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The Washington union. (City of Washington [D.C.]) 1857-1859, January 27, 1859, Image 1

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rnbllibr.l bf CORREMI'# WtM.JLL,
1 ONION RT'IIJIIN" Ret , be! t!i . .? i
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mip^T" i fiii ' r i iu oft> ?i I&l a ; jc
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all I" _ j .
j'iire* ou|>k**; and $15 fi?r cOptf*.
THK Vl KElCLY CNIO!*, a vi;ry Utrgti |m|wr for couoii >
cirMuUiKi?, *?H I* |?ubl^litHl ovory Haiur?la\ iMoruiuf, at tin tbi
|#wu?< pt?c?e tag o??? copy. %i per ^unuui , lliroe Ofputa tor *;> , iv?
enpl rff"' $? ti u t o|in 4 u>r $15 ; t* raty-t opica, tent Ut um mid/ ***
' . / !} (:. i?fe may ujmmeiac atuuy dim*.
' The''<>111111!!( ? on Foreign It-lutions, 1o whom was re
ferrod tlte bttltS. 4'j7> "making appropriations to fa
, ihtiiW lliy MtquisiHoii of the island of Cuba, liy negoturtii?i''
twve hail flic fane under eoueidciation, and 1
uo*v respectfully report
J? [j not considered nem?a(r bv your committee to
i nlarge upon tin vast importance of the acquisition of
fly i-l'<n<( of Obit bv the tbiitod States. To do so would
Mas mtlch a work of supererogation a* to' demonstrate
? *u elcin uUiv problem iu mathematics, or one of those
.. virtni* Ctf T'LllU'K til' nkilnMAIlttv Uililali i... .... * ? ??
? - i ??**/ ?an? uniVFT
villv r>? Hvr<i tor ajJtH. Thu ultimate aotuUitlou of Cuba J
tuny lie considered a Hxed purpose of Uie United Sinks
purpose resulting ftimi p< ' il i< nl u(il {ciignpkiail nn- I
cwsihes which have Ihwii recognised by nil parties and all i
adinlnlstnitlous, ami in regunl to which the popular j
vokc lev- been expressed with 11 unanimity unsurpassed j
, it u|i ^uestiou ot national |x >1 Icy tliut tins heretofore en I
gaged the piiFile "lind.
The purchase and annexation of Isiulsbum led, as u |
necessary corollary, to that of Florida, and both point |
with unewtng wvtnintv to the acquisition of Culm The '
yurse and feeble population of what is no* the gieat |
U'orl c.dh.l in leOO Un the lice uai igaUon ol the Missis- ,
nippi, *nd tins enforcement of the light of deposit at j
New Orleans. In three veins nut only were these piivi- .
fog'* secured, but the wliolo of tlie magnificent domain j
J.ouisiana was ours. Who now doubt* the wisdom of .
a measure, which at the time was denounced with a vio- '
Jonoj until then unparalleled in our |icliticnl history ' |
From the day we acquired I.ouisianu the attention of !
.ait ablest statesmen who fixed ou 1 uha. What tire pon
Ion of the mouth of the Mississippi hud been to tin |
veopk of the 1* est that of Cuba in nun to the nation.
I'm cast the eye upon tlie map was sufficient, to prixliet its
destiny. V inlet reference will show the inipoi tun.-c litis.
lied to the tlUCstlou by our leading .statesmen, and the
steadiness and perseverance with which they have en
kavood to hasten tie consuii tutu lion of >0 vital a
Mr. .terferson, in a loiter to President Madison, of the
Ti th of April, 1st)!*, speaking of the' policy that Napoleon
would probably pursue towards us, says :
' lie ought to he Hid 1st!eel with having forced hci
hifi nt Hrltalnl to revoke the orders on which he pretend- j
ed to retaliate, und to be isirtfeiilurly sallsiiod with us, j
hv whose unyielding adherence to principle she lias been I
fotvwl into the revocation, lie ought the more to conciliate
our guod wilt, ns we can be such an ohstaehi to]
thft new career opening on him hi the Hpautsh colonies* ji
I hat ho would give us the Kloridas to withhold inter- ! 1
vxuirao with the residue of Hroac colonies cannot lie doubt- j
ol. but that is no price, because they are ours in the
'irsi moment of the first war, and until a war they are of j <
mi particular necessity to us. l!ut, although with difti- |
ally, he will consent to our receiving Cuba, into our j 1
t'nlou, to prevent our aid to Mexico and tho other prov- '
uiees. 'Hiat would lie a price, and 1 would immediately ; 1
crwt a column on the oonthemmont limit of Culm and j
inscribe on it h ne j/hs ultra us to us in that direction. , 1
We should then lmve only to include the north in our \ 1
confederacy, which would bo, of course, in the tirst i ?
war, and we should have such hii empire for liberty as : 1
she has never aurvcyod since the creation ; and 1 ain |>er- i
suiidsd no constitution was ever liefore so well calculated 1
as ours fear extensive empire and self-government. ? 0 1
' It will he objected to our receiving Cuba that.no ]
limit cun then lie drawn to our future acquisitions. Cuba <
I cm be defended by us without a navy, and this develops '
the prlnclplo which ought to limit our views. Nothing <
should ever be accepted which would require a navy to
. I..I i* "
Again, in writing to President Monroe on the 2'td
.I line, 18211, lie says : "For certiiinly her Addition to our I 1
confederacy is exactly what is wanting to advance our ' 1
power as a nation to the point of its utmost interest." j 1
And tn another letter to the same, on tint 24th Octoher,
?R2.1, he says : I I
I candidly confess tlmt I have ever looknt o?? n..i.? : I
no the most interesting addition which could ever lie j I
i made to our system of .States. The control which, with
! Florida Point, this island would give us over the Cult:
of Mexico, and the countries and isthmus bordering
on it, would fill up the measure of our political well- i .
