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i| WASHINGTON CITY.
. SUNDAY, JUDY 4. I?M. Builnen Notice. At Ukj buauusa of lb? I'UHXI ctuldwhiiunt to rlew of lb' |>rupo-ied Jl'buBgn 111 II* term*, will bo cuoduntcd utriclly uu a u**b Inula, all -fcouut lur Uin colkx-Uun ut BUl'*cri|iUoo* for I lie I'nton are dm oo Hfiwl A"" iM'uieou nbonM be made l? Agtuta afler th? iUle, e? i wibiuMr W. C. Lii>?eoiul), jr., a bo 11 authorized to make eoUecb< ? u. laiiawara, liar) Uuut, uud Virginia, a *miim>im>, maicb 12, hob ?if. I l'be foregoing notice la not intended lo Include any agent* or oollec toe* U.*l on am* inytiy 111 bate bereiufore ot loyod In till.*, city, but ib'.ae only who have I" rlonii"d audi eervlco In other part* of the imbIrfi, , Ap.119?If 1 1L 1L1.J.IL- -- INDFPKNDENCE l?AY The day of our National Independence suggests tite topic for innumerable sermons and editorials this morning. Pome preachers, lay and clerical, fiercely defiant of Providence, will play over the extravaganza hist introduced by the priests of Baal i evtial centuries ugo ; the clear air of this bright morning will be tortured with fierce cries bewailing our national degeueraoy, and the still blue sky will be iuoulfcd for withholding its tardy bolts of vengeance. But we wish to otter tho God of Nations a purer worship and a more fitting sacrifice ; from the altar of the Union we would have ascend the grate ??'fhaiikfiiliiuaa for u historv unmatched In any upon clear record, or half hidden in mythic legends. lo the catalogue of wonders there is no marvel ho rare an that upon which (lod has written, America. Tho child of unnatural parents, spurned in its youth, taught to endure burdens too great for itH youugstrength, America bowed its body duly long enough for its heart to feel the pi tenure, when it hurled oppression from it with the force of a giant. Still struggling for a place amongst the nations, tardily received, as an imprudent youth who if not tolerated might do himself an. injury, gradually supplanting its self-sufficient patruus, outstripping them all in the race of civilization, and now lifting its head proudly above its compeers, Ah some tall cliff dwells from the vale. au?t midway leave* the atorm; equalled in its rapid strides, perhaps, by only one Ination, Russia?what a history 1 Wo love at SUeh times as this to look upon that superb painting, by Ilealeyy of Franklin pleading with Louis XVIII fur a recognition of the nationality of the United States ; but if we were gifted as some artists are, wo would to-day commence a nobler, worthier, and more- instructive picture, for a comr.i fh?t ii-rnnl hiufnrir-nl mcmnriid ?if. Hhnuld be James Jjuchaoan guiding peacefully the stronglinibed, manly giant, whose youth was so unpropitious, and across whose countenance, even now, occasionally, sectioualists and designing partisans cause a flush of passion. After a period of remarkable excitement, wo celebrate this anniversary of American Independence in the midst of a dead calm of the political elements. Seldom, indeed, has it fallen to our lot to greet our readers with such uumingled satisfaction as upon this national birth day. We congratulate them upon internal quiet, returning prosperity, aud the general prevalence of healthfulness, oven in our great cities, notwithstanding the unusual heat of the season ; upon an increased respect from foreign nations, consequent upon the late manly and vigorous assertion of our national rights in the Gulf of Mexico ; upon the unbroken harmony of a wise government, and the gradual dispersion of the foolish heats which lately set the two great portions of tho country in apparent antagonism. God save the Union! Let it he shouted from the Granite hills of New England, repeated by the pion??er's lusty voice in the far West, and echoed in tho palmetto groves of the sunny Pouth. God save the President! God save the Union ! OUlt INTKR-CONTItfENTAL AFFAIRS. We are advised, by every event of our progress, as a nation, since the conquest of California and tho lapid advancement of the l'acilic States, of tho overwhelming importance, in a political and material point of view, of our inter-continoutal territories. It was to have been expected that tho great country lying between the Mississippi aud Missouri rivers, and stretching to the north, south, and west to the settlements recently sprung info existence on the Pacific coast, would, sooner or later, be inhabited. The acquisition of Texas uud New Mexico on this side, and California (and we may say Oregon) on the other?for Oregon, as a political community, is an outbirth of the settlements to the south of it?have undoubtedly opened the whole interior country to tho movement of population. It is but a few years since it was tlie settled policy of tho United states government?u policy concurred in by tho whole American people?that tho territories lying west of the Mississippi should bo set apart as the permanent residence of the Indian tribes. It is now seen how utterly impossible it is, even under the opera tion of federal laws and tho covenants of treaties, to set limits lo the progress <>f a superior over an inferior race; for no sooner were the tribes sent to th'-ir allotted homes than an overwhelming necessity, which no power of the government could control, demanded tho extinction of their now titles and their removal to more distant parts. All the territories west of the Mississippi up to the desert lines of the iuterior arc not only occupied by our own people, but Congress lias established, or is about to establish, a government over them. Kansas, Nebraska, .Minnesota, Utah and New Mexico, to ibe wit sftht mountains, and Washington and Oregon on the west, have been constituted separate governments, one of w hich has already been admitted into the Union as a sovereign State, and the others arc in quick preparation for the same destiny. Applications are else before Congress for tho extension of the laws of the United States, and the organization of governments over Dacotah and Arizona. AVe allude to these facts in support of the theory tll'll till* wtmlo ililnrin. ,.r 4l.? ?? ? 