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The Washington union. (City of Washington [D.C.]) 1857-1859, January 26, 1859, Image 1

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PablUhed by COMAKLiI'M WfcADKU,
M*le UNPIN mu?MM, IK , bet inil ?l<t IJI.
I1IK DAILY UNtON will b. publiafced mi) tmui g, (M<
i.fi rtutMl,) delivered to OH) auletu ilnm al UK t? u 11
?.?!, |?)*!,Pi lu tha cuUouior Tu nutMKtibcr* b) u?il,ai |g ,i
Mfef all niHpS. "it 1" H'lVi-ri.irn i 1
a inacc will be r barged M per annum
lUb ?KMI-WWJHMJUV t'AlUM. ?Ui be poMatbrd aval
gadnraday ami Ualurilny, at M p?r annum for uu? Oigry; MI? f.
,|rM Ip*" . ami gib IM arm eu|itae.
THE WgMMIiT VBOOM, a mj large paper for owintr
ctruelabuti, ?iU ? ? publiaUed nirg Saturday amruiu?,ai U>a mi
l??ii.., prK?? Kur ob# rtyy, gl par annum , three onpiee ft.r gb , flv
Mfte f?r gb . leu oj.u, fix gib , taunt; c?|im, ?mi ? in? adu m
gjl. subaollpbutu may ruuimeuee at any lime
8PKKCI* OP HUA.a ?. U>X,
ut nam,
On Tur+md IMttxrmi ai (Kt Humst </ Htprmtn*
th>M, January 18, 1853.
The Hoin? Ip-tug in Committor of the Whole on thi
ateteuftMe Union, Mr. IA?X imM
Mr. Chaiiumi > would m t have nought th" fton
whoa 1 (lid, hail I nut Umu exuwgiug daily a lehtgiaphii
tiespauw """* ' '"? iwnw) Mjm^pmwum
uutittoi iu? for saying what I wished iu relation to tin
ijuoUvih ut a foreign "aturc connected With our territo
rial sxpausiou
there to a l<*h: in history which in an Inexorable a
talc. A wnter in the time of the flint ISluart Rave an tin
juuubci of the kingdom* ol t hii?t< mlmu tiveand-twenty
Hut there eiu no mention of three of the principal na
iltoeia, Austria, unil l'russia, in their present eon
.titiou , nor ?i twelve other nation* out of the twent
now taiuuieofwd in Europe , nor of the thirty petty sow
ereigutks now extant in Qennuny. Within two ccntu
ri, , (he transatlantic continent has changed it* territor;
and rulers beyond all the cnprice* of fiuicy ; yet by a lai
as fixed an that which returns the seasons or rolls th
1'iie dlsi|uieUne osix-i t of cisatlantic )>olitiCH signifis
the uoueuuU'.iatiou o( territoi iul change* on this conti
uent, Ixir.g-predicted, long-delayed, lmt us certain on th
login t>f history !
feme of these chnngcs in Kurnpe Iihvc been thmugl
decay, dissolution, and disintegration. Spain was ouo
the Peru uud Mexico of the (Mil World. The ancestor
of the Hidalgo wore enslaved in the mines of Spain b
lioure and Carthage, lint now, Leon. A rug on, Oslile
Navarre, Toledo, Gidtcia, and blrsnada once scjmrut
kingdoms, have tout their isolated glory, und ure onl
known an the props of the "Worln-eaten throne of Spaiu.'
The stronger usees of Europe have consolidated thei
power by extending its sphere and absorbing the wcake
neighboring nations. England, Ireland, anil Scotland
by union, have transplanted their colonies and multiplies
their strength ; and Itussiu hns duped the half of Ku
rope and Aeiu in its strong embrace, until, from the fur
thest West, we perceive the contlict of ttwlr civillsutloi
la the blithest East!
These are but illustrations of u law from which Aruer
lea is not exempt. No* more surely will northern Afri
ca, and indeed the countries whose boundaries are colli
liilent with tbo Mediterranean, become French; wcsteri
sad northern Asia booomc Kussinu ; and southern und cen
tial Asia become English, than this continent bccoin
American ! The luw which commanils this is higher lai
than congressional enactment. If we do not work will
It, it will work In spite of us. This law may bo expresso
T hat the Xoeaker ami diaon/amzai nation* tmtM If. abwrbal b
tbt *tnjt>i and vryaniztd nation. Matiomdititt of infer iu
jr*da uuul mrrcmler to those of eupenor catoMtoi and polity
Whether the races of this continent bo in h tribal con
ilition, as arc our Indians in n semi-civilised and aiwrcliicn
rnnmuifii, iib mo w; u'liiim miu nuuin American uu
Mexican races, they must obey this law of political gravi
Utiuu. Tlris law ilrl v? them to the greater and mor
illiutrious Ktate for protection, happiness, and advance
meut. Whether the United States go and tube tlivin
or tliey ootne and ask to lw taken, no matter. The
must whirl in ; throw off their nebulous and uncertai
tome, and become crystallised into thu higher tonus i
The largest expression of thU law of annexation is
That no nation lias the right to lioid soil, virgin and rich
yet unprodncing ; no nation lias a right to hold grcn
isthmian highways, or strong defences, on this continent
without the desire, will, or power to use them. The
ought, and must, inure to the advancement of onr com
merce. They must becomo confiscate to the decrees c
In carrying out tliexo designs, we liavo, from time t
time, uddisl territory from France, Spain, and Moxlce
We have endeavored to add other territory, which th
jealousy of France, Spain, and es|>eclally of England, lui
prevented. It is not my purpose now 10 rehearse on
history in this regard. We may liuve kept step with on
interests aud our destiny ; but ut this juncture, stundin
on the threshold of this new year, we are only mnrkin
time, not moving forward. It is well to inquire whetht
there is not now upon us, as the assembled expression <
this nation, a peculiar duty with respect to this clemcn
of our progress. My judgment, is, that we arc to-day dei
diet. We are not up to the enterprise of the nation,
we consider just now tbo elements of our people, martia
mechanical, intellectual, agricultural, and political, wli
will doubt hut that there arc a down locomotive icpul
lies already fired up and ready for movement?
The Executive has done his duty. He has boldly fo:
lowed out his Ostend ideas. He has urgod upon us
duty, which, lieiug undone, leaves him powerless, an
leaves the national enthusiasm and expansion a prey t
adventurous raids and seditious propagandists, find tli
Thirty-fourth Congress aided President Pierce in tli
1 Mack Warrior matter, we should now have represent!
tiveg from Cuba on this floor.
The President has allied our attention to the Urritor
upon our moith. Not Now Urnnadu slpi will come i
time. Not Venezuela?she is even yet more vital tha
New Granada; but the country north of these, and lyin
between theiu and us, must be alMorbcd. For this al
sorption we must contcud, not so much with the peoph
whose Interests will In; enhanced by the absorption, br
with (Spain, France, and JKoglaud, who have no in teres I
eomparablo with our own. These interests and autage
nisma I propose to consider in this ortler : First, Cuba
second, Central America ; third, Mexico.
As to Cuba, the reasons for its acquisition arc well ur
derstood by the oountry. The message lias succinctl
and ably presented thorn. Its geographical position give
to the nation which holds it, unless that nation he ver
weak, a coign of vantage as to which sclf-preservatlo
forbids us to lie indifferent. Our Mississippi, foreign, on
coast-wise trade, now $250,000,000, and in tive yea is t
lie $500,000,000, are within its compass. While the islun
is of little use to 8|kiui, save as a source of revenue, it
to us of incalculable advantage. The nature of the cob
nisi office in Cuba?its power to harm us leiucdilessl)
unless wo go to Madrid for remedy ; and the final sto]
piog of the slave trade, are reasons well urged by tb
i'renident. Our unsettled claims, and the many otht
difficulties growing out of our relations to Spain, daman
settloraont, but receive none,
i How long shall we continue in this condition ? l)i.
ring the pleasure of Spain f Is there no redress .' ]
our every attempt to lie construed into a usurpation
What impediments have we to meet ? There is on
svhich has, since Mr. Adams's time, proved insunaounl
able?tipunish pride. It is well said by an old poet
" Rents gives us pride, which Spain of all tho earth
May freely gtv?, nor four herself a dearth.''