being." I
oohn Quincjr Adaius while Secretary of State under
Mr Monroe, in a despatch to Mr. Nelson, our minister
; at Madrid, of the 28th April, 182."l, says :
" In the war between France and Spain, now com- j
liienting, other interests, peculiarly ours, will in nil prolr- i
ability Ire deeply involved. Whatever may lie the issue
of tliis war as between those two European j>owere, it !
may l>c taken for granted that the dominion of Spniti |
upon tlie American continents, north and south, is irrc- I
< overably gone. Hut the islands of Cuba and Porto ltieo
( till remain nominally and so far really dependent upon
her, that she yet possesses the power of transferring her
own dominion over them, together witli tho jiossessioti of
tbein, to others. These islands, from their local position
and natural appendages to tin: North American conti j
ncnt, and one of tlicni, Cuba, almost in sight of our '
shores, from a multitude of considerations, lias become j
nil object of triuiicciidcut importance to tho commercial
and political interests of our Union Its command- ;
ing position, with reference to the Cult' of Mexico j
.iwi ll..? W..-I 1 v., 1 tn ...? (I... . I.. ?..r ..I' ilt .,,..>.1
Intion, iU situation midway between our southern
cast unci the island of St. Domingo, its safe mid rrI
melons hrtthor of the Havana, fronting n long line of
our shore* destitute of the same advantage, the nature
of its productions and of its wants, furnisliing the supplies
and needing the returns of a commerce immensely profitable
and mutually beneficial, give it an importance in
tbc .sum of our national interests with which that of no
other foreign territory eau Ire compared, and little into- ;
rlor to that which hinds the different rnonihers of this
1'niou together. Such, indeed. are, between the inter
v <ts of that island and of this country, the geographical. j
nnmere'ml, moral, and political relations armed by na- ;
tare, gathering in the process of time, mid even now I
verging to maturity, that, in looking iorwnrd to the i
probable course of events, for the short period of half a !
century, it is scarcely possible to resist the conviction j
tirat (lie annexation ot t uba to our federal republic will '
l>e indispensable to the continuance end integrity of the |
I'tiinn tt ir. It is obvious, however, that for this event
we arc not yet prepared. Numerous and formidable ob- i
lections to the c.ntension of our ten Itoriul dominion boyond
the sea present themselves to tlicfir.it content pintion
of the snhjoct.: obstacles to the system of policy by
which alone Unit result can he compassed and main- j
t.iined arc to Iw foreseen and surmounted, both from at
home and abroad ; bid (here arc laws of political .is well
a of physical gravitation ; and if an apple, revered l,v i
(lie (cinpest from its native free, eaiuiot choose Imt
l til to the ground, Culm, foreihlv disjoined from its I
own unnatural connexion with Npain, and Incnpnblc of
self-support, can gravitate only towards the North Amori
in Union, which, by the same law of nature, cannot
< ast, her off from its bosom
" The tmnsftjv of f'nba to if rent llritain would lie an
event unpropitious to the interests of this I niim. This
opinion is so generally entertained, that even the ground
less rumors that it was about to be accomplished, which
iiuve spread abroad, and are stiil teeming, may lie traced
to the deep ami almost universal fueling of aversion to It, j
aud to the alarm which the mere probability of its occur- j
tciiCc lias stimulated. The .juestton both of our right
nut ot our |<o\ver to prowitt it, if necessary l?y force, i
already obtnrfM itselt upon our < nuncils, and the nilmiit- |
intintion is lulled upon, in the performance of its duties i
to the nation, nt least, to nso uil the menus within its
coui|>eteuoy to jjunrd against and luret'end it."
On April 27, lH2.i, Mr. t iny, Woctetary of Slnte, in
a desfmtt'H t" Mr. A. II Kvorctt, our minister nt Madrid,
instructing hiiu to use iiis exertions to ImhiM Hjudu to
'.nuke |?wv. with Iter retailed eoloiiies, savs
"The I'uited States arc satisfied with the present eon
dltion of tints*' inlands anil Pol to HUot in tliu hands
of hp.on, and with their |s>rts o|?eii to our commerce, ns
they are now open, This government desires no politu-nl
iliangc of that eouditlou The poptihtftoit Its-lf of (lie
inland is inixnupetent, at present, from its coin position
and its amount, to maintain self-government. The nmriliuie
fonx: of tire neighboring republics of Mexico mid
I'olombla In not now, nor is it likele shortly to In*, adequate
to the proteetion of tlioae islands, if the conquest of
thetn were effected. The United States would euteitnin
constant, apprehensions of their passing from their posesaion
to that of some lens friendly sovereignty ; find of
all the Huropenn powers, this country prefers flint Oft 1st
and Porto ftieo should remain dependent on Spain. If
VOL. XIV. NO. 241, WA
Uio war should continue between hpaiu and the new republics,
and those islands should been life the object and
the tkmitro of it, then foituuea have such a connexion
with the pros|>urlty of the United State* that they could
not be lu'liltsreutspuetutors ; and t|ttl possible Coiltlugenties
of such a protracted war might bring upon the government
of the United States duties nnd obligations the
performance of whieh, however painful it should he, they
might not be at liberty to decline."