4.'. 4 I. .1 4.' 1 ,,4 i,llo vuiiuuciii in urguiiuu at aii early <lay to command its share of our rapidlyincreasiug population. It is now little more than ton yearn sinco California wan acquirod and settled. That State has now not only a largo population, but is euc of the most productive, wealthy, and powerful 1 members of the confederacy, combining within the range of her industry aa great a variety of labor, skill, and profit, as any other in the confederacy. With an extended sea-coast and commodious harliore, and looking out upon the commerce of tho Pacific, from which it is able to command a perpetual tribute, she is deHtinod to become one of tho first commercial nations of the world. Thorp is, too, in her condition, snoh a peculiar combination of advantages for an independent Btato as to afford a continual temptation to withdraw frofn the federal |,Union. We do not imagine (hat the fountains of ! national patriotism t? <'atSfuruia, up tu tike present tints, have l>?Ki poisoned by serious reflections ftpou the oeneflts which might resuft to ite people from ! their position as an independent nation. It ia well, ; however, to consider theae thinga in connection with j the rapid growth of 'hat country, and the still more 1 rapid advancement of Atlantic population to the westward of the Mississippi. Without desiriug to 1 j enter into details, or to do more than take a mere glance of the true condition of the whole country, j and, especially, to refer to the great laws of population, which uio seen to have been sufficient to abrogate nearly all our treaties with the Indian tribes, j and to have outstripped all Jnutian calculation, we think it due to ourselves as a nation that these conijjupli mi should be made the subject of deep retlec i'tion by the American people. They point with irri , r | sistible force to the necessity of so shaping the policy ! of-the country as to effect a consolidation of all its ] ; social, industrial, and producing interests. By the rapid extension of population, production, j ami commerce in California the spectacle is in fact exhibited of the apparent existence there of au independent government. This may be of little consequence unless such a course shall be pursued 011 this side of the contiuent, by neglecting proper | means to bring the two regions together;'?* to sub- ! stituto a real for what is now Only an imaginary j danger. The present administration have determined to establish an overland-mail route across the continent. This step is one of great importance, calling for the adoption of measures to protect the line, thus opening the interior to settlement. The chief obstacle, it is well known, to the movement of people to the centre of the continent is to be found in the hostile attitude of the tribes who nro little more than banditti, acting under immunities extended to them in consequence of their barbarous character. We entertain in reference to these tribes no morbid scntimentalisin. Wo would apply to them means of reform ; but if those means fail, and their reduction from savage states is found to he impossible, regarding their extinction as sealed by tlie laws of mind, we would adopt for the purposes of their government precisely such remedies as may be necessary to secure protection to our own people, and without any regard to their peculiar welfare. We do not in the administration of our own laws, to our own people, exempt ignorance from tlio penalties of crime, nor even admit it in mitigation of such penalties. Urunkeiiness, which is the normal condition of most of the Indians on our continent, constitutes no valid excuse for wrong-doing ; and wo do not see why the same rule thus rigidly applied to our own people should not also be applied to the Indians within our common territories. If it is said we have no statutes providing for their punishment, and no courts and officers to execute them, we answer we have means to bring them to a moral accountability, and means to punish them, equally effective. Wo suggest to the country, at all events, whether, in view of the increasing importance of our inter-continental affairs and the necessity which exists for consolidating our national territoriOH, a moro vigilant federal police over the Indians is not demanded ? In our judgment economy and the expenditure of moans, justice to ourselves, arid a wise forecast of our great political interest in the future, call for a revision of the paat policy of tiro government in reference to those high questions. SENATORS OWIN AND WILSON. The Now York Evening Post has copied a letter to the St. Louis Republican in reference to the lute dispute in tho United States Senate between Senators Gwin and Wilson, and has made that letter the subject of editorial comment, with the evident desire to relieve Senator Wilson from the disgraceful imputations to which he has made himself liable, both as a United States senator and as a gentleman. We publish both the letter and the Post's article in another column. It may be very natural that tho Post should seek to defend tho republican senator, and should feel sore that so prominent a member of tho republican party should have placed himself in so unenviable a position; but we must bo excused if we express the opinion that the Post would have acted a much moro friendly part towards Mr. Wilson had it "overlooked" the entire affair, and not reopened n discussion which no one can have so much reason to regret as the senator from Massachusetts. The Post insinuates that the communication to the St. Louis Republican was "prompted more or less directly by Senator Gwin himself.'' The falsehood of this insinuation is apparent to all thoso who are familiar with tho facts of tho case and the character and reputation of the honorable senator from California. There are several statements in tho letter with regard to what occurred in tho Senate