents valiantly
ding on the boets.
Ve believe that Walker has been or is to be approachby
both parties principal in the actual outiilue strug,
and we are confident he might, ere this, have received
and comfort from the enemy's camp, even to their own
traction, bat thinks the terms upon which such work
ild have been hired did not suit him.
'inally, we are of the opinion that Walker cannot be
ipped out by the Costa llicans^Ac., even with all the aid
y are getting from outsiders ; that the withdrawal of
said aid would enable him to wblp them; that both
y and their allies In New York are beginning to be conced
of these facts; and that, per consequence, one of
se parties, or some from among them, will aid him (or
oever may succeed him) even to an early triumph,
rhat there are moves now on the board that will finish
game in a few months is our honest conviction. The
issaries who are continually passing and repassing
bin our vision, and the evidence of the presence of othin
high places, furnish us convincing proof that the
ne is at a very interesting and decisive stage.
J It I. 4?,1 4 11 A t
track of this road between Wood'* Point (Norfolk)
1 Suffolk will be ready for the care by the 4th of Jnly,
1 that the whole of the first division of the road, (vis
thirty miles next to Norfolk,) including the Bast Branch
dge and the connexion between the streets of Norfolk
1 Bramble's Point, will he completed In August next,
o arrangements contemplate a final finish in time to run
cars through to Petersburg (BO miles) in December
' * Iv ij.. V
The Hon. John Appleton has already announced to the
public the circumstances which have induced him to discontinue
his connexion with the Union as its editor and
proprietor. I am glad to know, however, that his health is
1 solar recovered as that his talents and experience may be
usefully exerted in that important sphere of duty to which
, he has been called.
Having purchased the entire property of the Washington
Union newspaper, I shall, to-morrow, commence my duties
as it tote editor ntul proprietor. The paper will appear
in an entirely new set of type; and it is my intention to
L enlarge its size as the demands or the necessities oi
' the future may require. It is my fixed purpose to
I spare neither expense nor effort to make it the great
1 central organ of the democratic party, every way worthy
1 of their confidence aud support, and a reliable and
' faithlul medium of communication between the capital
' and the country. Having foe many years exerted my best
efforts to bring Mr. Buchanan into the preeidential chair, I
1 shall render to him and to his administration all the sup'
port which party ties and pcsoual friendship can inspire.
A great crisis in the affairs of the country?a crisis fraught
i with peril and danger to the rights of the States and the
. permanently of the Union?demonstrated to the national
democracy aud the patriotic ]>cople of the country
1 that his acknowledged talents, matured wisdom, approved
statesmanship, and long experience, were necessary
to their peace and safety, and they placed him,
, Willi acclamations, ai me uoaa 01 ue government anu
the Dation. He realized at once their hopes and expectaJ
tiona by calling to his assistance a cabinet of men combining
the rarest qualifications of talents, experience, and
1 statesmanship,?men endeared to the democratic, party by
' all their antecedents; by the zeal which they had displayed
j and the services which they had rendered in some of the
most honorable oRices of the country, in supporting and
j sustaining the principles, the measures, and the policy of
- our party. A single month has sufficed to fill every patriotic
heart in the land with confldence and hope. Kren
J his political enemies seem to respect him. Fanaticism
; itself appeais willing for a moment to moderate its tone;
| and the enemies of our peace, of the constitution, and the
Union, will not be able much longer to disturb the public
i mind by their fanatical shrieks and treasonable agitation.
1 bring to the duties of my position considerable experience
in editorial service, no small share of zeal, and a
' faith and devotion to the greAt principles of the demos
cratlc party as strong and abiding as I have in the
I principles of the Christian religion itself; for the priu'
ciples which are the basis of tlie measures and the pols
icy of that party are but the principles of eternal truth
> and justice applied to the operations of government,
and intended to regulate the conduct of man in
? his social and political state. These principles are fully
i Imbodied in that impregnable platform adopted and proi
mulgated by the National Democratic Convention in June
last at Cincinnati. Our political chief, in his acceptance
I of our nomination, most cordially approved that platform,
- and placed himself upon it. Upon it, with all its issues,
doctrines, and policy, he was elected. He reaffirmed it all
9 in his metchleM Inaugural Address, which carried confia
deuce and hope into all parts of the country. It caused
r the anxious and tho timid to take courage ; the doubting
looked forward with resohite faith ; and all good citizens
now see in the future the inspiring omens ef peaoo, prosperity,
and safety. Upon tlia* piailorin I also stand.