Mr Van Huron, writing to Mr. Van Ness, our minister
to Spain, October 2, 18211, says :
" l'hc government of the United States lias always
looked with the dccpeat interest Upon the fate of those
islands, but |NtrUculerh o' UilHi Its geographical poni
tion, which pho'es It almost in sight of our southern
shotia, and, as it were, gives it the ortnmund of the flulf
of Mexico aud the West India seas, its safe and capacious
hurliors. its rich productions, tliu cxehange of which, for
our surplus agricultural products and uiuiiufrictures, con
stitctcs one of the most extensive and valuable brauobes
of our foreign trade, render it of the utmost importance
to the United States that no change should take place in
its condition which might injuriously ntlect our |K>liticul
and commercial standing in that quarter. Other considerations,
connected with a certain class of our population,
make it the Interest of the southern section of the Union
tlint no attempt should l>c made in that island to throw
off the yoke of SjKiiiisli dependence, the lirst ettect of
which would Is; the sudden emancipation of a numerous
slave population, the result of which could not but l>e
very .- nsibly felt u|>on the adjacent shores ol the United
States. On the other hand, the wisdom which induced
the Spauisli government to relax in Us colonial system
aud to adopt with regard to those islands a more liberal
policy which opened their itorts to ghuor.il commerce, lias
bucn so far satisfactory in tlie view of the United States
as, in addition to other considerations, to induce this
government to desire that their posse.,.-ion should not b.
transferred from tie Spanish crown to any other [rower.
In conformity with (his desire, the. mil.inters of tin 1 nitod
States ut Madrid have, from time to time, been instinoted
attentively to watch the ootiroc of ev ents and lie"
secret springs of Kurojrean dlplotnacy, which, from In for
nruti"ii received from various quarters, this government
li.id reicsin to Burpeet li:ul been nut in motion to effect
Ik* transfer ??f (lie possession of Culm to thf powerful id
lien of Spain
" You are authorim! to nay thut the long establish'd and
Well kuowu policy of thi' United Stutes, which forbid
their entangling tbcinsclx efc iu the eoueeriiK ot other nations,
and which permits tlu ir physical force to be ur d
only for the defence of their political rights and the pro
lection of the persons and property of their citiaens, equal
ly forbiils their public ageuts to < liter into positive en- j
gigeiuonts, the performance ol .vliicb would require Unemployment
of means which the people have rvtuined lit
their own hands ; hut that this government has cveiy |
reason tsi believe that the same influence which once j
tverted the blow randy to full upon the Spanish islands ,
would again be found effectual on the recurrence of similar
events ; and that the high preponderance in American
a (fail's of the United Stales us a great naval power,
(he influence which they must at all times coinmuml as a
great commercial nation, ill all questions involving Interests
of the general commerce of this hemisphere, would
lender their consent an essential preliminary to the execution
of any project calculated so vitally to allect the
general concerns of all the nations iu any degree engaged
in the commerce of Auierica. The knowledge you possess
if the public sentiment ot this country in regard to (,'uba j
nill enable yon to speak witli confidence ami effect of the ;
probable consequences that might bo expected from the |
xniiiiiuoicatioH of that sentiment to Congress, in the ;
vent of any contemplated change in the present political
condition of that island."
Aud again, 011 the 1,'ltii of October, 1830 : "This government
has also been given to understand that, if iSpain
illould persevere in theus-evtion of a hopeless claim todoininion
over her former colonies, they will feel It to he j
their duty, as well as their interest, to attack her colonial
possessions in our vicinity?Cuba and l'orto Itico.
four general instructions are full u|Hin the subject of
the interest which the. United States take in the fate of
those islands ruiil particularly of the former ; they iu- j
form you that we are content thai cuua mh?uh?
is it now is, hut could not consent to its transfer to any
European power. Motives of reasonable State policy
raider it- more desirable to us that it should remain subject
to Spain rather than to either of the South American
States. Tin *e motives will readily present themselves to j
your mind ; they are principally founded upon an apprehension
tliat, if (jossessed bv the latter, it would, in the
present state of tilings, ho in grcate^danger of becoming
iubject to some European power than in its present condition.
Although such are our own wishes and true interests,
the l'resident docs not see on what ground lie would be
justified in interfering with any attempts which the South
American States might think it for their interest, in the
prosecution of a defensive war, to make upon the islands
in question. If, indeed, nil attempt should be made to
disturb them, by putting aims in the hands of one portion
of their population to destroy another, ami which in
its ilitiuenee would endanger ttie |>oace of a jiortion of
the United States, the ease might lie dilVercnt. Against
such an attempt the United States (being infonned that
it was in contemplation) liave already protested and
warmly remonstrated in their communications Inst summer
with the government of Mexico ; but the information
lately communicated to us in this rcgaid was accompanied
by a solemn assurance that, no such measures will,
in any event, he resorted to : and that the contest, if
forced upon them, will be tarriod on, on their part, with
strict rcleieneu to the established mlm of ci\ilized warfare."
Mr. liuchauan, in his dcs|>a(e]i to Mr. It. M. .Saunders,
of Juno 17, 1K4S, said : "With these considerations in
view, the l'resident believes that the crisis has arrived
when an effort should lie made to purcbas: the island of
t abu from Spain, and ho lias determined to intrust you
with tiie performance of this most delicate and important .
duty. The attempt should be made, in the first instance,
in a confidential conversation with the Spanish minister
for foreign affairs ; a written offer might produeo an absolute
refusal in writing, which would embarrass us her
after in tin* acquisition of the island, besides, from the
incessant changes in the Spanish cabinet nud policy, our j
desire to make the purchase might thus be made known
in an official form to foreign government. , and arouse
their jealousy and active Opposition. Indeed, even if the
present cabinet, should think favorably of I In proposition, ,
tlicv miedit he go illy emUirrasscd bv having it placed
-I !.. Hull it cviiiilit .IiiiikI enrtiilnlv
through witw' channel, reach the opposition and lifi'omc
ttic subject "I' discussion in tlio I '<?rt. -. Such delicuto.