Since then there lias been no curtailment of that pride
True, Spain lias now little to be proud of but her rocol
lections. Poor, sensitive, corrupt, alio holds to the puiu
tillio of dignity without its substantial energy. If Sjiai
will not null Cuba to us, because she feels that slio wil
thereby sell her honor, we must insist on her chaagin
its imlicy. She should keep the island aloof from Freaci
intervention. She should preserve its iudependeivte.
noun- nil, .-||H>1I| annum nixniHn ner present nmimou
tariff. Her export tariff is an anomaly in commerce
mid l??r tariff on iui|>orta is (till mora hurlatb. Her ex
port duty, which in a direct Ut ou tlio producer of nu
Mignrs and tobacco, doe? not *o much affect m ax the ta:
which ilhc load* ou our flour, |njrk, beef, and lard. W
iiave tried in vain by diplomacy to unloosen tlntm -dia< k
lee. Nothing but the ewonl can cut them off.
lip to IffOU Spain iropowd restriction* on Culm, li;
which no trade at ail wax allowed with any foreign im
lion. Alter thie. ami on the revival of tlio Spanish mcr
cliaut marine, the differential duty on goods impelled ii
fvrnyn bottom* wits enacted. It wan Intended to criudi ou
the trade witli the United State*. 'Ihia continue*] til
l?3t, when thia ONfMi Jso-awl retaliatory lawn. Ni
connterveiliug acta. however, could move the mean
?> ?. < of Spnuish restriction. Amen. an limn and otbc
staple* for which (Jnha must look to a foreign market ar
excluded. Tim* a balance of trade averaging $10,00(1,
0(H) per year is kept constantly against iih The duty Ii
Cuhi on Hour iinjmirt*??l from .Spain is only $2 .">0 per bin
re! ; from the United States, in American or other for
elgn bottom*, it 1* $10 Hi. So that, If Hour lie wortl
live dollar* in Cincinnati, the coat to the Cuban conau
nier 1* sixteen dollar* per barrel I This enormous tax oi
fl" ,i prevent* it* Um- In the island, except by the wealth
few- the thirty-Are thousand Spaniard*. The body c
the poor and opprewa-d creed. ? are eompellcd to n?. th
dry and Insipid <*??nvn root *? a anlmtltote for bread
Thl* tariff on flour, aildeel loan iniimona tonnage tax
Operates II- a prohibition mi limn With t> ?m?l< mu dntv
Hut theft In in tho American mind A chronic distrust oi
! of Kngland. It lit well grounded In her laxity of faiih la
When her luUjtvxt* can be subserved, the breaks any coin- M
t pact : and only adhere* to It wlreu demanded bjr tor in < <
> terests Whether the treat tea to he mode with Houdu- tr
i ran Cos!n. Kiui, aud Nicaragua throtllo thU haul ling of ol
Hulwer, whether we are to lose still more by British diia ; ia
f tory diplomacy, rt-tnuinx to l>c seen One thing is rc ai
i markuhle, that we have not advanced since 1849, when at
1 Nicaragua, In the Ili,*,. S-lva treaty, proponed to "con In
Icr on us the exclusive right" of su iutcrooeanic canal, rc
i <? highway. Hail thai treaty been confirmed, we might cl
i hava bad to-day forts and (tee cities along its route and ai
I at its termini, with full right to protect Nicaragua by all
l the strength of our navy and army. A year later, aud that a
t wily diplomatist, liulwcr?who, for his tact, is sent, to the in
ItusphiiruM to teach Itusxia her ritU in the Fust?comes j si.
forward with hi* projft. Our government nlhblcH coyly j m
v. : at his Iwt.it ; hut, like a foolish fish, at last leaps for the lu
1 fly, Is liarbcd, auil hauled In to flounder foi the amuse- ai
1 merit of the world. Would that Mr. Clayton had hi
f weighed the meaning of Hrnclfuiigns's philosophy : " It rn
1* always thne to cut your throat ; but if your throat Is pi
t once cut, there are Tvtain difficulties In the Way of re- tt
i cohsidortjig totir determination." From that time till pi
- how, we have l*rcn following Mrs. Chick's rulvice to Horn- I in
i ' liey, "making an effort" to get rid of this incubus. ! tl
i CraaaptiMi and Webster tried in 1K.12 to unravel the | of
1 j woh. Then Webster aud Molina tried it, with the tiki of i te
! Hofita Him. Ttien Wheeler and Faoolinr, acting for Nic j h
! uragua, made an effort which our government failed to i ui
1 accept Then Clarendon and Hemui, for Honduras, gl
. j sought to untie the knotand this led tho way to the fr
b Case- Vviwirri treaty in the fall of 1857, which begun dr n
u nont. Then, a fair treaty was made, allowing us the pro- tr
u tectorate of the transit j but through foreign influence it u
I Was fio modified by Nicaragua >ui to be unacceptable to it;
x our government. Now, isir Oore Ouxciey, having ceased 11
> to lie a diplomatic myth here, has gone to the tSouth, xl
b where, we trust, something may bo done to cauoel that tr
? part of the Clayton-Bui wer treaty by which we agreed u
is losses, imported from Culm into the United State**, $t0,
r ! 003,466 worth. Tlie tariff on these sugars was $12,028;
r 03!) 80. Ohio |>ald one-tenth of this, or about twdvi
g j bundled thousand dollars, wliicli is equal to her immcms
g , school tax, nnd nearly half a million more than she pay
r i for her Ht-ite government, and nearly one-half of the ex
>f penseH of all her counties. By our tariff of 1857, we re
it 1 dnccd the tax on sugar six j>cr tent., nnd the panic re
r- duccd the importation enormously. During the yea
If ending June 30, 1858, our sugars from Cuba amounted ti
I, i only $16,620,022?giving a revenue of $1,468,605 26, a
o j twouty-four per cent, ml valorem.
>- ; Since 1847, when Mr. Polk proposed annexation, thi
1 nation must have paid over sixty millions sugar tax! Ohii
1- | lias paid of that sum $6,000,000. My district lias paii
a , one-twentieth part of $6,000,000, or $.300,000 ; an an
d ; nual tax of $30.000?all for what 1 That one of tli
o ; prime necessaries of life should be fostered into prematur
ic ! growth to aiil a few sugar-planters in the South ! If Cuh
i0 : cannot he annexed, to break this servility, by whicli tli
i- i many arc made tributary to the few, then we must re
! model our democracy and economy. My State legislature
y | in 1854, passed a resolution, at iny solicitation, requestln]
n | Congress to abate this tax. There is no reason for its ex
n istence.
g "But," it is said, " we must protect Texus audi, u
>- isiaua in tlieir few sugar plantations! If Cuba comes in
\ ! away goes the tax !" Every man, woman, and child li
it i my State will say : " Away with it! Welcome Cuba am
is free sugar !" "But," guys the senutor, "if Cuba b
)- Africanized and kopt out, it will keep up the price o
; Hiigar, and a great growth will spring up, rivalling cot
ton." What then ! Ecstasy 1 " Negroes will be in de
i- tnand. Cotton, too, will lie kept high 1" What an at
y i gutnent for a senator of all the United States, every on
is of whose interests are his own 1 The Union is a cotton
y pod! [Laughter.] Its growth dependent on the growti
n of the cane ! If, by this logic, Cuba is to be kept out
d let us know it. Already the republican mouth grow
0 juiuy at the prospect with Cuba in the Union 1 [Leigh
d tor.] It matters not if sugar lie made by slaves. Tim
is little delicacy of Exeter Hull seutlroentalty is bocomln
>- i obsolete. Even our Quakers are willing to drink rhm
r, damnation In their codec-cups, and cat it on their buck
>- wheats!