1 I placed myself ibc4? by my vote and my action at the
f nir??.cui of its adoption, and there I shall continue to stand,
and hv itii nrinninlM untl ita itnlinv I aim 11 rnmtnrt lh?
r Union as long as I have an interest in its property or eontinue
to direct !? comoc.
I am fully aware of the high responsibilities of my posii
tion. Its labors, anxieties, and difficulties I fully under|
stand and appreciate; but, with unflagging /.eal and unr
yielding purpose, I shall go forward in the line of my duty,
* adhering to the principles of the party, doing battle in its
[ service, and willing to stand with it or fall with St, if it
. must be, but ever battling for the right.
; % ?
1 The New York Evening Post is alllicted with as treacherous
a memory as its neighbor of the Herald. In its issue
, of the 8th instant we find it stated that there was no cause
1 for the tusionista to despond over the recent election in
Connecticut, for the result showed that the opponents of
* the democratic party were as strong now in that State as
' they were " in the time of Pierce.'' In the Evening Post
T of last Monday's issue we find the following queruloiiB ad>
" The result of the late Conneotlout election may be turned
> to profitable account by the opponents of the administration
in that as well as in other States where they are striving
l to preserve their ascendency. In a State where a large ma1
jority of the voters are known to sympathize, and at the pre'
ceding election to have acted with the republicans, the loss of
half their delegation in Congress and a narrow escape Irons
defeat in the choice of State officers must, nnder existing cir'
cumstances, bo due to something besides the strength of the
enemy. And the question therefore arises, To what errors
t of policy on the side of the victorious party shall we attrlb>
ute their failure to achieve a more complete success'/ These
' errors we propose, in a briaf statement, to exhibit."
The Hoaton corespondent of the Post not only lakes the
1 discomfiture of its friends in Connecticut deeply to heart,
but, as will be seen from the subjoined extract from his last
letter, he evidently despairs of the future :
" We feel rather blue over the Connecticut election. We
have not been beaten in Connecticnt, but, then, we have won
no viotory there. The democrats seem to have a firmer bold
of Connecticut than of any other New England State,
Coming, as they do, immediately after the Dred Scott decision,
the congressional victories of the democrats are a disgrace
to the State of Connecticut. Hhe has broken the line
of New England. The old excuse of ' sploahy weather' is
brought forward, but what li a party good for that can't
stand an April rain, and which la ever to be at the mercy of
the elements V'
i The recent successes of the democracy in Connecticut are
' everywhere regarded not (imply as a local triumph, but as
| the beginning of that reaotion which is to redeem the New
, England States from priestly thraldom and the domination
of fanatics, traitors, and demagogues. The Memphis Appeal
well remarks :
" This Connecticut election may therefore be regarded as
one of the most auspicious events which, as journalists of the
dsy, it has been our duty to record for some time. Next to
the Dred Scott decision itself, It assumes importance, as
showing that there is a limit to which demagogues and wild
fanatics may lead astray the prejudices of the people and imperil
the dearest Interests of millions. It may now be fairly
trusted that the election of Buchanan and the learned and
wise decision of Chief Justice Taney will at last ' head' ' the
negrophllists of the North, and that henceforth the abolition'
ist's occupation's gone.' We hope to ; and we think there
is good ground for hope in the signs of the times, and especially
in this Connecticut election."