which are erroneous, and prove, conclusively, that tho writer was not "promptod," either directly or indirectly, by Senator Gwin or by any of his friends. For example : the writer says that Senator Gwin asked if Mr. Wilson had not supported all the appropriations for California. No such question was ever asked by Senator Gwin. There arc many other minor points in the letter which are equally erroneously stated. / Wc have refrained from commenting on the facts of this transaction because it was the evident desire of the entire Senate that it should be consigned to oblivion; hot because any exception was taken to the conduct of Senator Gwin?which, we believe that we are warranted in stating, was as completely approved by every member of the Senate, without distinction of party, as that of Mr. Wilson was emphatically condemned?but because the members of that body were unwilling that the disgrace of Senator Wilson should roceive any further publicity. For this reason tho entire proceedings in the Senate in reference to tho dispute have been excluded from tho Congressional Globe. Tho Post further insinuates that tliore was sonio doubt as to whether Senator Owin intended to prosecute tho matter to a personal combat. Kverybody here knows that this insinuation is a most malignant falsehood, and that, were it not for tho Interference of Senator Seward through Senator Davis, the col Union would have been inevitable. The high, chivslric reputation of Senators Davis and Gwin aro a sufficient guarantee that the ono would not. advise nor the other agree to anji departure from tho course which Senator (!win had roRolvod to pnrnua which could ho considered, In the moot minuto particular, derogatory to hia lionor uiul ponition ; and we can state further that, woro it not for Senator Itavia'H interposition, no means of settlement would have been possible other than a pergonal contlict. To Solictor Davis al"Qe it due-ihe credit of havjjgg averted the collision, and to Senator WJluon alone is j due the odium of having provoked the quarrel by the use of tho moat uuseemly language ever uttered within the walls of the Senate of the United States, With reference to Senator U win's having been "upon the ground" before, we cannot ace what that [has to do with tlio inaAer1. ^"tre Senator Gwin 4 member of the Society of Friends, we caa hardly ! imagine how he could have uvoided compelling Seuator Wilson to retract in the fullest and moat one quivocal manner the foul language which he diegracefully addressed to him, or chastising lam in case of his refusal so to do. Senator Wilson prudently adopted the peaceful course, and made the amplest apology to Senator (J win through Senators Davis, Crittenden, and Seward, who stated thut they were "possessed of tho fact" that Senator Wilson did not intend to apply to Senator G win the insulting language of which the latter gentleman complained ; and here the matter would have rested, had not the Post, in the excess of its republican zeal, irnpru duutly revived it, and indulged in comments which wc, "as public journalists, could not well overlook," unrt onlv nnfir.ft in iiufinA fit Haiui^ru TYsavto Gwin, and to the trntii of the history of this, to Mr. Wilson, discreditable affair. NEWS FROM MEXICO. Wo have given such reports in our paper to-duy iu regard to affairs in Mexico as are within our I reach, The public will agreo with us that there are no people on the globe about whose, present action there is so litllo certainty, and about whoso future there is no earthly doubt. Mexico has enjoyed the dignity of a national government for a goodly number of years, but it has been changed iu even its organic features, we had almost said, by each recurring change of the moon. The people continue to demonstrate the greatest extent of folly to which a nation can attain. The present indications aro that the government which succeeded Comonfort, whoso tenures have really never been lixod, is about to give way to another. It is not possible, under the circumstances, to feel any great interest in a people who do so little for themselves, and present always a spectacle of anarchy. They are guided by neither example nor principle. With abundant natural resources,?a line climate, a rich soil, boundless mineral wealth, sea-coasts and harbors 011 both oceans, they present themselves to tho world a spectacle of weakness and vacillation without any parallel iu history. THE PROPOSED TERRITORY OF NEVADA. It was apparent that a very strong feeling prevailed iu Congress, before itsreceut adjournment, iu favor of creating some provisional form of government, either by the grant of a territorial act or otherwise, for the settlers in Carson valley; but the pressure of business during the few last weeks of tho session prevented any action on tho subject, it will doubtless be considered early in the next session, and some proper law be passed that will meet tho dc mantis or the settlers in tins beautmil valley. 1 In order to give the employees in the Union office an opportunity to enjoy the celebration of the anniversary of our National Independence, no paper will be issued from this ollico on Tuesday morning next. The next issue of the paper will be on Wednesday morning. We understand that Baron Wetterstodt yesterday presented hTs credentials to the President and was received as minister resident of his Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway. We also learn that the Chevalier de Sibbern, who for a leng time so acceptably represented his government in that capacity in the United States, has recently been appointed Swedish minister at the Ottoman Porte. PUBLIC TESTIMONIAL TO RON. J. OLANCY JONES. On the 2 2d nit. a public dinner was tendered at Philadelphia to Hon. J. Clancy Jones, chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, which that gentleman was compelled to decline. The call was signed by a largo number of the most respectable gentlemen of the city. In his reply Mr. Jones alluded to the important measures that had occupied tho attention of Congress. He applauded the firm measures taken by the President in arresting the outrages by British vesscls-of-war in the American waters, and his wise and prudent courso in relation to the financial embarrassments of tho government. As a remedy for the grcut. falling off in the revenue he suggested a modification of the tariff at the earliest practicable moment; modified so as to secure us a revenue of from 1(50,000,000 to $00,000,000 ; an additional sum sufficient to liquidate the present debt of $05,000,000. 