negotiation*. at least in their iucipicnt stamen, ought
atwav to hf <iinducted in confidential conversation. noil
with the utmost sccfccv ami despatehi"
"At your interview with the Minister for I'orelgti Affairs
you might introduce the subject by refining to th
present distraited condition of Culm., anil the danger
which exist* that the poputation will mal e an attempt to
accomplish a rr\ olutlon., This must be well known ti
the Spanish government In order to convince him of
the good faith and friendship towards Spain with which
fids government lm acted, you might rend to liim the
first part, of my denpatch to (ieneral Campbell, and tlie
order issued by the Secretary of War to the commanding ,
general in Mexico and to t he officer having charge of tlio
embarkation of onr troops at Vera < in/,. You may then
touch dcllcateh upon the danger that Spain mnv loso
Culm by 4 revolution in tlio Island, or that it may Ik'
wrested from her bv Great lhitain. should a rupture take
..1...... 1...I 111,. Iu.1 *<<111,ill i,w pirMnrr out of the ili:.
" ?
missal of Mir Hcnty llnlwer, nn<l lie retained to pay tlie
Spanish debt due to the liritisli land holders. Voii might
assure him that, whilst this government is entirely
satisfied thai < Uibu shall remain under the dominion
of Spain, we should in iiny event resist its an position liy
any other nation. And, finally, you might infonu him
that, under all these cireuinstances, the President had
arrived at the conclusion that S|?i n might In willing to
tiansfer the island to the Ihiitisl States for a fair and full
consideration. You might cite as a precedent the cession
?f Ldnisi.uiu to this country by Najiolcoii, under
somewhat similar circumstances, when lie was at the
ictiith of Ids power and glory. I have lneiely presented
these topics in their natural order, Mini you can till up
the outhni from tin information communicated in this
des|siU h, as well as front your own knowledge of the
subject. Should the minister lor Foreign Attaint lend n
favorable ear to your proposition, then the question of
the consideration to Is1 |*ti<l would arise, and yjo have
been furnished with information in this despatch which
will enable yon to ills uss that question.
" 't he I'ii sklent would lie willing to stipulate lor the
inymeiit of one hundred millions of dollars. 'Iliis, how
over, is tlm maximum price ; mid if Spain should Is; wil
liuK to sell, you will use yout licit efforts to purchase it <
nl u rate nt inucli below fh.it sum us practicable. It> cmc
I you should be uhlu to conclude a treaty, you may adopt
as your model, ho fur us the same may be applicable, the
two conventions of April .'10, 1K03, between France and
thu United tjtutes, for the sale and purchase of Ixjuisiuna
The seventh and eighth articles of the first of these con.
ventions ought, if possible, to be omitted ; still, if this
should l>o indispensable to the accomplishment rtt the
object, articles similar to them may lie retained."
Mr. Kverett, in his celebrated latter of December 1,
! 185il, to the t'oaiple do Nartlges, rejecting the joint
preposition of the Krctieh and llritisli governments for
: a tripartite convention with the United .States, dlsclaim'
ing, severally uud collectively, all intention to obtnui possession
of the island of Cuba, and respectively binding
themselves to discountenance all attempts to that effect I
on the part of any power or individuals whatever, said
j "Hpam, meantime, has retained of her extensive doiuin
ions in tiiis hemisphere but the two islands of Culm and j
l'orto ltico. A respectful sympnthy with the fortunes of ;
an uncienl ally and u gallant people, with whom the
I United States have etcr maintained the most friendly re- !
lutions, would, if no other reason ex Died, make it otir
duty to Icuve her in tlie undisturbed |ai?se?siuti of this
! little remnant of lier mighty transatlantic empire. The
i President desires to do so. No word or deed of Ids will
ever question her title or shake her possession. Tint can !
1 it lie expected to last very long? Can it resist ibis
mighty curreut in the fortunes of thu world ! is it tie- |
I suable that it should do so t an it be for the interest ?
of Npaiu to cling to a possession that our only he main- ; I
,ui?v*i in ii Kill IIM1U Ol IWCIIIV IIVU Ol IIIIIIV I UOUSUliti *
troops, a powerful nuvul force. and an annual exp ndi- I
turn toi both arms of the servioo of at Icust twelve lull- s
: lions of dollars ? Cuha, at thin moment, costs more to 1
Kpuili tlum (ho entire naval auil military establishment of
the I nilcd Stales costs the federal government. Hafwfroiu 1
being really injured hv the lows of this island, there is no I
doubt that, were it peacefully tranaferrod to the United I
States. a piosjierou.- i ommi rce between Cuba and Spain. , ?
resulting from ancient associations and common language T
and til-ten, would lie fur more productive than the best : <
contrived system of colonial taxation. Such, notoriously, f<
has bi en the n suit to < I rout Britain of the oatablisfamont v
of th independence of til* I nlted Stale-. The ikcline of c
*paln iiom the position which slio ireld in the time of h
('wIsk the Fifth is coeval with the foundation ol Iter c
colonial system ; while within twentv-iivc years, and c
situs- the loss of most of her colonics, she litis entered c
upon a course of rapid improvement unknown siiii-e tlit ah 1
dicilion of that emperor.'' o
Mr. Marcy, in iiis de-patch of duly 2d, Is,"id, to Mr. v
Pierre Houle, nays : t
' Silt : There are circumstances in the nlftiirs of Spain,
having a connexion with this country, which gite uuu- I1
sual importance at this time to the mission to that go\ - "
eminent. The proximity oi lu-r remaining possessions in s
this hemisphcro?the islands of Cuba and l'orto Uieo to ' 1'
the United States, tlie present condition of the former, u
and the rumors of contemplated changes in its internal tl
atl'airs, coinplicuto ottr relations with Spain.'* The lslunil Ii
ofCnliii. on account of it? magnitude, situation, line cli- Ii
mate, and rich productions, far sujierior in all respects to ?