We conv the following from the Cincinnati Rnniii?p
"We knew from the alienee of the telegraph?always
prompt to gire an account af an anti-democratic aucceu?
i that the fnaionlata had met with a decided rererie In old Connecticut
at the late State election. It turna out that the
democrat* have elected two of the four member* of Congress,
both being gain*, and that the fusion ticket baa but one thousand
majority for State officers. Last fall the allies bad ten
thousand majority for President, which shows a democratic
! gain on the popular rote of nine thousand. The gain of two
members of Congress is a reasonable reinforcement to the
constitutional battalion in the House of Representatives, and
make* it certain that the democrats will have control in that
body, over all opposition of republicans and southern know1
nothings. There is now but fire to gain in the Month, whteh
' ehange, with several others of a like character, will be rery
[I etslty effected."
' ? . I jt
In Another part of our paper thii morning will be found
an article from the London Time* of the 2t>lh ultimo, in
which a comparison ia instituted between the forms of free
government in the United States and England ; the writer,
as might hare been expected, arriving at the conclusion
that in the balance of the institutions of the two countries
" the scale of British freedom preponderates." The
loyal subjects of Frederick, Ferdinand, or the Czar, have
no doubt a decided preference for their respective forms of
government, and are persuaded, possibly, that they enjoy
as large a share of civil and religious freedom as the citizens
of a republic. We are, therefore, not surprised that
intelligent Englishmen, in their admiration of a government
which partially recognises the representative principle,
and is sensibly influenced by constitutional restraints,
should exaggerate the blessiugs which they hare fairly and
boldly wou, and we may with much truth add, temperately
The Times reasons well; but as its premises are irreconcilable
with facts, and betray the'Sheerest igno.anca of
the institutions of our country and the workings of our
government, its conclusions necessarily fall to the ground.
In its comparison between tbe two goverumeuts, no mention
ia made of tbe Queen of England or the House of
Lords. Their existence is studiously ignored. The government
alone consists of a House of Commous and the
Premier for the time being ; the Premier, ex oficio, having
exclusive executive and senatorial powers and functions.
But, argues the Times, the people of Kagland can at any
moment revoke this great ]>ower by a condemnatory vote
of their representatives in the House of Commons; and
herein they possess a larger share of liberty than
the people of the United States, tor the latter elect
their President for a term of four years, and no matter
how rashly or tyrannically he may exercise the delegated
sovereign power, there is and can be no redress
until tbe expiration of that period. He can, so asserts
the Times, violate the clearly-expressed wishes of a
majority of his constituents, with perfect impunity, lie
can, if he so pleases, disturb or destroy the relations of the
Union with any State in the univeise, against all the
wishes of his fellow-uitizcns ; but until the expiration of
his term of office "his authority could uot be impeached
nor his policy effectually controlled."
Is the Times aware of the existence of such an instrument
as the constitution of the United Slates in which the
power and duties of the executive, legislative, and judicial
branches of the federal government are clearly, carefully,
and strictly defined ? There is scarcely a school-boy in
the Union that does not know that the war-waking
power U not lodged with llie President alone, but Is
shared jointly with the Executive and the two houses of Congress.
The treaty-making power is lodged with the Executive
and the Senate ; and so jealous were the Trainers
of the constitution in regard to the aggregation of excessive
power in the bands of the Chief Magistrate, that the
appointing power with which he is invested is not sole, but
divided. The President can appoint no person to office
without "the advice and consent of the Senate."
Prom the very nature of his office, the Preeideut is necessarily
invested with large powers; but those powers are
so guarded with chucks, restraints, and remedial appeals
that it would be impossible for him to commit with impunity
the excesses hinted at by the Times. Without the
collusion of the Senate, the appointing power could not be
used for corrupt purposes. Without collusion from the
same source, treaties opposed to the honor or prejudicial to
the interests of the country could not he made. Witho"*
the consent of the two houses of JJongrew, uo war could
be entered into. As the supplies for the support of the
army and navy come from Congress, Congress virtually
bos control over these two branches of the nalioual defence.
It is true that au obnoxious President, unlike an
obnoxious Premier, cannot be reached by a condemnatory
resolution; but, should be attempt to set the laws and the
constitution at defiance, his course can and would be arrested
before tbo expiration of his term by impeuchment
and trial.