'llio idea of a protective tariff he scouted as obaoletc, and at the present time never alluded to iu Congress. 'Die great iron interest of Pennsylvania, however, he urged, should be protected by taxing iron to (lie utmost extent consistent with tho revenue standard, because it is the article most consumed by capitalists. THE SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH. There hns iveen no news received of the Niagara, so anxiously awaited on tliin side of the Atlantic, and consequently the laying of the great ocean telegraph i? Ktill in doubt. Indeed, a* the time increases the probabilities of h failure increase. We fear the difficulties cannot be mastered, and that we shall have 110 telegraphic communication with the inhabitants of another world for year* to come, though we do not doubt the final success of the project. LAND SALES IX CALIFORNIA. The quantity of land to be offered for sale in California under the President's proclamation No. 614, which appeared in our paper yesterday morning, ig as follows : At the land office at Humboldt ..... 501,876 acres. ' " Marysville- -- - 1^ 055,665 " " " Kan Francisco .'166,97.'! " 1 ' " Stockton 1,005,016 ? " " Visalia .1,15* 400 ?' " " F/w Angeles 1,144,140 " Making a total of ? .--5,231,070 " Calvin W. Pbillco, author of "Twice Married," " Akin liy Marriage," and other magnaino articles, well known to readers of Putnam's and the Atlantic, died xt Pufflold, Conn., on the 30th ult. Mr. I'hilleo was an | active politician as well as a popular writer. Tn IH 19, ho j hoeamo a frcc-soiler, breaking away from the democratic party, with which ho had previously acted, but after- | wards went back to the democrats, and was s niemltcr of | the democratic State committee of Connecticut at the time of Ids death. Tho Rev. I>r. Prentiss, who has sailed for Eumpu in the j Arago, received, a few days la fore Lis departure, from lomo of the congregation of tho Mercer street Presbyterian church, of which he was pastor, a letter announcing ; that a donation of id,000 bad lieen contributed by tlicui as a present to bim. Colonel Cooper, adjutant-general, is slowly recovering from his late severe indisposition. NEWS BY XEEEGIIAPH. 8?- K mf B<ui?ThI of tb? He??tap of Ex-President Mo?ro?. '' Nkw York, July s,?The remains of ex-President Mon roe were this forenoon taken from the City Hall, and, escorted by the 7th regimsd-t, reached the steamship Cuueatvwii about noon, 'fihey * " then formally deli rared over to the Virginia comrnittoe by Hon. John Cochrane in on eloquent speech. fi JendnpbWV. r*l? made a telisifous ropon*. taBdssing tie Mneere Bud tBilmt gratitude of the j*opl?: of Virginia, for the honor done by New York to the remain* of Virginia's dfertlnguised eon He conld not, he said, abstain ftvtuKiiat reforeiK ? to the examples and memories of James Monroe Thin was 110 mere pageant. It was a political aulaiuuity, neet-ssary upon occasions to Whiskey is firmer at 22 n 2.'f$ cents. . Dr. A. F. (JimM returned to our city yesterday. IIo bns been absent for the last year, connected with the great. Pacific wagon road. Ho is in good health. Treasury IVotea Outstanding July I, IKW. trkamjry dkpaktmkvt, Registers omen, July 1, 1858. Amount outstanding of the several I ahum prior to 22d July, 1848, as per the record* of this office . #99, 111 84 Amount outstanding of the issue of 2 2d July, 1H40, tin |>er the records of this olflce C.900 00 Amount outstanding of the issue of 28th January, 1847, as per the rec??rds of this office ... 1,000 00 107,011 04 Deduct cancelled note in the hands of one of the Recounting ofltoet* under act prior to 22d July, 1846. .... f?0 no 100,961 04 C. T. JONEH, Acting Register. July 4 Itlf ffntelAKtar] i9*tiif assotiatkd scu.dik.r8 of tiik war of 1812, of the TU.itrict of Columbia, are requested to usseniblo at the City Hall (Council Chamber) on Monday, tho 5th Inst., hy 11 o'clock, with tholr badges, kc. Any member who may not bo supplied with a badge can obtain one by applying to Mrs. VI*er, opposite Iron Mali. July 4 J AS. 1.AWRKNSON, Secretary. HrliKSIMKN'TAI, JIE A DQC A RTKft* VoLU XT K K KM, Washington, July il, 1666*?Thin regiment having determined, should tho Seventh Regiment of Xow York Voluhteera visit Washington, to receive them with military honors and to pay them the attention due to brethren In arms while lu this city, every oftloer and volunteor of tho regiment will hol t himself in readiness to meet in lino, nt the proper tirna. nt the City Hall, for this purpose. When it is certainly known that the Now York Volunteer* will come n signal uf five guns will be llred by tho buttery of tho regiment at the Columbian Annor> . At this signal every officer commanding n company will immediately rejx?rt to the Colonel for orders. The regiment will not j>arade on tho 4th or Monday ; but a national ??" ? *?uit l"? flrml :it tho Columbian Artnorv by a detachment of the N?luuml UiMrtlx, under tlx- order* of fall, at ?rl*c, ?t moridinn uul nt rauot on that dmy. By ordor of (X>1. Ilirlcey; If. N. ' >W'R, jily 4-- 114 Adjutant Hf^"l!Kv. |)r. Tkam>ai.r will preach in liin Church, 1Mb itrwi, io .Uy, Immodlmtely mfter llio morning rcrrlon tin* rite of litfillon win l>? ? linlnlrlefod. 11m public nr? cordlnlly Invitol J ilv 4 BW-Tiik Akmbai. Commkni kmknt or Ukoruktown Cotitw* nill bo'hold ou WHdniMwtoy, July 7th, commencing At ft oHrtnclt, a. nt. (hi tl?o previous clay tit.