ic 'l My most distinguished constituent, the governor of m
ir | State, and a candidate for the presidency, will soon out
d | vie your southern hotspurs in the race of annexation, i
! thus you dress your laggard logic. In a speech at i
i- I Yankeo festival in my city, where the Pilgrims wer
[s i praised for many a virtue which they had not, and tliei
J : intolerable intolerance was glossed over by the fervor o
e ; the hour, Governor Chase is reported to havo advocate*
t- j the policy of "leaving to ovory one the almointe contro
t, of all matters of iluiuestic concernment," and an "Indcti
nlto expansion of empire." If this does not incliuf
Cuba, 1 will ask his friends opposite to say what is ex
eluded by his concluding remark that, as the last resui
i. ot the enlarging empire I Kith of American govern men
I- | and American principles, he summons "the parliamen
' of man to sit on the destinies of the world !"
u I did not dream tiiat 1 should ever have to welcome tin
II Ohio aapirunt for the White House into the support o
g its present occupant. 1 did not dream last, fall that
h should represent hint so nearly. I warn gentlemen o
the South to observe these signs, and prevent this griuw
s laieany of democratic thunder, by considering the propo
i, sitiou which some gentleman last session called nations
grand larceny 1 Call it by what nuiuo you will, 1 uli
r ready to answer the call ot the President, if for nothing
x else, for the benefit of our $250,1)00,000 of yearly trade,
e which must pass under the range of Cuban cannon. I
' am ready to vote for the bill of the gentleman o
| North Carolina [Mr. Brakcii] looking to the purchase ?!
j- | Cults; mud i urn not very particular as to the amount o:
: money with which to till the blank in bis bill. In cam
I of our failure to purchase by honorable negotiation, 1
1 I would favor its seizure in ease of foreign war or of a En
t. j ropcan Intervention.
1 As to Central America, I do not desire to enter so fullj
o into our relations with this region. That has been abl)
- done by my friend frotn Virginia, [Mr. .Ixskik* ] Wi
r know well the impediment existing in the way of out
s aciulKltion lli?;rc. I he t layiou-nuiwer treaty me ?i
- pluujath blunder <>f the century?utand* n* a huge gor
U gou lu our (Kith, 'llio policy of it* abrogation In con
ceded ; hut " how not to do It" weuiK to have been tin
- practice. The preaeut Executive in hi* motwage of I)o
h ccmbot 8, 18A7, bewailed thin condition of thing* Ht
- Inherited, >u did rrenhlent Pierce, thle treaty ol peace
it which liu proved a treaty of offence, r-ugland and th(
y United flmtm ham been quarreling over It* eonatructlon
?f when it* deatrnctinn wan the moat prwdfir cotiree thai
e ootid have lai n adopted. Collateral trentic* may bt
. made wiiich will prevent the eonxequonoe of an abrup
, abrogation of thin treaty. Diplomacy la now, we are told
, working to thb end.
j?l)C 1
t '~ J ' " - ' "" " r~'- " IS ?
or it Cub* were tumcxcd, tiiln > .mininptbm, oh it is c?tl
mated by our economists, would be a million of bam-la
It would be enjoyed by us exclusively ; tnun to tbe ben
etlt of tbe tauten ol my Mtats and yours. That is widen
from tbe fact that bo other country oould cow(wU> witl
' ns lb that staple ; fur no other country is so near to Cubt
or #9 prolific in IneadstulU
r We exported to Cuba in 1*57 outy 46, lib lamiln a
L Hour, worth $324,410; lu 1H5.H, 17,005 Istriuls, word
B $105,009. Of other article* beef, Jiork, lurd, ham*, alb
bncou, and including Itoui we hod in 1*97 but $1,8b*.
k 7 t?J* - lu 1*58, but $1,228,119. Wiiuniu. inula lilx-ia
comiucicial economy like that of Belgium, Ifollami, oi
R tirewl Britain obtained, we sliould have had at least $10
R 000,000 of produce) exported. 'Ibis would nearly havi
balanced our trade in sugar turd cotfcc, und ou these w
' have fixed no prohibitive tarllT! fhtt* our commerce ii
crippled uuder the blows of tills Hpnnish oppression Why
. even the Spanish crown would bo bettor helped by a man
liberal policy. 8uch a system In this era of coiuiucrcia
freedom is a shame to oivitieution, ami, if Internationa
law were rightly written, it would itself bo a cause o
w honorable war!
e Rut I have little hope that Spain will sell Cuba, or thu
the Cubans understand the nature of the blessing* whicl
B attend annexation. The* will not pemriv that they lie
coiiie by annexation rotspinl hritn Hew York and tilde li
c ' a ibwmwii Toapue for the fcntnhion vo-al. llicy fear fo
Ihteir church and domestic institutions, as If l/ny wereanj
l4 jeirt of federal concernment.
... I was surprised to Rivet an iin|x-diuicnt raised by a dls
H tiugnished senator from Mouth Carolina in his Itarowel
v (n?oe?h. 1 trust it is not siiarcd by many southern uicu
| He objects to taking Cuba, first, liecause it may involvi
' a war, whose consequences he states to be fearful. Hi
leaves us in doubt as to these consequences. Docs In
mean the reduction of Culm to the condition of HaVtl f '
terrible consoquence. 'l'hat might follow ; hut that ii
rather an English than a Bpanlsh threat, and liardly ca
i (>ablu of execution in a time when Spain and France an
j | reviving the slave trade to cheapen tropical produce. Hi
second objection is more salient. I quote it entire:
' If wu bod Cuba, w? roahS i.m uiskr mott llisn l? ? or llirt-o .lav
tberc, which woultl not rraiorv tbn equilibrium, of the Nortl
a und Hie South ; while, with the African >dar? trade cloned, uiul ho
only report to this continent, ?he would, bcu-dde* crushing out ou
whole sugar culture by her com pet 1 lion, afford in u low years a mar
kit for uil liio oImyoo lu Mtneouri, Kentucky, and Maryland. Hh h
woiWlttuitaiiding the exorbitant Uxe* impound oil her, capable UOW c
absorbing the annua) lucre**? of aft the tdavi.s ou this continent, am
II commute*, it U ?mid,twcuty or thirty thou-mod a your by her hyatoii
of luluir Mluenu .hu'ms.a tlun-a i ,-?.?l? Is* *t ...4? *t.~
pnuiUcuii, every slave lu America might ho uxtcruilunlc<l in Cuba it
0 were tlio liulhuu. However thr bile African may |>rocrc*tc In tli
V tr''|>u>., It ) ft ri.-ni.Uiii lu lie proven, ami the hull arc ngulual the con
|, elusion, that be i au, lu tlmae regions, work uml thrive. It lx sal
Cuha la to be ' Arraaitutod/ rather thuu that the Culled Stales shout
take bar. That threat, which at olio time won aomuwhat alarniiutt, t
hu luugi-r any cauac of 4<i|ibMb to the South, after our expoftcuo
ff of the Afrlcaiiulug of St. tkiiuiugu ami Juinalaa. What haw wo kt
r ; by that ? I think we reaped some hem lit ; ami If the stares of Cult
! arc luruotl Iikmo. a great augur culture would grow up hi 1/uii Ism
uml Teutx, rlvalliug that of cottou, ami ilircrhug front it *o much loho
- { that cotton won) I rarely he below Its' prcecul price."