Nominally, the executive branch, if it mny he so termed,
of the British government, can be overturned every month,
if the House of Commons so wills it. But a shrewd Prime
Minister, with the immense patronage of the government
at his unadvised and undisputed bestowal, and not scrupu
loua in it* use, can retain power for a period four times cs
long aa a presidential term. Direct and frequent accountability
is all eery well in theory in England, but it is not
so ia practice, if we have read correctly the history of that
country. Sir Robert Watpole was in office some twenty
years. The l'elhams were in office for the sanje length ol
time. Pitt was in power from extreme youth until a
short tiiuo prior to his death. Sir Robert Peel and Lord
John Russell were Prime Ministers for a much longor period
than a presidential term.
England has a constitution and a House of Commons
which has some of the elements of popular representation
and popular will, and here the parallel with this couutry
ceasrn; as the Executive and upper branch of the imperial
legislature are hereditary, not elective. We of the United
States believe that, under the workings of our free, republican
institutions, wc enjoy a larger share of civil and religious
freedom than was ever before vouchsafed to any nntion
in the world. The Times thinks that we are mistaken,
and that England with its tithes and taxes, standing army
and standing clergy, close boroughs and hereditary lawmakers,
is the favored nation. With such a harmlers belief,
which to us savors largely of delusion, we have not
the slightest wish to interfere.
Extract of a letter to a genflemhn in thia city from a
friend In Iowa city, under date of April 8 :
" I am happy to inform yon that we hare carried the city
and county in the election on Monday last.
" Reno beat Jerome for mayor 14 votea. We elected 8 aldermen
; black republican!, 4 ; tbey having made a new
ward out of Lyon'a Addition?making 4 warda. II. Tuttle
la elected county aaaesaor. Ceo. W. Clark alao lina a majority
forjudge in thia county, but ia probably defeated.
" T have no return! from the other countlea; but If they
have done like JohnaOn we have oarried the State.
We neglected to call the public attention to the advertisement
of the Indian truet lands in Kansas, published in
Saturday evening's issue, announcing a change in the (lays
of sale of those land*. The Iowa land sales will commence
on the ltd of June ; the lands of the Weas, Ac., on the 'J4th
of June, and the Delaware lands on the llith of July next.
That spirited and ably-conducted democratic journal, the
New Haven Register, pnts forth the following seasonable
" The opposition preaa takea to heart the loaa ot two congressmen
in Connecticut, and they seem to feel especially (
bad over the defeat of Mr. Ferry. He patient, gentlemen ;
wait and eee how far better and more acceptable to his district
and State Mr. Bishop will till his place In Congress
than bis opponent could hare hoped to do had K* been successful.
Then you will become reconciled to the event;
and most of your party will really rejoice that Connecticut
has such an honorable and popular young man to represent
her in Congress, whether they acknowledge it or not. How
touch better it is to send men to the national legislature who
will not belittle themselves and their State by taking a narrow-minded,
sectional course, as Ferry, or Garrison, or Fred
Douglass would do were they in Congress ? Isn't it about
time for the New England States to take a more liberal and
just view of our whole oountry and its great future T We
think so; and Connecticut very creditably takes the initiative
in that movement by sending two sound, conservative.
Union democrats to Congress. The good sense of her citizens
will more and more approve the change, as time and experience
shall demonstrate its propriety."
The following translation of tb? treaty bolweeu Frams
and Persia liaa been kindly furnished for oar columns from
the SUtiatical Office, Department of State, and will
an appropriate sequel to the treaty between England and
Persia, published in the Union of yesterday :
Treaty qf friemlehip and commerce, conclude July 12, lgjj
between France and Portia, the nUiJicationt of which uni
ezehanytd at Teheran on the 14th of the tame month,
licalion ordered in France by decree qf February 14 jgjj
and the treaty accordingly imerted in the " bulletin jj
Loitn of February 21, 1857,?No. 470.