* graduating CIofa will dofoltd tin* prin olpal TtMwwi <?f IntclkHtiml find Moral Philosophy. Tho oxerclio* on tbH ?lny will Im? nt ft o'rtoHt, p. nt. Tho public nro reaped Cully hi V It id to Attend on l?oth ooc.inlonn. July 2 ;jl B. A. MA(?UHK, President. riAO LET.?A nioely-furnialiod and cool room. Ap1 ply nt 4fi TwpllVi, betwroD K anil K. July ?<Wt* ( , preserve the virtue mid patriotism of the Republic Mr. Monroe had eat great example* of true patriotism and integrity and of a self-denying putriotisin. Tin: Seventh regiment had assembled to do honor to a fellowsoldier ot New York ; for James Monroe first drew his sword in defence of his tountry's liberty at Harlem Heights and on White Plains. He reviewed the political career of Mi. Monroe. His greatest, Ids gravest error?an error of judgment only? was, In the orator's opiuiou, his opposition to the federal constitution. This wottld have been politically fatal to ordinary men , but Mr. Monroe had too strong a hold upon the affections and confidence of his country. Ho was among the few who could rise above the reproach of poverty, although in the multiplicity of his public cares he had no time to care for his own future ; and he therefore retired from office In depressed circumstances Yet his dignity of character rose above adverse circumstances, and commanded the resjtcct and esteem of all. In conclusion, he alluded to the long delay of. Virginia to reclaim the remains of her distinguished sou ; attributing it to the partisan strifes at the time of his decease. It had been thought host to wait until all political auitnohitia* had been forgotten After the ceremonies were concluded the coffin was placed under guard in the forward deck saloon, which had been properly fitted up for the occasion. Both boats departed at three o'clock, under salutes from all the forts in the harbor, the Ctmard steamers, and from the vnflous vessels and points along the shore. I.arge Fire at lluflnlo. Di'ioaix), July 2.?A fire broke out at eleven o'clock last night in the extensive lumber yard of Van Vleck, Churchill nnd Parker, situated on the Krie canal, at the foot of Hospital street, consuming two million feet of pine lumber and the entiro contents of the yard. The property was valued at $30,0011, and insured for $18,000 in tho following companies : Buffalo Mutual, $.'>,000; iKtna City and Charter Oak, at Hartford; City, New Haven, and Hampden, Massachusetts, al>out $2,500 each. About three hundred cords of wood in the yard adjoining, belonging to Mesiner & Wells, was also destroyed. It wus valued at $1,000; no insurance. The lumber in Howcutt & Stewart's yard, also adjoining, was damaged, to the amount of $2,000; no innuranoe. Several adjoining buildings, with a canal-boat loaded with wood, were also destroyed. Katun's planing mill and Ingersoll's paper mill, though on fire several times, were saved by the exertions of the firemen. The fire was evidently the work of nn incendiary. Several unsuccessful attempts wore made to fire buildings In other parte of the city while the above was burning. Jack Smith, a fireman, went into convulsions from the excessive heat, ami will probably die. Arrival of Shipwrecked Crews. Savannah, July 2.?The British schooner Annie Sophia, from Nassau, arrived at quarantine this afternoon, with 15 to 20 of the crews of the wrecked ships Bombay, Chase, master, from the Canary islands, bound to Matanzns, and the Knickerbocker, Bostwick, master, from Liverpool, bound to New Orleans. Serious Illness of col. Kane. Pimladkli-hia, July 3.?Col. Kane, tho peace negotiator between Gov. Cumining and tho Mormons, is lying ill ut his residence here of the bilious fever, contracted by exposure while on his expedition to Salt hike. Murderous Affray. Moiiilk, July 2.?This evening, two brothers, John and IJpvid IU4d, of the firm of Iteid & Co., wore slabbed by II. Warfield. Tlie former was dangerously wounded. The feud is sui<l to have existed for ten years. Bail was refused. The WeAtherat Newfoundland. St. John's, (N* F.,) July 2.?Went her mild, with rain. Wind southwest. No appearanee of the Niagara at Trinity Bay. Fire at Union City, Connecticut. WATrunoRT, July 2.?The hoe factory of K. C. Tuttlo & Co., the wheel-shop and the Malleable Iron Company's works at Union City, al>out four miles below this city, were burned to the ground early this morning. The property was insured for fifteen thousand dollars, which will not cover the loss. Markets. New Yosk, July 3.?Cotton closed firm, with sales of 1,000 bales at 12$ cents for uplands middling. Flour is firm; sales of 11,500 hbls.: State, $3 75 a $3 85; Ohio, $4 55 a $4 05 ; Southern, $4 45 a $4 75. Wheat is firm salesof 14,500 bush.: prices are unchanged. Corn is firm- salesof 11,000 hush.; yellow, 82 a 83 cents. Fork is steady?mesa, $10 50; prime, $13 50. Lard is steady at 10$ a 11 cents. Whiskey firm at 23 cents. Sugar closed buoyant?Forto Rico, 0j> a 7} cents ; Muscovado, 0 a 7$ cents. Coffee is quiet. Spirits turpentine steady at 43 cents. Rosin is firm at $1 00. llicc dull at 3 a 3fj cents. Baltimore, July 3.?Flour is dull but quiet?Howard street and Ohio, $4 37 ; fresh ground City Mills hold at $4 25. Wheat steady?good to prime reds, $1 a $1 09 ; fair to choice whites, $1 15 a $1 25; new white Virginia, $1 60. Corn is steady?white, 74 n 75 cents; yellow, 75 a 77 cents ; mixed, 70 a 7.3 cents. I'rovisions are dull and nominal, with a downward tendency. ? ? /M'? (ft' 'y 1 I THE Gwm AH I) H'lf.scy A HAIR. 1 si if c IP . j ?' m l [tram tlif fei l.mb II fub'n&gd ' Wamuxgto*, JonelJ, ln.yg. TV corn ipondem between Senators Qwin ami Wilson, as given to the public, luut given iim to much criticism upon the ap|>*ientlyri1 <li<ulous position into which both these gentlemen have l>een placed by their difficulty oil the Hour of the Senate The published correspondence docs great injustice to the ' Cnlifornla aenator. The California appropriation I'llU b ut all been support e<l and voted for by Mr. Wilnou.r A hill regulating the pay of surveyor* in California woe