1 I Tliifi objection U two-fold. The inter-State ttluve tradi
(1 | with Calm, in case of annexation, he thinks, would inAki
several free States, by the deuiuud aud consumi>tion o
e ; negroes ; aud, even if it would not, Culm would not givi
tlie South tho preponderance in the Union ; and, nfcondlt/
, ! sugar, he thinks, would be cheap to the whole Union
y ] while u few thousand sugar planters, who Jilst thrive or
it | the bounty they now get, would tie ruined. As to thi
'f j argument about Kentucky, MliHoUli, and Uarylaud be
| coming free through Cuban annexation, 1 leave that t<
' ' the members from those States. As to the sugar, I say
, | that nu argument of tiiat kind addressed to a Iree-tradi
t j people by a free-trader sliotild go far to weaken the mural
; | of his grunt and frank speech as it does the economy o
y | his polities. To the people of my State such an argil
- , incut will quicken tluilr ambition to ncipiirc Culm ; no
>f ! alone because of the millions to in; gained by an inrreasi
! of our exports thither, which are taxed prohibitively
0 hut lieeniiHC w-e pay n tux on Cuban sugar which is harsh
?. 1 protective, and indefensible in any c|Kieh of a depressis
n ' exchequer. In 1857 there were in all. of sutrar anil mo
with England to cut our throats by never ' 'occupying, d
0 fortifying, or colonizing, or tnumhig, or exercizing any 01
" dominion over Nicaragua, Costa ltica, the Mosquito coast, in
r or any jmrt of Central America." We trust that such an d<
agreement ntay be made to this end ; but my reading of : cl
, liistory is vain, if we do not tiud tiirown about this abro- n
lf gutiou some clog which the American people will not tr
J bear. U1
? 'i'he truth is, that wo hare slept so lotlg, oud dreamed
? m> trmiaportiiigly of our destiny over these; regions, that y<
u tneauwhile Ja))an and China are opened ; F razor's river ci
| becomes an Kldcrado ; and English and French navies, bl
il quitting the attempt on Oronstadt, and tiring of the red rt
3 storm of the Kuxiue, display their guns on this continent, i w
1 Their rtitcnli eurduile, as Clarendon said it would he, is ex- I ol
:l tended to this hemisphere ; and here we have them ! j di
'I'l,,.,. I.rr If rw.t 1.., fl.-l, .11 .,1i ti
+ ..VJ ...V, y'j u. I"'.".""', "?? V] .' I
r ignoring tho far-fumed doctrine of Mr. Monroe, width lc
had, when ft rat given, as geuerul u meaning and ns prat ; w
" sical u um as it ought now to hove o specific applicotion. ! ti
His doctrine woo, that the American continents, by the lc
' free and independent condition which they hove assumed ; tt
3 and maintain, are henceforth not to lie considered as tub- ' it
> Jeffs for future Colonisation or iuiluenco by any Euro- ( sc
! pCan power. J oi
1 Let controversy contend as to the meatiing of this Y\
3 doctrine. I know that when Yucatan was about to lie j g
taken by England, and wiicn English arms were furnished bi
3 her for an independency of Mexico, which would have ui
< been a dependency on England, Mr. Calhoun then tried,
in an able speech, to limit the application of that doc- ' s<
' trine to the surrotindings outof which It grew?namely, to I ti
the Intervention of the Holy Alliance to recover the re | uj
' I voltod American States for Spain, and the Russian oocupa- | vi
, tion on our Northwest. But the declaration hns a larger ei
3 ' meaning. It hns become settled policy. In 182.1, Mr. ol
! Jefferson laid it down thus : ic
| 11 Our first ami fundamental maxim should he never to ontaiujlo ' ^
ourselves In lit.- Itroils of Kurojia ; our second, nt-vor Ol suffer Eu- ' C:
rojH' to InteriuoililUj with cisalluntlr affairs." j ,,]
Yet this doctrine is sneered tit ok if Monroe's ghost in
were invoked to do a kind of constable's duly, to warn ,
3 i all foreign intruders from this continent. So far as emi- j pi
3 i gration is concerned this continent is as open its day ; but | ai
* i no Hag, no policy, no institution, no colonics, no protec- , or
j torates of Europe, can exist here, without endangering ai
! the peace, infringing tho rights, or disturbing tbo order ft;
nnd prosjtoclivc interests of this continent. Whatever (1
1 may have been the occasion of the Monroe declaration, A
1 ( its cause is as eternal as liberty, and Its consequences will pi
1 i bens progressive an our nation. I care not for its trodi- tl
tlonary emphasis. Democrats, at least, can afford to let tr
8 that go. Is it sound doctrine for the present t If so, it ei
l? ought to be the enthusiastic sentiment nnd genius of this |
government, lfso, let it lie no more tbo jeer of Europe, i H
the swagger of America, but a foot as much a part of our i ci
0 historic life us the Declaration of IndcDendence. which b
was its procrcont source. That doctrine is the law of s<
elf-preservation. tJeneral floss, in his recent letter, has j T
0 given it proper direction. That doctrine was intended to a
guard this continent against the incursion of auy allian- a
' oes, "holy" or unholy. It looked to that law which 1 >*
^ have laid down, by which the interests and honor of this h
hemisphere were to bo guarded by none but ourselves, o
We do not want to be foreclosed against its occupation, o
fortification, and annexation. In the present feeling of I.
this country no treaty can lie made and made to stand if u
'! it does not break down all protectorate* of England and h
all interference of France. 'JTie (Senate of the United tl
j States dare not confirm such a treaty. The present Ex- ri
oeutive will not present it. Tho present Secretary of State i
'* will not sanction it. j o
' Does England want Honduras, Yucatan, tho Utilize ? u
What are they to her t Nothing ; except as she can use ri
0 them to Mock up the progress of this nation. Docs she p
" want free passage over the Central American States i That j ?
she can havu under our auspices and witli safety I What !
' docs she with the Valorous and the Leopold in tho Carri- 1
* bean sea 1 Why do her officers spy for arms in the ;l
" American steamer Washington Is it only fllllbusters n
slie is after t I do distrust her. If she seems to ncipii- j r,
^ esce iu our view for a time, may we not attiilmto it to ! g
P . that popular will which compels her aristocracy to more p
j prudence, in reference to America ? (She pretended to set- ?
tie all in the Clayton-Bulwer treaty ; yet that treaty was j a
' a delusion and a snare. While that treaty was yet warm, I -j
England drives the Nieningunn forces out of Han Juan del f,
! Norte ; then she pirates that entrepot from an independ- s,
11 ' cut Slate ; anoints a hybrid savage as a king ; gives to a j,
0 few Jamaica negroes, dressed like the tienrgla major with- .