In the name of the clement and merciful Qod,
His high Majesty the Emperor Napoleon, whose eleralion
is like to that of the planet Saturn, to whom tb?IUg
serves as a standard, tho luminous star of the ttriuanmm
of crowued heads, the sun of the heaven of royalty tfo
ornament of the diadem, tbe splendor of standards, "of imperial
insignia, tbe illustrious and liberal monarch :
And his Majesty elevated as the planet Saturn, the sovereign
whose standard is the sun, whose splendor and ma*,
nilitence are like to those of the heavens, the sublimemv.
ereign, the monarch whose armies are as numerous as thy
a tare, whose grandeur revives that of Djemchid, who*
magnificence equals that of Darius, the heir of the orowa
and of the throne of Keyaniens, the sublime and ahsoiat.
Emperor of all Portia.
The one and the other equally uud sincerely desirous
of establishing relations of friendship between the twu
States, have determined to consolidate such relations br 1
treaty of friendship arid commerce, reciprocally advents,
geous and beneficial to the subjects of the two high contracting
To this end they havo deeiguated their plenipotentiaries
His Majesty the Emperor of Prance, Sletir Nicolas-Prosper
Bowrce, his envoy extraordinary and minister plenlpotcu
tlary, commander of the Imperial Order of the Legion of
Honor, Ac, Ac.; and his Majesty the Emperor of all Persit
his excellency Mir/.a-Aga-Khau, his Prime Minister^, Ert*
mad-el-Dow let, (strength of the government,) decorated
with the star of the Order of the Lion aud of the Sun in
diamonds of the class of Amir-Touman, with the green aud
red ribbon, the portrait of his Majesty, Ac. And the two
plenipotentiaries having met together at Teheran and n. hanged
their full powers, which were found in good and
proper form, agreed upon tho following articles:
Art. 1. From the present date and perpetuallv then
shall be sincere friendship and a constant and good understanding
between the empire of France and all its subjects
and the empire of Persia and all its subjects.
Art. 2. The ambassadors or ministers plenipoteutiarr
whom it may please each ol Hie two high contracting
powers to send and maintain near the. other shall be received
and treated, themselves and the entire personnel 01
their legation, in the same manner as the ambassadors or
ministers plenipotentiaries of the moBt favored nations are
received and treated in the two countries, respectively, and
they shall enjoy, in every respect, the same prerogative
and immunities.
Art. 3. The subjects of the two high contracting partiwtravellers,
merchants, artisans, and Others?whether removing
from or residing in the territory of either empire,
shall be respected and fully protected by the autboritiej u(
the country, and all acting under tbem, and they aball be
treated, in all respects, as are the subjects of tire most favored
They may reciprocally introduce, by land or sea, into
either empire, and export tnerefrom all descriptions ofmercliandise
and products; and they may sell, barter, or purh->??
the same in all places within the territory of either
Arc. 4. The merchandise imported or exported by the
respective subjects of the two high contracting parties shall
pay only the same duties, on entering and clearing, in either
State, that are paid on the merchandise and products im
punru iiuu ejpuritiu ujr iut: luercuuu us una HUUject8 01 the
aio3t favored natiOD, and no exceptional imposts, under
any name or pretext whatsoever, shall be levied in one or
the other country.
Art.. 5. All suite, differences, ami disputes which may arise
between French subjects In the Umpire of l'eraia shall be hferred
to the jurisdiction and decision of the French consul
or agent who may reside in the province in which the
suits, misunderstandings, and disputes shall have origins*
ted, of in the nearest ndjoining province. Such consul or
agent shall take cognizance of uud decide such mutters socording
to the laws of France.
Suits, difference*. ?" ? suputes between French and Persian
sut\i" '8> in Persia, shall bo referred to the approprlats
rersian tribuual, where a French consul or agent shall reside,
and shall be examined and judged according to equity
in the presence of an attorney of such consul or agent
Suits, differences, and disputes occurring in Persia between
French subjects and the subjects or other foreign
powers, shall be examined and judged by the respective ociisuls
or agents of France and of such foreign powers.
In Franco the subjects of Persia, whether in regard to
disputes among themselves or with French or other foreign
subjects, shall be placed on the same footing as the subjects
of the most favored nation.