under conaideration, and Mr Brodertck Ktatcd on the floor of the Seuate that labor and living acre an cheap in California an in the At lautic Stale* This statement, titougli contradicted by Mr. Owin, was mode the pretext by Mr tVlftrui for a violent Uitide against California, whom he represented as "having both anna iu thu treasury." and sadeuvoring to abaorb the whole public revetmc of the eouritry. Mr Owin asked if the agistor from Ma^arhu*tt? hail not supported all the appropriations for California Mr. \V. aunvvciod that ho bad, until new light wasgiven him by Senator llrodcrick Mr Owin rejoined that sflth a course was "JenuigotjuUm." Mr. Wilson inquired if the remark wus applied to him, aud Mr. Gwin making no answer, Mr. YV. said he "would wxuicr be charged with demagoguism than tieahoi/." . Mr. Owin sprang to Ids foot ami asked if ' the seuutor from Massachusetts intended to npply that epithet to him. Mr. YV. said ho had no explanations to luukc, whereupon Mr. G. pronounced him "a liar, a coward, and a slanderous traducer of character. Here ended the aflair on the lloor of the Senate. Harlv the next morning Mr. Owin, not receiving any message from Mr Wilson, selected Senator Fitch of Indiana, aa bis frlcud, and despatched a challenge, whicli Mr Wilton declined aoospttng. This closed (lie correspondence, and as there had been no explanation or a(>ology tor the language used by Mr. Wilson, WB wore on the eve of having another "tailing affair." lTecaution had been used to prevent a sectional bias bciug given to the difficulty, by the selection of a Kartw from a five State to bear the challenge I my we were about having another "caning affair," when Senator Seward, ns the fiieud of Mr. Wilson, undertook to bring about, a Kelt lenient by an maple apology from Mr. Wilson. Mr. Seward called upon Mr. liwin and tregged that he would siuqicnd any action until he (Mr. Seward) could make ho effort to settle the difficulty amicably. Mr. tlwiu consented to grant two hours for the purpose of receiving an apology from Mr. Wilson. Mr. Seward at once drew up the paper, and its terms being-satisfactory to Mr. (twin and his friends, Mr. Seward hurried on to procure Mr. Wilson's signature. The latter asked time to show it to gome other friends, aud tho enemies of Mr. Gwln succeeded in inducing Mr. Wilson to refuse his signature. Mr. Seward regretted the result, but determined not to leave any effort untried to arrest a street tight. He sought Gen. liavis, senator from Mississippi, and late Secretary of War, and begged him toseo Mr. Gwin, and get hiui to modify, If possible, his demand for an apology. Gen. Davis undertook the task, but he first sought an interview w ith Mr. Wilson, to learn his views. Gen. Davis suggested the propriety of Mr. Wilson fixing some hours between which lie would lie upon tho bank of the canal, and ready to defend himself. This could be done without any formal challenge. Mr. Wilson asked what would lie the probable result of such a nieeting. "The death of one or both of the parties," responded Gen. Davis. Mr. Wilson at onco declined thaf mode of settlement, and asked what Mr. Gwin proposed doing. "1 doubt not," said General Davis, " lie will attack you on sight, and in a rencontre of that kind, lie will have every advantage of you, accustomed as he lias always been, to the hazards of a frontier life." Mr. Wilhoii then expressed himself icivdy to make any apology which might be agreed op by Mr. Davis, Mr. Seward, and Mr. Crittenden, and immediately addressed a note to Mr. Gwin to that effect, which is published with the correspondence. Mr. Davis then held an interview with Mr. Gwin, and asked him if he was willing to intrust his honor in his (Gen. Davis's) hands. Mr. Gwin Slid he was, but that any settlement contemplated must be speedily made. Gen. Davis said, "You know Wilson will not tight, and we must have no more 'caning affairs,' Your reputation for bravery is not involved ; that 1ms been established on five different occasions. You ciui afford to be generous, and 1 hope you will leave the whole settlement to the persons indicated by Mr. Wilson." Mr. Gwin assented to the arrangement, and hence the adjustment as published, in which Mr. Wilson disavows applying the offensive term to Mr. Gwin personally, but only intended it as referring to extravagant legislation for California. Mr. Wilson was rather unfortunate in (he selection of words to express the idea of "extravagant legislation;" and the history of the transaction shows that the Massachusetts General won hut few laurels in the quarrel which he provoked. [From the New York Kvenlr.fi Post,.lune 30.J The Latb Arrain of Hoxon in tius U.nitkii Srsm Sixatk.?-Unwilling as we are ti> stir the ashes of a past personal controversy, we do not see how, us public journalists, we could well overlook tho letter which we quote elsewhere from the St. Louis Republican, in reference to the affray between Senators Wilson and Gwin at the heel of the last session of Congress. 'Hie Republican is a partiHin paper, and very strongly prejudiced nguinKt nil republicans, but especially against Senator Wilson, and we should not have thought of appropriating no much H)>nc?to the communication referred to, did it not bear unmistakable evidence of having been prompted, more or less directly, by Senator Owin himself. The facts its here rqiortetl could not huvc been coined by a reporter, and they put such a face upon the whole transaction ns Mr. Uwin Blight naturally desire it to la-nr before the public. The writer represents Mr. Sewanl, of his own motion, seeking (3win. and begging him to accept an apology from Wilson, and (Jwin consenting to suspend his wrath two hours, and no longer, for the upology to lie prepared. This plan of m ttlenicnt failing, through the perversity of Mr. Wilsoc's advisers, he represents Seward culling Jefferson I'avis nt<> the council as a mediator, and his recommending Wiiaon to fix a time when he would be upon the bank of the canal, armed and ready to