' i out his spurs, the constabulary baton, and builds a con- (>]
! ; gcries of negro huts which she nicknames af ter the Karl >p
J j (Jrey. She performs the same for Honduras, by what I (<
Clarendon called the "spontaneous settlement" of the j r<
llay Islands; anil then claims from us good taithin keep- g
' ing the oompact which she breaks ! Along comes Sir | j,
~ ' 'lore Ouscdoy to maintain the delusion, in spite of Ixrrd i ,j,
' j Napier, who goes home. What more I She approves of |
^ flm f'aou-Vi !iwuj'l truutv In? fomAntlni/ iliflifiiHifsi in t)iA ! ..
| wuy of its ratification. She pretends to Mr. Dallas, i ,,
: through Mulmsbury, that Holly is a Frooch adventurer
' for whom she hits no sympathy ; yet, in acts, gives to
; Iilm French and Knglish protection, through the alii- ^
mice. It is not safe to trust her. Her treaties are ropes ^
<>f sand. Her international law is too elastic for use hy
any hut herself. Her designs are steeped in fraud ; and
nil complications with her are dangerous and entangling.
| Thank (iod ! we have ? Secretary ot' Statu whose life is
marked with signal ability in anticipating, demonstrating, ^
I and frustrating her designs. 'This nation will sustain "
1 him in his declaration that
: w
1 Tin* e tubllffliUM'iH of apolitical protectorate) by amy otio of (bo uj
: of J nropo ovt r uny of ilt? independent State* of t his couth I
tent, or. In other words, the introduction of u heme of |H)Jloy which 1 '
i would carry with it ;t right to hit rforu in their concern#, tri si measure ! K1
j to which the United suites have long Muco uvowod their opposition, g<
! uiitl which, dhouM tl'tn attempt bo made, they wiJl resist by all the '
mi nim 111 'hrW power." | ^
Behind tliis ruck the present adwlnixtration are en- : hi
r trenched. There i* no feeling in this country worth call- i hi.
r iug patriotism which doe* not hUuil squarely up to tlrix ni
i high anil strong position ! Why should not this Con- to
r great, by some definite action, aland by (he [aipnlar sense Ki
. and tho government * I aui ready either to give the cr
. moral foreo of a resolution, such as that now referred to li
the Committee of the Whole, to abrogate the Clayton- 1 >
s Rulwur treaty ; or I am ready to go further, and to w
clothe the President with extraordinary |xjwera, and to U
I give him means, or tho authority to procure means, by ai
, which hi* recommendation* may be acted on and acted 01
s ont. re
, Rut It inny be said, wliy no iniirb risk of war with the fri
[ combined pmvciH of F.nrope ; why ao much anxiety for tli
? the Isthmn* or Central American route t Not liecauae a
I we are in danger of beingcut o() fnnn it* doinini 'ii Ttmt M
will oome, if there Central American State* remain indc t.h
pendent of European constraint. Not because jt in the ti
jM 1
:dy feasible modu of transit for the great oriental irato
rtwd ii the oceans; for in time there will be rapid and
kio transits ou our own soil. Not to much because we
:iglrt to lutve tuid hold the hundred and fifty millions of
ode with these Spanish American tropical lands, instead
but ton millions which wo now have. But nature
evei made so narrow an obstacle ; ouu so cosily severed,
ni on which such great commercial aud economical re
ills depended, as that at Darlen or NicaruguH. Khe
rried mountains and valleys beneath the wave, to nai>w
thai neck, and thus expand the bounds of inter
laatro, and encircle the earth with a white zone of
if New Granada shall Ire ours?as It should he within
twclVMSontb, unless tire Congress of Bogota show more
meaty aud wisdom in settling the claims of our Panama
Ulerers than is likely ; if New O Canada would follow the
ivite of Uonxnles, her attorney gunerul, and enhance
it interests hy applying for si 1 mission to our Union ;
nd if Venezuela would follow the wise inclinations of
t patriot chief, General l'aez, whose exile hero lias
ode him hive the land of his home the more for the
roapect of uniting its fortunes with ours ; then indeed,
io?o Central American Stales, now the football of Koroma
diplomacy, must either come to us, or lie powdered
ito nothingness between the* industrial movements of
u orrouiidinc States. Once let the agriculture of Venmuia
lro smiled upon by it protecting government, nnd
er mag uitioc tits ports would soon till with the keels of
er cider commerce. I ct northern energy hlciul with her
ndirectcd labor, and the gold mines of Upatu would
li-aui witli their olden treasures. Let Panama brx ik
om her vnmalugc to her Irresponsible rulers, and that
rai t of the golden age of Spain and her viceroys will
em wua a wuiun which no ouceaneers iu a uiouKuno
travels can boar uwuy. TIiuho accomplished, anil the
iturmediate States of Nicaragua. Costa Rica, Salvador,
ouduras, and Guatemala will follow an surely as the
teal' of the Hummer follows tlie seed of tlie spring. The
ado of ull tropical America would then fall to us nutrally
by our proximity, and by the variety of our prouctiouR
with widt h to barter. These tropical wastes
tight to give us ooflbe, indigo, and cocoa, which are failig
in India, as well as the cabinet woods, so much in
ciuand. In return, they will take our flour, pork, mudnery,
fabrics, and a thousand other articles which they
ued. uud which every Ktate of this Union produces. Our
rule, which now counts Us hundreds, will then count its
If this Congress has optic narve enough to look a few
iiars ahead, it w ill at least start a i>olicy that will scire
all the isthmian highways which are so indispdtisalo
to our development and power. Its first duty is to
<[>el every attempt of the rouiotost iutiueuee, come front
bat quarter it may, which uiuy impodu this procession
r events ur uiTest our inevitable and legitimate uggrauzciutnt.
No nation with one harbor, much less a naon
with a coast bestrewn with harbors like ours, can be
mg prosperous within that does not prosper and grow
ithout. When a State, which is commercial by situaon,
forgets the work of outbuilding its empire, it
isses it inner vitality. The day that marks its failuro
> meet every rising opportunity of advancement abroad,
larks its sure decline at home. As witli the individual
> with the State ; if its ambition be dead mid its hopes
f expansion smoulder, its dissolution is speedy and sure,
r'hile its intellectual and physical energies aro tense and
rasp a large range, its Internal and foreign empire will
scomc consummate, because it has the everlasting law of
We have illustrated that law, with reference to our
uithcrn neighbor, Mexico. The effete and wasted porous
of Mexico, being one half of her area, lying next to
h, Iteoeme nutriment to our stalwart strength. The
cry dirt of the ground became assimilated with our enrgy,
and lo ! from our Mexican purchases $70,000,(100
f gold per year aro sucked into every conduit of Araeran
life to enhance its happiness, and give added coru>rt
to its homes. It. was once objected tliat the soil of
alifornln, New Mexico, and Arbsona was poor ; a bind
f sand and centijiedes ; that there was no homogeneity
i the people.
True, she lias six million Indians, with Spaniards In
lenty and pride, and of mixed people not a few. But
e they worse than the Indians of onr own soil ? On the
intrary, they are far better. They are tractable, stout.
id laborious. Hpain managed tbcm with but a handll
of soldiers for three hundred year*. She managed
lcm, too, under every provocation to revolt. Hud an
mcrican protcctornto been the sequence of Heott's occuition,
a few months of protection would have given
leir Industry its reward and pcnco its blessing. Then,
k), we should have no apprehension to disturb our prosit
relations with Mexico.
To theso relations 1 propose to call the attention of the
[ousc. In the discussion I need only remark, liiNtoriilly,
that on the discovery of this continent thcro was
ut one nutlon in North and one in South America which
icmed to lie possessed of any civilized advancement,
era, under tho Incas, whose white robes betokened the
I most divine simplicity of the people ; and Mexico with
society that was Arcadian in its simplicity and a polity
ondcrful in its complications. The State, the priestood,
the cultivators of the soil, the rulerH,and the ruled
f Mexico, lived in peace under a lovelier sky tbau that
f Naples, end a richer soil than that of ancient Latium.
ct it be remembered that this prissperity and contentient
were not alone the result of good laws, but of good
oid, of good manners, and of good mines. There was, in
be Aztec tongue, no language of cupidity, though gold
aofed tho temple and jas|ier built the altar.
I need not repcut that this isolated case of civilization
n this northern continent was mostly the result of the
nparnlleled climate anil soil. That climate and soil
'miiin 'I'liree hundred Years of misrule have not im.
aired the salubrity of tho one, nor detracted from the
eul th of the other.