Art. C. In cnoe of the death of a French or Persian subject
in the territory ol < itlier State, respectively, the succession
shall descend to the family or partners of the deceased,
if any such exist. If the deceased have neither
|N?icuo ^iBuinjr j nui tvisuviitirt), ui euucr COuuiry. 83 li?
case may be, the property shall be confided to tho manage
ment of the consul or agent of the nation of which the deceased
shall have been a subject, who shall hold the [unit
conformably to the laws and customs of his own country
Art. 7. for the belter protection of their respective subjects
and commerce, and in order to strengthen the good
and equitable relations between the subjects of the two
States, the high contracting parties reserve, each to itself,
the power of appointing each three consuls. The consuls
of Frauce shall reside at Teheran, at Bouder-Boucliir, and
at Tauria; the consuls of Persia shall reside at Paris, Marseilles,
and the isle of Reunion, (Bourbon.)
The consuls of the two high contracting powers shall reciprocally
enjoy in the territory of each tho respect, privileges,
and immunities accorded to the consuls of the most
favored natiou.
Art. 8. The present treaty of commerce and amity, cemented
by the sincere friendship and confidence whirb
prevail between tho two empires of France and i'ersit,
shall, with (tod's help, be faithfully observed and maintained
by both parties forever; and tho planipotsnl^Uies
of the two high contracting powers mutually engsjfe to
exchange the imperial ratifications of their august sovereigns,
either at Teheran or at Paris, within the space of
six months, or sooner, if possible.
In faith whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries of the
two high contracting parties have signed the present treaty
and affixed their seals.
Done in duplicate in French and Persian, at Teheran,
Julv 12, A. I). 1855, and the 27th of lift month of Chawal
de l'Hegire, in the year 1271. z
F. BO W It id E,
The Louisiana Courier of the 7th says :
" The election for judges o f our district courts, which toot
place Yesterday, presented no features of importance bejro?J
those showing that the democratic party took no part in it,
either by nominating candidates or otherwise; that the terrorists
had It all their own way ; that, in a population of sou8
160,000, tho vote was, consequently, somewhere in the neighborhood
of 4,000 or 3,000, and that, notwithstanding all this,
gross outrages were not wanting. Mr. Kohert Wooldridgt,
member of tho bouse of representatives, and others, wers
knocked down, but we defer particulars."
We copy the following from the Nashville (Tenneasf)
Union of the loth instant:
" Mrs. A. V. lirown, ber daughter, and others of the (sally,
left the city yesterday for their new residence In Washington.
It had been tho intention of llov. Brown to visit
Nashville for the pur|?oae of attending to some pressing private
business, and accompanying his family to Washing!""lie
found his public duties too exacting for this, and he wi"
not visit Tennessee at present.
" We mike this explanation for the information of nit".'
who expected to see Governor Brown here this month, as?
of those of his correspondents who still address their letten
hero. |
"We hope it will not be considered inappropriate'"'
Nashville paper to olaini thai Tennessee has been as high'T
honored by those of ber daughters who have represented bf
in Washington society as by ber most distinguished sow "
the political circles of the national capital. Our clli'S"
will all feel a pride in knowing that in the accomplished wib
and daughter of the 1'oetmaster General our State eontisues
to have representatives by whom this distinction will ^
Trocbi.k nv NKBtUBKA^-Tbe Missouri Democrat lear?
from a gentleman who recently arrived from Council Bin
that the people of the various towns on the river *ho"
St. Joseph were destitute not only of the luxuries
many of tbe necessaries of life. As the steamer St Hetf
paired along eager crowds hastened on board at
landing for the purpose of purchasing partions of h*r'1
go that might be for sale. Several persons who *M>' "J
with her had provided themselves for snrh demands ,n
realized large profit* on their ventures. Ths Dewo^'
learns, farther, that four men were shot at PUttsmooth,
braska Territory, on Saturday evening, March 19th, hj'
orders or hands of the vigilance committee, and that
others were banished by tbe same party from N'?hr?? ^
across the river, and forbidden to return to ths TwnW
under pain of death if caught. Their offence was f 1

xml | txt