be whipped, mid, we presume, throw 11 into the canal by Owin. The merit of this recommendation was that it saved Wilson's scruples about accepting a challenge, though Davis kindly warned Wilson that, iu such a rencontre ns would ensue, (twin would have cveiy advantago of Wilson, accustomed as he was to frontier life, and would probably kill him. Owin is then represented as assenting to the reference which was finally made, after much solicitation by Davis, and upon the ground that five previous affairs of honor had given him a reputation for bravery which enabled him to be generous to his adversary. Blessed are the peace-makers always, and a personal collision between two United States senators is a s|>ectacle which no American can witness without mortification ; but if such versions of this affair as we find in the Republican are to have rea|s>nsible currency, whether true or fnlse, vc can only say that, in our opinion, the pcucc-makers arrived too soon, or tarried too long. TJR0P06AL8 FOR LITHOGRAPHING AND FOR f KNORAVINO ON" WOOD. OiniK StTSKiMVMiKvr Prune Ptuvmn. Washington, July 3, s'.S. HEAI.FH PROIIHAIJ* will lie rocolvotl at this ofllce until Woodsy, tli>' liiih in-1?nt. Tor uigrnveg on Muse, and intiiiK from the aatnr, lor lilt' uso ot tin* So Halo and House of llcprc.-cnlntlYc* ol tho Lfinle.l States, the following Mi)s, Plans, and Skotelica, to wit : No. 1. ?23,1121) copies of each of four nuatlo Mapr, to ac' Otn|iany tho VaoiBc lUilroal Report. No. 2 ?6,000 ro J'Ins of a Map of the KkpIoraUvtn Ui the Territory of Nebraska, Ac. I No. 3. ? 1.630 copies ot ench of the following ; >(a|ts of tho L/wlsviUo and Portland Canal; Plan of the Lift Look of Ilia same, mid Plan of a lattice Pivot Bridge for the same No 4 ] 530 copies of s Sketch of the Country nrsr tho Southern Boundary of Kalian o No 5. 1,530 Copies ol a Map *Ik>w iug tho Houndary of the Crook Country, No. h 1.530 copies of n Map to accompany 1.1. E. K. Be lla's tVagon road Report No 7?1,5*0 copte* of* SkihSl of tho Southwest Pilss. The pii|M r for printing tin? Maps, toe., will bo lurin died hy this 1 office. SKALKIt I'll' ill Jt*Al> will al-to ho rooclrod until the eame ttino for Kngriivnig tai Wood a itutnbur ol lllo-trati<nis to novompony the agri i cultural Patent lltlloo Re|*?rt for 1S57-, and a treaUso on tho treatment and nee of the Druinod try. These Illustrations amount, In the aggro gal", to alamt llll. rji royal octavo page.?, , All of this work is to ho execuh d In the. highest sty le of the art,and will be open R>r the InaporlloD ol bidders at this nltlcu until tho nmrii| lug of tho 'lay for closing the bids. Proof iliipri's-lnus, will' the origami*, arc rmpilrnd to be auburn toil to thl* office lor approval or oorrootion, free of expense for Iranenil*. ion. before the woodeuts are reoolved in* tlio printing commenced. It Is tu he distinctly understood that no bid w ill he natnrti Iliad from any party not directly engaged III, mid practically acquolatvd with, the character of the work hid for. Itonds will loi reo'lired from tho an/ es'ssfnl Inddor* air the faithful execution of tluor onirat I-. The proposal? must l>e iidvlre.ssm. to tho undersigned, an l endorsed "Pro|sisals for Engraving, KIIP). W. BOWMAN, July 4 eivll'l [lllt( IA^tar) rtnparlntendcnt. fpHR FANCY ItALL; a Metrical Dettcription of a Fancy Ball given at Washington. Mil April, 18M. dodk/itfd to Mra. Senator liwln; containing Hie nana-* "I the virion- character* represented and descriptive note- Elegantly | if tilled n? Tlaied |?iper and handaoniely Isntnd. Price $1 50 Erce by mall isi receipt of two dollars. In stamp* or otherwise. (A smalt cdltloo isdy print tl.) I I'd Wished by- ERANKI.IN PHIIJ'. M2 Prnn av.. >. ... ml. Slat loth .droi ts Jnnc 4 NOTICE.?1The Washington Sunday Union and all Ihn New rl'nrk |mprr? will bfi fhuud m all iinvn at Urn lb** , Mtstiila In the p***?K<: of Browns' at,. I the National IM<<| 1 .fnly 8?2t *?i :?? ,? ! DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE Y in co mm us, jvlt 4, 177#. The utkuiimout IktliirtMum of tie Tluiitm I'mUd Skitee of Amereet. When, iu U>?> count* ol human events, it become* n?-i easuiy lur ooe people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another mid to assume among the power* of the earth the Mt<u:wte Mid fa^ual xtatioii to which the lawn of Nature wad Nature'* (tod au title them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind reouii'OM tlmt thev should < It dare the cause* which impel them to the sepwrutiuu. We hold these truths to Ire self evident: that all jnen 1 are created equal ; that they are endowed by their Orea| tor with certain unalienable right* ; and auiong these are : life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness ; that, toercitre ! these rights, government* tire instituted among men, d? ] riving their just powers lioni the consent of the governed ; that whenever any form of government becomes tie stun live of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, Htul to institute a new government, , laying its foundation on such principles, and organising Its powers in such form, us to them shall seem inoat like- ( ly to effect their safety uud happiness, l'rudence, indeed, A will dictate that governmenta long established should not be changed for light and transient causes ; and, accordingly, all experience hath shown that mankind are more I i diapnaad to sutfer, while evils arc sufferafoic, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are ac : customed. Hut when a long train of abuses and usurps i thins, pursuing invariably the same obj-ct, evinces a dei sign to reduce them under absolute deapoti-ni, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new' guards for their fut ure security. Such has bean the |?tient sufferance of these colonics; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Urcnt Hritain Is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all liaiiug in direct object the establishment of an aliflolute tyranny over the