any in the West India group, is a very desirable jlosses- p
sion to Spain, and, for the same reasons, very difficult fur p
licr to retain In its pit.sent, state of dependence. The ti
opinion generally prevails among the Kuropean nations , "
tliat the Spanish dominion over it is insecure, 'lliis was h
clearly evinced by the ulacrity with which botii England i ti
ami France, on occasion of the late disturbances in Cuba, |>
volunteered their aid to sustain the Spaulsli rule over it, , o
and by their recent proposition to the United States for a , > <
tripartite convention to guaranty its possession to Spain. 1
Without an essential change in her present policy, sucli pi
a chunge as she will moat likclv be unwilling to make, 1 in
she cannot, it is confidently believed, long sustuin, uu- ni
aided, her present connexion with that island. st
'* What will be its destiny after it shall cease to be a pi
dependency of Spain is a question with which some of it
the prineijutl powers of Europe have seen fit to concern Is
themselves, and In which the United States have a deep Is
and direct interest. la
' 1 had occasion recently, in preparing instructions for t-li
dentin relation to the interference ofTfreat'''fIritiiIdfiis lb
wall its of Franco, in 0 ? c ? 0 Cuban affairs. tl
To spare myself the labor of again going over the same hi
ground, 1 herewith furnish you with an extract from : ui
those instructions. l"
' The policy of the government of the United States m
in rcgitrd to Cuba, in any contingency calling for our in- ol
tcrpositlon, will depend, in a great degree, upon the pe- ;
eulinr circumstances of tiie case, and cannot, therefore, ol
now be presented with much precision beyond what is ni
indicated in the instructions before referred to. Nothing ei
will Ire done on our part to disturb its present connexion 111
with Spain, unless the character of that connexion should je
be so changed as to affect our present or prospective se- tr
eurltv. While the Initial Mates wouitl iwisi, in every i
Iiu/jHwI, thu transference of Cuba to any European nation, (I
they would exceedingly regret to sec Spain resorting to s<
any j>o\vcr for assistuuee to upUohl lier rule over it. H
Such a tlependenec on foreign aid would, in effect, invest v>
the auxiliary with the character of a protector, anil give ii
it a pretext to intcifero in our nitidis, and also generally o
in those of the North Auieriean continent. In ease of ii
eollision with the United States, sueh protecting power t<
would he in a condition to imike nearly the same use of ti
that island to annoy us as it rould do if it were the absolute si
possessor of it. ii
" I Mir minister at Madiid, during tin: adnriliitration of
President folk, was instructed to ascertain if Spain was p
tlUposcd to transfer Ctiba to the United States for a lib- X
oral pecuniary consideration, i do not understand, how- o
ever, thai, it was at that, time the policy of this govern- tl
lueut to nopiirc tiial island unless its inhabitants weie tc
very gettoraliy disposed to concur in the transfer. Under g
certain conditions, the United States might lie willing to si
purchase tl : hut it is scarcely expected that yon will d
thiil Spain, should you attempt to ascertain her views X
upon (lie subject, at all inclined to outer into such a ne U
rotintion. There is reason to liolievo that she is under . j<
obligations to Great liiitain and Fiance not to transfer , I
lids Uland to the United States. Were there nothing 1 S
else to jnslily this belief but the promptness with which tl
these two powers sent their naval forces to her aid In the j tl
late Unban disturbances, the proposition for a trijuirtT(t- a
convention to guaranty Ciilin to Snain, and, what is ii
more significant than either of the nbovr facts, the sort of ii
joint protest by Kngland and I ranee, to which i advert | si
od in my instructions to Mr. Buchanan, against sonio of H
the views presented in \ir. Kvcretl's letter of the I'd of o
I?cis,iiibcr Inst to Mr. Sartiges, the Trench minister, tl
would slow be sathuiietory proof of such un arrange i ii
merit. Independent of any embarrassment of this nil- ; n
title, tip re -in many ot.tier reason* for believing that , ?'