The Spanish rule at length whs thrown oft' for a reublic
like ours. Tho inborn strength to throw it off,
ftcr so long u trial, showed a spirit of freedom which
iccivcd its plaudits from this nation at the time. In Kebmiry,
1821, at Iguela, Mexico declared her independence.
>ra tho 4th ofOctober, 1824, she adopted her constitution.
Ingland was the first to recognise this progress, mid, as
sual, for her profit. Tho lower clergy and the masses,
insisting of Indians, were its creators and lieneficiaries.
lie upper clergy nevor sympathised with this severance
om Europe ; and until the revolution of Ayulla, conununited
by Comonfort, they never became a power in
olitics. His policy touched their estates. They struck
nek. His law of desainortisaeion confiscated $18,000,000
f their property, which passed to private individuals,
licy struck back, even at this compromise confiscation,
oinonfort reeled under their blow ; reeled from the Puis
to tho Moderados ; and from the Moderados to the
hurch and its conservative defenders, into whose arms
e mid Ids unt.i-('hurch policy fell 1 We ueed not woner
at these changes, when wo remember that a magnified,
and organized hierarchy held $300,000,000 of prop*ty,
with a revenue of $20,000,000, being $5,000,01)0
lore than the best annual government revenue.
Mr. (lushing said at Richmond that these party names
f liberal, constitutional, pure, moderate, centra), and
idernl, so often appearing In our Mexican news, "were
lit the watchwords of contending factions, efficient alike
illy to waste their common country." Hardly true ;
>r it must fie remembered that in Mexico, us in ull nanus,
there will lie parties founded on interest or hope,
inservative or radical, with Intervening moderate
indes. There is in Mexico, well-defined, a central, fedwl,
or conservative party, under whose rally men of
i-alth and of the church, and of improgressive tcmperaicnt
naturally gather. This party would centralize
w?r in tiie federal government, aud thereby become agTssive
in the Htates. It would lean towards a strong
mill. It would to-day bail Spain or Franco an its 111nsr
to nttaiu ita cod. Santa Anna, Zuluaga, and Hnblm
ive been ita executive representatives. Miratuou asmies
tbo sauie position juat now. The natural antogost*
of tliia party aro the puroa, tbo inodcrados, oonstiit.ionalista,
democrats, or call thorn what you will
sdcral restraint to tbem in irksome, Kurope and kingnt't
hateful, and the church despotic and avaricious,
i tbo language of Mr. Gadsden to Alvarez, in dune,
155, "they would limit tho central jrower to that alone
hich is exterior; and thus they should seek, like the,
lilted States, to grow without anarchy into strength
id prosperity." Their aspiration is for a republic like
ir own. They need and deserve our sympathy. Jua*
is their Kxocutive a pure Indian, whose descent is
rmi Montezuma. Degollada is their general, and Mata
ieir minister, seeking recognition hove This party have
majority of the States and nine tenths of the people of
ex h o with them. They have the revenues. They hold
ic ports. Their Prexident is <it jure and A facta Kxccuve,
A little more poticnoo, Mr. Forsyth, and you would
n " im" . ,in r-anm.mm v ? ; , ; ;r; 1 .jxi
hate t?t<<Kuiaed It tlum, uad not fun you did) otherwise
De jim ; for, by tho constitution of Mriuo, udopU-d by
ui extraordinary ObagroM, at the Capitol, February 6,
1867, it won provided, by section seventy-uino, that?
" In Unaporsry iMbull nfa Hr?wbhnt uf the n-publh , ami utile
varnacy ibe lu-Ullntkiu <>l the newlvchntnl 1'reiileal Urn
pi tmidi hi ol llto Mupi cm. Cmirt of Junius slialt imler upon the cut-r
dM Of 111. full' U'/U? of I'l I'lMoll."
And article thirty-two :
" IT, final what 'V?r rmuMi, I lit* WectlMi of 1'i.i.lilriil .lull ma bare
liMB niiuln null pulili ln?l by Utecmbaf l?t, U|~ii which Iho uhsnf* t*
to take plana, or if th? newly-rlm nil is ma .'We to enter imnnpily
upon the rxorchui of hie functions, the term of the preeivliuK I'r.?iib-ut
.ball nevei tti.lenf ocase, ami the upremeoxe uure |?*? rbnlj
he ile|ai*ileil mi interim tn too prmmleut of (be Supnuu (ourl ul
Justice "
When, therefore, on tho llih of .Innuary, 1H68, Uon
Coinoufort vacated Uie presidency, the con.titiitiou devolved
tho oftoa u|K>n ik-iiita .luurcx, tho president of
the buprcuio Court of Justice. Ik /arte; foi ho hold*
the ticlil, and bun the money and tho moose*. i be led'^ru
I 11 rtn ?r if-, in flvn* M'iUl ??r fl * h!a Cilllimtlllll.
Zulnugu wan illegally nnmc<i 1delator by a ettque at the
capital January 22, 1868 ; tuid having the army, and
holding the capital, .Inure* transferred theadministmtion
to Vera Crni. There was no such officer known as dictator,
auil Zulo.iga iuu paid the penalty of imurjiatiou by
ilepoaition. There can l?e hut one Executive, aad Uoblca,
who assumed Xwt.stgn'a pliwv, ana not that other r. The
constitution under which Juarez acts is the only organiclaw,
ami that does not recognise the junta which elected
Miramon, to whom Uoblca yielded his fasces.
This constitution is the rallying cry of the liberals ; ,
to its defence the nation is committed ; by it ulonc is order
|H>sslhle. To sustain its upholders is clearly the duty,
us it is the interest and desire of the Uuited States. lTeaideut
liucluuiuu lias well considered these facts. In the
success of the constitutional puity be places all his hopes
of redress for the iuuumemhle outrages to our citizens
If this party fail, and there "being abundant ciuso for a
resort to hostilities against the government now holding
possession of the capital," 1 am ready, for one, to vote
for uny system of reprisal, or to grant the Executive
the necessary power to take possession of any |sirtlon
of Mexico as it pledge for the settlement of our
I say that I am reiuly to vutc for such reprisal or occupation
But I have considered these parties in Mexico
with the view of qualifying this declaration. I believe
that it would be best atoucc to recognise the Juarez constitutional
government by the most solemn assurances of
sympathy and protection. Tiro late news makes this
step imiiutiaitly uryeut. This can Ire done, first, by the
prompt recognition of Muta, who is here sec-king such
recognition ; second, by the sending of a naval force to
the Gulf, where we are unrepresented. This force should
he accompanied by a commissioner to treat witli the
Juarez government ; to counteract the Influence of the
allied fleets now aiding Miramon and llohles, and threatening
Juarez ; and with the latter to cement an alliance,
and to obtain such n settlement of our claims ami difficulties
as will comport witli our interest uud honor. I
have the surest authority for saying that sucii an arrangement
would give us not only a firm union witli Mexico,
not only postal and extrudition and right-of-way treaties,
not onlv a foothold iu the northern Mexican States, which
can be inadc permanent without wnr, bnt it would foil
every attempt of'the European alliance to control the affaire
of Mexico. It would crush the Uobles-Miramou
government, elevate and organize the democratic American
sentiment, and give us mi alliance of pence, which is
the precursor of a mngniilecnt commerce !
If, however, wo seize Honors and Chihuahua, without
an understanding with the constitutional government,
what will lie the result ? Poor and miserable as is the
condition of Mexico, she would likely declare war. Such
a declaration would come from the Kobles-Mirnmon fac- i
Hon. It would draw to that faction the strength of the
nation. It would, perhaps, crush Juarez and his party,
and leave us no better off than if we had pursued ft more
politic and pacific course.