State*. To prove tills, lot foots bo submitted to a candid world ; Ho has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary fur the public good. He bus forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing imjxu'Uuicc, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should ho obtained ; and when so suspended, lie has utterly neglected to attend to them. He has refused to ]rass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature?a right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only. He lias called together legislative bodies at places uuusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. He lias dissolved representative bouses repeatedly for opposing, with manly lirmnoss, his invasion on the rights of the people. He lius refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause others to Ikj elected ; whereby the legislative V powers, irtcaptthle of annihilation, have returned to the i people at large for their exercise -the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the danger of invasion from without and convulsions within. I He has endeavored to prevent the population of those States ; for that purpose obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners, refusing to puss others to encourage their migration hither, ami raising (he conditions of new appropriations of lands. Ho lias obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers. He lias made judges dependent on his will alone for the tenure of their offices and the 'amount and payment of 1 their salaries. He lias erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people and eat out their substance. He lias Kept mnong lis. in times 01 peace, suiuuiug uimies, without the consent of our legislature. He luis affected to render the military independent of, and superior to, the civil power. He has combined with others to subject us to n Jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws, giving his assent to their n< ts of pretended legislation : For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: For protecting them, hy a mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they bhouid commit on the inhabitants of these States: For cutting oil' our trade with all parts of the world : For imposing (axes on us without our consent : For depriving us, 111 many cases, of tlie benefits of trial by jury : For transporting us beyond seas, to lie tried for pretended offences: * ; For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies : For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering, fundamentally, the powers of our governments : For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all eases whatsoever. He lias abdicated government here by declaring us out of liis protection, and waging war against us. He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. He is at this time t ransporting large armies of foreign mercenaries, to complete the. work of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun, with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most liar- I barons ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilised notion. He lias constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high seas, to hear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands. 11c lias excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions. In every stage of these oppressions we have jietitioned <? ' lor redress in the most Intmbic icrinH : our repented petitions have been answered only by repeated Injury. A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define u tyrant is unfit to la; the ruler of a free people. Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts made by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the ciicumstances of otir emigration and settlement here. We liavo appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and wo have conjured them, by the tics of our common kindred, to disavow those usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connexions and correspondence. 'l'hey, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold thcin as wo hold the rest of mankind e nemies in war, in peace fi iends. We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by the authority of the good people of these colonics, solemnly publish ami declare, that these nnitcd colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States ; that thoy ore alMolved from all allegiance to lire Itiitish Crown, and that all ]s>lltical connexion between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to lie, totally dissolved ; and that, as freo and independent States, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other nets and things which independent States may of right do. And for the support of tliis declaration, with a tirm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our I livtn, ?Mir tdrltliun, nmi inn menu nviiwr. JOHN HANCOCK. ' y,m llamjvMir. Jmnw StullU, I J..-bill Kirll It. (Tnjrlor. i IViUtnm Wlil|>l>l'. * IU"". Mlttliin Iliornlmi txxtrgv Kn-x. p MuMkiMrti Hog. Itrlowart. Sainuol M?t?*. CwsiirR.xln.jr, John Ailtrtiff, * Hwgn Rw?rl, Rplx-rt Trrxt I'lilnr, Thomiix M'Knnn EII.rl.lK" Marglai,il Kkii-lf Jilan'l. Snmm'l < In.-*, sr.'|.hrn Hoj*ln- WilUnm IVa. i WilUmn Kllor.v. Thnnwx Blottt' Cnnn-TtimU. Clmrlet Chrroll. of InrmUuiu Roger Sli'Tinnn, riryinio. Kanuwl Huntington, (iuorgn Wj the, Willium Willixm*. Rk;hnnl H.'nry I/PC, ! Oliver Wokott. Tlionm. ithim, .Vnc Fork. IVnJninin llnrrlxon. I Wtlllxni flqrtl, Thorn* Nelson. |i rhtlip UvlngMon, InuKh U|MAM Lm, v'runci" Lewi*. Chrtnr BraxtOB. MorrU. j\nrtk flartlmti. .%>? Jtrtry William Hnnpnr, Bl< hard Blnckltm. Joaa|>li IIokIhm, John VruiHT<<|xjot>, John J'rnn. Fram-ia Ho|*JUron, .V.oil* Oinrhtta John llarl, Kriwnrtl Rtillntljfe, AlnaluimJInrk. Thnnut* Haywnrtl, Jr . J'mnfylmnia. Thnin.ia J.ynt-h, jr , Robert Morri-, . Arthur MUalletiau Itoulamtn Knah. (imtffin. Warajamtn Franklin, Jtolton tlwinnetr, John Morton, l.vman Hall. 4 CnorKC Oymar, (l?aflp Walton. -v M