Spain will p rtinueionslv hold on to Cuba, and Ihatthc <
separation, whenever ii takes place, will lie tlio work of ! y
violence." , t1
Front these ami oilier extracts tliat miglit lie presented i ti
it is tunnifest that tliiiiilUniale inquisition of < uba lias b
lone' lieon rugs i'.ted es the lived policy of tlio United C'
States tioce-s iry to the piogie-sivc dee, tepuieiit of our
system. All agree that the ond is not only desirable, but >
inevitable. The only difference of opinion is as to the c
time, mode, and conditions of obtaining It. d
The law of our national existence is growth. We can- 1
not, It we would, disoln v it. While we should do noth- e
ing to stimulate it unnaturally, wo should lie careful not ii
to impose upon ourselves a regimen so strict as to prevent
its healthful development. The tendency of the ago is v
tlie expansion ol the great (towers of (lie world. Kngland, n
France, and Russia all denioustrate the existence of this ft
pervuiling principle. Their growth, it is true, only opcr- v
ales by (lie absorption, partial or total, of weaker pow- a
eis generally, ot interior races. So long as tliis ex ten ,|
sion of territory is the result ol geographical position, ? r
higher civilization, aud greater apUtudo for govemnieut, t
and is not pursued in a direction to eudanger our safely f
or im|ssle our progress, we have neither the right nor the e
dis|K>-itiou to iiinl fault with it. l/'t. Kngland pursue her a
mateli of eoui|uost and annexation in India, France ex- a
tend her dominions on the s.nitl rn shores of the Misli- v
terraWCan, and advance her frontiers to the Ithine, or c
, Russia subjugate her liavlsiroiis uoiglibors in Asia ; we |
-Ii*ll look upon limit pmgrctni, II not with lavor, at leant <
with hidittvrcnee. Wo claim on thin hcniinpliero t he name ;
I privilege that they exoreine ou tlio other u
' Hauo veniim paliiuu-qm- dnwovju* vldmm s
In this thoy are btit obtylag the law* of their organfotv
tion. When they cent* to grow they will noon commence T
that period of deciuloRoo which in the f*te of all tuition* i;
an of Individual man v
Tim ipientlon of the annex ili..n of Cnha to the I'nile.I #
' Staten, we repcaf, ft a qnentlon lnit of time The frv't I
I that wns not ripe when John tjulncjr Adninn |>cnnei| hin t
despatch to Mr. Forsyth (it lnut not yet been severed
violence from ltd native tree, as lie ant ci|*iledi k u<
mature. Shall it be plucked by u friendly bund, prepui
to coiniicUK.itu its proprietor with u primely guerdon 7
diuli it fiill decaying to the ground ?
Aa Spain cannot long maintain "her grasp on this <i
taut colony, there are but three possible alternatives
the future of Cuba First, posseseiou by one of the gic
European |H>wers. Thk we Irnve declared to be incoi
utiblu with our k itdy, anil have announced to tl
ivorld lint any attempt to consummate it will be resist
ly nil tlie incaiut in oUr power. When lirst wo ina<
Ilia declaration we were comparatively feeble. Tl
itruggle would have been fearful und nneipial ; but v
vcre prepared to make it at whatever ha/aid That di
uration ban often lieun repeated finer. With a popul
ion nearly tripled, our financial resources and our mean
ilfeusive and defensive, increased in uu iufiuitely larg
iroportion, we cannot now shrink from an issue that n
vere then ready to meet.
The beeond alternative is the independence of II
land. Thin independence could only bo nominal .
lever could bo maintained in find. It would eventual
all under some protectorate, o|kjii or diaguiscd. If und
mm, annexation would koou follow uu certainly us t)
ha low follows the substance, An Kurojiean protect'
ate could not be tolerated. The clonet pbilanthropis
>f England and fiance would, us the price of their pri
action, insist upon introducing their schemes of cuianc
>atlon. Civil and servile war would soon follow, ai
utia would present, us Hnvti now does, no trae<w ol i
ornicr prosjicrity. hut tho ruins of its once noble mat
ions. Its uncontrolled posse >s ion by cither France <
ngland would bo loss dangerous und offensive to 01
outhern Mates than u pretended independent black cu
fire or republic.
Inc iniitl uiul last alternative is annexation to tl
nitod Slated. How and when i8 this l<> be effected
ly conquest or negotiation ? Conquest, even wjthoi
lie host!!, interference of another European poyvor tha
ij?Ju, xvoillil Ik? expensive, but with such interfered
r.inld probable Involve the whole civilized world in win
niail upon u- (lie interruption, if not the loss,' of on
reign trade, and an expenditure far exceeding any snr
rhieh it has ever lieen contemplated to pffer for the pui
huso of l uba. Jt would, besides, in nil probability
oad to :-i rvile iiidurri etiou, and to tlr groat Injury 01
ven total destruction of the industry of the Hand. Pui
Imso. then, by negotiation seems to lie the only pmctl
ablo course; and, In the opinion of the committee, the
an not U: attempted with any reasonable piospect of sue
ess. unless the Piesidcnt be tiu'iiisheil with the lueau
idiieli he Iidh suggested in his annual nicssogi. and wlilE
ho hill proposes to gives, him.
Much has been snid of the d tiiL.Tr of ronfldirn: sue!
Owers to the Executive, and from the fierceness wit I
rhieh the proposition has been denounced, it might b
apposed that it was without precedent. So far is thi
:oui being tho case, that we have three ditlbient aid
pon tin: statute-book, placing large sums of money u
no disposition of the President for the purpose of aldln;
irn in negotiations for the acquisition of territory. 'I'll
rst is the net of February 2ti, 1803. Although itsobjec
as well known?viz : to be used In negotiating for tlr
ureliase of 1,'juisiaua -the act does not indicate it. 1
laced two millions of dollars unreservedly at theilisposi
on of the President for the purpose of defraying un;
extraordinary expense which may Is) incurred in tin
lteroourne between the United States and foreign nil
oils." Second. The act of February 13, 1 SOU, usinj
leeist ly the same phraseology, appropriates two million
I' ilollais, it being understood tlint it was to be used it
Bgotiating for the purchase of Florida.