Again, if we delay to recognise the constitutional government,
it will soon be in power at the capital as it is
in the provinces. It can then say to us, " Oh, yes, you
would not help us in our extremity, when your ad vontago
should have prompted you, and your sympathy would
have been of service. We can get uiong without your aid
now. Touch not a foot of our soil on the penalty of an
endless difficulty.
Wisdom, interest, the law of American progress, and
the predominance of our Union on this continent, all
urge the course I have indicated. Juarez waits our action.
(Shall we miss the golden opportunity ?
If we fail in our efforts with him, then I am willing at
once to take Sonora and Chihuahua, whichever party succeeds.
I believe that the list of American claims and cruelties,
which lias even provoked the English press to wonder at
our forbearance, is warrant enough for such possession.
There are oven yet higher grounds for such seizure. The
French Minister, De Gnbriac, rules in the Mirnmon councils.
A French fleet rides before Hacrificios. The French
admiral wns very ready to back Spain in her demands.
To break this French power is our imperative duty. If
it bo not broken, our line of extension southward to Central
America will lie broken irrevocably.
Such is the condition of parlies in Mexico. I need not
discuss it further. The contest now is between the democratic
element and the conservative element. The latter
lias its eye ever on Europe, and adverse to the United
States. Its rule has proved the most distracting and disastrous
ever yet known in the annals of the South American
republics, where the earthquake and the revolution
aliko awake the same sad cry of anguish, and receive the
same defiant, destructive answer.
I need not iiave pictured tills land of lieauty and order
as it was once to heighten the contrast of its present conA
II.? v,?ro ,,f , iolii I tin ti 11 tr unnimiH
we iind, to-<lay, the spectacle of Mexico helpless, bleeding,
dying ; the Turkey of the western world ; and capable
of no effort even of resistance to the Spanish ileet,
much less to the French or English. Rapacity, crime,
chaos, craft, license, and brutality; indolence only uetivc
to wrong ; nrnl industry quickened only for vice ; laws
made for their infraction, and order to lie contemned.
Mountain cries unto valley for relief; and from hacienda
to city goes up the agony of despair. This is unhappy
Mexico, in whoso fate no nation ever can have the interest
we have till such a nation conquer us. Who shall intervene
Were it only the natives who suffered, we might stand
aloof, and say, "they have made their liod ; let. them
lie in it." Hut even t iis would lie culpable indifference.
Good neighborhood docs not thus do its office. The artisans
of the city of Mexico arc out of employment, and
| hungering for food. Lot this one fact speak volumes !
I In the three pawnbroking establishments of the city,
I called Mont* do Picdad, the last year, there wore fi8,000
| borrowers out of a population of 185,0111) ; $'.112,000
\ were loaned, and $8611,000 paid for its use. With an army
j of 11,700 mon, of which 5,800 arc officers, arid a debt, of
! $120,000,000, and an expenditure by two governments ;
i with but one-eighth of her arable soil cultivated, and
! her mines un worked, or, if workeil the treasures at the \
; mercy of the red guerillcros who infest every avenue of
intercourse ; with every one of her twenty-two States
and six Territories parading an array of contending forces
and ambitious guerilla chiefs ; Garza and Vidaurri conferring
in the north to move down and check the federI
alists of the interior ; Posqnlera about to movo on Ma- !
i zatlan ; Alatriste on the plains of A pain ; Cams (ton,
I from Metatnoras do linear, waiting to besiege Paebla ;
| Hlunco in Mlchoacan : Iturbide in the Haliia ; Murquez
repulsed from the 1'iiunte Oalderon, around which gather
the coin listing forces under Mirivmon, Roche, and Gogol i
lad i ; Ma) la defeated by the liberal forces under Puebli
i ta and 1 India ; the environs of the capital swarming
! witli the liberal soldiery ; this was the picture of a few
\ days ago
The scene changes. The federal chief, Kchcngaray, betrayw
Zuloaga, anil in collusion with Rubles, makes the
latter chief. Boheagaray (n turn is imprisoned at Puebla;
is about to bo shot ; when, lo ! au Insurrection in the
city of Mexico saves him, ami Zuioaga rushes to the English
flag for protection. In this complication a junta is
i died to settle the difficulty ; anrl who should he chosen
hut Miratnon, a dashing young general, flushed with his
successes over the liberals, and who moves toward the
city under the fluttering pennons of his cavalry. Meanwhile
young Alvarez and Villara lead their speckled
Pintos down on the warm lowlands for pillage; while
Juarez, dignified and statesmanlike, holds Ins rule in
Vera Cms, the commercial metropolis. Mexican conducts
go down to tho sea under the French (lag to get
his rerennes, to help one party hy robbing the other ;
while the fleets of the three great nations of Europe
gather on her roasts, and beg, from their gaping gunmonths.
the results of spent plunder ! It is a" if Hires
/ J ' $f 4 p
|MVlki flttic* U flubH rlbrrs
V meat for aatwcrtpUaaa muM ba maddnvuiLabiy la advance, aa
... . . a II slwaya im OAWMUUiiueS *> ttif* rcpl, Itu. u <H live p.r 10A
. ? b *1 l-OJ JUT Mil... I OS.'WWU. .\i4.v. M til U) rftv ?u lu sal*. nine
t.e 11 i*tr euh. rip. .ma ?.re etv" I u. Oil |rr
JVtni tail. '? by mall will be at lb* ri?k of 111* su'.arrlh.r*, aad set
of lh> puWmher of UM Union.
BATES or aoauciruno.
1 aquar* 1 day |0 Ml 1 aquar* 2 motulM ........ y 00
1 do 1 weak 17& 1 do A iuv?(ta .w... .12 id
1 do 2 week* 3 Oti 1 do 0 nioi.lli* IS CO
1 do I aioulb 3b 00 1 do 1 year 30 03
Eight lines or leas moke a square; longer advertisements at cite
proportion, and all payabta In advance Ad>ertWemeais ordered la
twice or thru* a week will I,? charge! ii7)g cents per aqoere for each
insertion after the Arab Advertisements once a week In tile dally. M?
cents per square for each luserllua. Special notices charged doebte
the foregoing raise
| should besiege tduarug with a bowie-kulfo and revolver,
aud bid him disgorge the furtlre crumb aa indemnity (or
the pact and security for the future I Kifty generals and
a nation of seven millions, not knowing what may bo
their fate ! The Aglotlstas hold the man ly and oppress
with it. The generals murder and pillage in gross aud
the bandits In detail. Indians never before in arms rush
to them for self-preservation Foreigners, ever at the
mercy of these fickle factions, find no protection In their
Hags, and no hope but in passive submission to forced
loans and open robbery. This is the spectacle of mutilated
Mexico to-day. To morrow it may be worse !
1 repeat it, ?vko lAaU intervene f Home one must. Our
interest is paramount. Why this interest f Not only
our proximity to Mexico ; not alone the number of our
citizens domiciliated In the country ; but a common interest
in the development, the retouching, as it were,
Into its primeval oolor aud grace, of that elder beauty
which bpaln tarnished and anarchs have torn to shreds
uui microsi, ties nrsi in Mexico erect ana uramj ruin:
pendency If that be no lunger passible, then that no power
but our own shall guard Its weakness and administer its
estate. 1 his is the only programme which this nation
can tolerate, and hy which it dare abide and survive or
As to our proximity r the reasons on this head for our
intervention are wcii net forth in the President's message.
I cannot arid to its force. I therefore quote it;
" Rut ihnre \k amrthri trluw of iinr relation* with Mexico, arising
froui Ui<- unhappy cimrtlUou or affiUrs n long our ooaUi w?*?ern ftlltttr,
wbkli Uvnuuttla tuunwliaU) action. In thai rsmofci rngic, short
there are but few white tubahluuiu, largo bands of hoaUls and proda
lory Indlaox room promismoariy over the Mexican Huts* of Calhuit
huu and Honor*. and our adjoining Territories. The local government,
of these Mates are perfectly helpless, and are kept la a slate of
constant alarm by the Jndiaus. They have nut the power, If they
peaxwMd the will, even to restrain Law loss Mexicans from passing
the border and coniuutUug depredutlen* ou our remote settlers. A
state of snsrchy and vlolancu prevails throughout Hat distant frontier
The laws are a dead letter, and life and property wholly Insecure
Pur llits reason lite settlement of Arizona Is arrested, whilst It Is of
great importune* that a chain of inhabitants should extend along lis
southern border, miOU'leul Ibr their own protection and that of tho
f'nltnd Mates mull passing in and froui California. WeU-lbunded apprehensions
aro now ciiUirloiued that the Indians and wandering Mexican*,
o-pi.tlly lawless, may break up the Important stage and postal
comsMnlcatton recently established holwocn our Atlantis and Paclllc
ponassslMt. This passes very near to tho Mexlcon boundary through
out the wind* length of Arlgoua. I cau imagine no possible romady
for those evils, aud no mode of restoring law and order on that re
inolo and unsealed frontier, but for the government of the United
Hlales to assume a temporary protcetorato over the northern portions
of ChihuahUu and Suuora, and to establish military posts witblu the
asine , sud this 1 earnestly recommend to Congress. This proleoUou
may be withdrawn as roou as local governments shall be established
In theee Mexican State* capable of porformlng their duties to tho
I'm tod Mules, re tralulng the lawless, and preaervlng peace along the
A temporary protectorate will effectually, if uot nominally,
give u* these States of Sonora and Chihuahua.
They are very sparsely populated, there being about three
hundred thousand persons to their two hundred and twenty-three
thousand seven hundred and ten square miles.
These lands are represented as delightful in climate aud
rich in resources, agricultural and mineral. They have
been described as the land of the blessed in Oriental story.
Suiumer and winter, table land aud valley, are nearer
akin titan in moat places in the world. Silver is in their
streams?in lodes with crests elevated above the ground.
Spain demonstrated their riches ; hut the nomadic Apaches
swept over this Eldorado, and left but a memory of
its treasures, which American enterprise is already vitalizing
iato a reality.
Is it objected by southern gentlemen that these State*
must become free and not slave States f 1 hope not. You
hitve been claiming your constitutional rights. Where is *
ttiere a word alxvut the equilibrium of the States in that
instrument? Under it you have equality of right, and
no right of equality in tire number of States. This equality
is not of arithmetic, but of political etbtca. Tho moment
you claim equilibrium of States, tluit moment your
j nonor Is compromised ana your royalty w me unmwvui
Mori is questioned.
Do you say, "We will favor this protectorate if Tamaulipns
and New Lson are included?" Very well ; try
that. 1 will vote for it, or vote to include any other
State where you think you can raise coffee and sugar, and
can outvie with the North in the race of colonisation and
power. 1 will gladly vote for a protectorate over an in!
dependent federation of States north of the Sierra Madre.
Mr. M1LL80N. I want to know under what authority
the gentlehian from Ohio represents southern gentleI
men as desiring all those Mexican States ?
| Mr. COX. I have not so represented them. I say
i southern gentlemen may, perhaps, not exactly wish to
take Sonora and Chihuahua, lest they might become
free States, and not slave States. It was a
suggestion mado to rue by a southern member, and
1 snid to him "Come along ; we will put in Tarnaulipas
and New leon. We will link them hand in
hand." For myself, I am willing to givo protection to
northern Mexico ; if not. for annexation, for a free trade,
which will be of mutual advantage, and will be a practical
absorption. It will at least prepare these States for
admission. Let Monterey be the nucleus of Zacatecivs,
San Luis, (Juoretero, Tumnulipos, Cnahuila, New Leon,
| Chihuahua, and Sonora?all the States between the Kio
| Bravo and the Gulf of California all natural allies in tlio
interest of the United States. Let them cluster in upon
our ensign?not star by shir, but in a galaxy. By that
I you do at once what will in time be done by the natural
laws of development, Besides, you raise our present feeble
trade of Beven millions to twenty-eight, which
Great Britain enjoys. You can thus enhance every incli
of soil and every shining put tide of oro in these regions.
Mr. QIDDINGH. Will my collcaguo allow mo to put
a question to him 1
Mr. COX. No, sir; 1 hare not time. We will meet
and talk the matter over after my friend shall be made
j governor. I do not wish to get out of the line of my ar
By this programmo we shall have, in time, with all
of Mexico, a practical annexation, which will allow free
trade and safe intercourse, to our mutual advantage.
As to the question of protecting our Citizens already in
Mexico, and demanding reparation for wrongs done
them, this should be a capital cause of intervention in
Mexican matters. Senator Mason's bill is rightly predicated
on this cause. If Spain could make the liberals
pay for the murder and spoliation of Spanish subjects at
Sin Vincente, Chiconcuaquc, Durango, and elsewhere,
in (Jomoufort's time, why ore we asleep over the rights
of our citi7en%f I have before mo a list of these claims,
but a very imperfect ono. Each claim is a canu UlU.
Here nro some dozen cases of illegal seiaure of American
property. 1 saw it noticed that some eleven millions wcro
already calculated at our State Department. Wo have
grievances lieyond money. The sentences in relation to
illegal marriages is a wrong to those without the established
Church, and degrudea to crime the holy relations
of parentage and wedlock ; the infamous surveillance of
the post oilice over American letters, refusing to deliver
even the United States consular correspondence unless it
wcro first inspected by Mexican authorities ; and worse
still, the rude, cruel, and brutal arrest and imprisonment
of Chaplin, Stocker, Ainsi, and Garcia, are enough to
moke the Haynnus of Austria pale betide the imbruted
and unbridled scoundrelism of Mexican officers, lire
story of Ainsi, seized on American soil, sixteen months
in -tlie prisons of Sonorn, wearing the barradegriUa* ; and
that sad, saddest of all stories, the massacre of his
brother-in-law, Crabbe, and his confederates, whose characters
have been blackened to rob their murder of Its
hcinou8ncs8 ;?these should move the very stones to sympathy.
In this matter the United States have but one duty.
Those sufferers were our citizens. Wherever that character
of citizenship is to be found, the individual bearing
it :. ?uau i tei. ai .it i:a ./ it. Wk^
it in uiuvuuu wivu iuc imuunain-y ui uuo uiuuu t?ui?ever
the man may be, whether native-bom, naturalised,
or semi-naturalized, ho can claim the protection of this
government. It may respond to that claim without being
obliged to explain its conduct to any foreign power; "for
it la its duty to make its nationality respected ny other na
Hons and respectable in every quarter of the globe."
This doctrine was illustrated in the Kocsta case. What
difference is there between a dungeon In Guaymas, where
Ainsi lay in chains, and the Austrian brig Hussar, which
held the l>ody of the Hungarian f
The outrages upon our citizens are not confined to
Mexico. In every Spanish American State they are common.
In Peru, in Paraguay, in Mew Granada, in Cuba,
in Costa Rica, in all places where the slanders of the Madrid
press against the " peddling traders of the Korth"
enter, we have to meet persecution, imprisonment, illegal
seizure of property and person and an unwinking espion
ago ; and that, too, under taunts more galling, because
we know how easy It, would be to punish such outrages.
We should examine the list of claims on Spanish-American
States to appreciate the divine forbearance of our inactivity.
A settlement with Mexico would be a general
Settlement with Spanish America
This duty of intervention Isvomes at onoe imperative

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