'J'he net of 3d March, 1817, " making further appro
l iatiun to bring the existing war with Mexico to a speed)
ad honorable conclusion," has been adopted as tin
axle) on which the present bill is framed, lis preaiiibh
ates that, " when us, in the adjustment of so many coin
tSeated questions as notv exist between the two countries
may possibly happen that an expenditure of money wil
p called lor by the stipulations ot any treaty which may
entered into; tlieiefore, the sum of three millions ol' dol
is lie, anil the snme is hereby, appropriated to enabli
le President to conclude a treaty ot ]K)ace, limits, am
itfHwrii?,jwitk tho republic of Mexico ; to lie uwil by
lorized agents of tlie two governments and duly rutiiiei
f Mexico, shall call for tho exi?cnditure of the same, o
iv part thereof." The bill now reported appropriates
ruler the same conditions, thirty millions of dollars ti
uke a treaty with Spain for the purchase of the islam
It will l>e perceived tlmt this bill defines strictly tin
nject to which the amount appropriated sliull be applied
id in this respect allows a much narrower range of dis
etion to the present executive than the uets of 180:
ill 1 Sin, irave to Mr. .letfersol) 111 those cases tlie ol)
ct of the uppropi iation was an well known to the conn
y and to the world as if it hud been specifically stated
he knowledge of (hat fact did not then in the slightes
agree tend to defeat the intended object, nor can it di
) now. Under our form of government wo have in
tiite secrets. With us diplomacy has ceased to he en
eloped with the mysteries that of yore were eonsiderei
ise]unable from its successful exercise. Directness it
ur policy, mid frankness in its avowal, arc, in conduct
i ? our foreign intercourse, not less essential to the main
uaneo of our national character and the permanent in
crests of the lepublic than are the same ipialitics h
k ial position and the advancement of honest enterpris
i private life.
Much has been said of the indelicacy of this mode o
rucecding. That the offer to purchase will offend th
punish pride, he re.gardod as an luiult, and rejected will
mtcmpt. That, instead of promoting a cousumniatioi
nit all admit to he desirable, it will have the opposit
ndency. If this were true it would be a conclusive nr
anient against the hill, hut a brief consideration wil
liow the lullncv of these views. For many years on
otire to purchase Cuba has been known to the world
von years since President Fillmore communicated t
ongrcss the instructions to our ministers on that sub
ct. with all the correspondence connected with it. 1
bat correspondence will Ire found three letters front Mr
sunders, detailing conversations held with N'arvaes am
lie Minister of Foreign Itelations, in which lie not die
liein of Ids authority to treat for the purchase of Cube
ml wliilo tlie reply was no decided as to prrclnd
itn from making any direct proposition, yet 11
itimution whs given thai the suggestion wns offer
ivc. Vnd why should it he so.' Wo simply say t
pain, you have, a distant possession, held by a pit
11 ion tenure, which is almost indispensable to us fc
Ic protection of our commerce, mid may. from its peer
nr position, tho character of its population, and th
iode in which it is governed, lend, at any time, to
uptnre which Imth nations would deprecate. This jart
rssion, rich though it |hi In all the element" of wealth
ields to your treasury o net t> venue not amounting, o
lie average of a series of years, to the hundredth part <
in; pricv \\r urn prepared fo give you for it. Trim, yo
uve heretofore i 'fused to consider our proposition, In
IrcunistimccK urn changing daily. What may not hav
iiitol von in It- fs may now lie more acceptable Khnul
wnr Ureal, out in hi u rope, Hpaiu <;au scarcely Uopc 1o ci
ijk! being involved in it. Tin- (xtiplo of Culm natural!
asire to liuve a voloo in the government of the island
hey may seize the occasion to proclaim their indepent
nee, and you may regret not having accepted the tie
idemnlty we offer.
But even tbeae arguments will not 1? pressed upon ur
rilling ears. Our minister will not broach the suhjet
lUtil ho shall have good reason to believe that it will I
ivorubly entertained Such an opportunity may occi
.hen least expected. Spain is the country of mujis-ff'//,
nd pronunciuiuentos. The all-powerful minister of t<
ay may Ih> a fugitive to-morrow. With tho forms of
epreseutative government, it is in fact it des]>olism sic
allied hy the Ixiyoliut a desjHitisin tempered only 1
iei|uent, violent, and bloody revolutions. Her Anaucii
omlitlou is one of extreme embarrassment. A crisis 111.1
aise when even the dynasty may Is; overthrown unjei
Uigo sunt of uioucv can he raised forthwith. Spai
'ill la- in the position of the needy iswsemor of land l
imuiit cultivate, having all the pride of one to whom
ins descended through u long line of ancestry, hut his in
ossifies aie stronger than his will ; lit; must have monea
f tlulfly neighbor, whose tlomains it will round off,
t hand to furnish it. He retains the old mansion, hi
ells what will relieve him from immediate ruin.
'1 tic Hictiidetit, in his annual message, tins U>M u? tin
-l)<?'il?l li-.t, if wi> (milil. w.|iiirt> Culm liy nnv ntlii
in-'" limn lumoralilr negotiation, "irvunntani <
rbi' l) In 1?N n?'l until Ipntn rnnclrr a ili |?ai tilln from Flic
.mure juatilinlili', under the imperative ami ovrrrulin
mv of .'vlt'.prtwrvHtion. Hi; nlf<> tnlln n? that In- d'-<ir<
o rf-noW the nogotlaUnna.'fml ft ttw hr?vrt|fn> iiidt?|>ri
*5t>. TWO CENTS.
b) j sable to success that he should lie intriuttcd with tl
>w j means for making an advance to the Spanish govcrnuici
ed Immediately after the Diguing of the treaty, with..
01 awaiting the ratilicatioii of it by tire Senate. Thin,
: point of fact, is an appeal to Congress for an r\pmu>i<
in- of it* opinion on the propriety of renewing the negoti
ill lion. Should we fail to give liini the means whieli mi
ut be indispensable to suocuss, it uiay well he considered L
u- tlie President m an intimation that we do not desire tl
be acquisition of the island.
d It liiu lieen asserted that the people of t ubudo not d.
Je aire a transfer to the United State*, if this were so,
ic | would present a Very serious objection to the measnri
ve The evidence on which it is based is, tbat on the ruyei|
c- | of the President'x message addressee wero made by tl
a- municipal authorities of Havana and other towns proles
g, ! ing tlieir devotion to tlie crown, and their hostility (
r:r the institutions of tlie United States. Any one who hi
.11 ! hud an op|Kirtuuity of observing the [Kusuosive influent'
of tlio bayonet in countries where it rules supreme wi
ic know how much value to attach to such doiiumstrutior
it of popular sentiment. There can lie no doillit that a
Iv immense majority of the people of Culm are not only i
er favor, hilt ardently desirous of annexation to the I nite
ic States. It would he strange, indeed, if tlu-y were not st
? | deprived of all influence even in the local attaint of ill
tg j Hand -unrepresented in the Cortes -governed bymiecet
j. sire liordes of lumgry otlieials sent from tie motln
i- country to setjnjre fortunes to Ik' enjoyed at hoin . hav in
id no sympathy with the people among whom tie r u
ts mere sojourners, and upon whom they look dow n as in
l- fi'iiors ; liable to be arrested at any moment on the moi
?r trilling charges ; tried l>y military courts or submissiv
ir judges, removal at pleasure, punished at tin; discretion c
t- the captain general, they would lie less than men If the
! were contented with their yoke. Hut we iiave the Is
ic ' authority, from ttic most reliable sources, for assert in
f that nfanlv tire entire native population of Cttbi desiiv
it | aniR-sation.
it I Apprehensions bare been expressed 1>?. some ontln n
*> statesmen of perils resulting from the different lenient
', : composing tin' population) and the supposed mixture e
r races Thev are not justified bv the facts. The OtUir
11 population, by the census of Is.10, was 1,^47.2'Ht, fl
which tin.),.Mitt were whites, 2(l.">,.riT0 free colored, nn<
I.'tti, lott slaves. m
r Allowing the same annual percentage of increase to
em li rliis'- as shown by comparison with the previous n
I- ; *us, the total population now is about 1, "i8(i,i>00, of whirl
t 742,000 are whites, 2(>d, )()() free colored, and .">sl,(MI(
slaves. There is good reason to suppesotbal the sluva
s oonaidcmbly cxcood the estimated numiicr, it huvinj
ii been, until very recently, tlie interest ot the proprietor t<
under-state it. The. feeling of caste or race i? as market
!i in t uba us In the I'nitcd *tgtes. The white Creole is a
li free from all taint of African blood as tlic descendant o
e tbirOotli on the plains of Castile. There is a immeroit
s white peasantry, brave, robust, sober, and honest, no
s yet. perhaps, prepared intelltgcnth to discharge ail (hi
t duties of the citizen of a free republic, but who, front lit
r organization, physical and mental, is capable of being elo
c vated by culture to the same level witli the educated Cu
t bans, who, as a class, areas refined, well-informed, ant
a fitted for self-government as men of any class of any im
t tion can be who have not inhaled with their breath tin
atmosphere of freedom.
Many of them accompanied by their families are to lit
e met with every summer at our cities and watering places,
- observing and appreciating the working of our form <>1
; government and its marvellous results ; many seebiiifi
s until the arrival of more auspicious days an asylum from
l the oppression that has driven tlieui from their homes
; while hundreds of their youths in our schools and Col
'ogee are acquiring our language and fitting themselves
r hereafter, it is to be hoped, at no distant day. to play a
j distinguished part in their own legislative halls, or in tin
3 counsels of the nation.
These men, who are the groat proprietors of the soil,
, i are opposed to the continuance of the African slave trade,
I which is carried on l>y Spaniards from the pen insula, rone.
t ! guile Americans, and other adventurers from every clime
! and country, tolerated and protected by the untln ritics
of Cuba of every grade.
I ; Were there n sincere desire to arrest tlie slave (ratio, it
i could lie an effectual!v not iloun lie Snttiii in it lnw I,
I j tor Tare "mc&W -vnnX v <?'?1,J .w iiin-unlv iimil
r had been as intent npon forcing its treaty stipulation!
with Spain for its abolition as it hus been in denouncing
) abuses of onr Hag, which we cannot entirely prevent, this
1 question would long since have reused to be a source ol
irritating discussion, it may Ire of possible future difil
cultv. 'J'hose who desire to extirpate the slave trade may
; find in their sympathy for tire African a motive to sup
port, this bill.
5 We have, since tire conclusion of the Ashbiirton treaty
in 1812, kept up a squadron on tire coast of Africa for tin
. suppression of the slave trade, and we are still bound ti
continue it. The annual cost of this squadron is at least
t $800,000. The cost in seventeen years amounts tc
> : $13,1500,000 (thirteen million six hundred thousand dol
j | lars ;) and this, too, with results absolutely insignificant.
- I It. appears from a report of a select committee of tin
I j British House of Commons, made in March, 1850, thai
i the number of slaves exported from Africa had sunk dowr
. in 1812 (the very year in which the Ash burton treaty
. was concluded) to nearly 30,000. In 1843 it rose ti
55,000; in 1810 it was 70,000 ; in 1847 it was 84,000
li and was then in a state of unusual activity. Sir Cliarlci
i* I Hothani, one of the most distinguished officers of tin
British navy, and who commanded on the coast of Airier
,f | for several years, was examined by that select committee
e He said that the force under Ids command was in i
I, high state of discipline ; that Ids views were carriui
ii out by his officers to his entire satisfaction ; that
e so far from having succeeded in stopping tire slave
trade, lie had not even crippled it to the extent of giving
[] it a permanent check ; that the slave trade had la-en reg
r ulated by t he coin inertia 1 demand for slaves, and hue
been little affected by the presence of his squadron, am
that experience had proven the system of repression by
cruisers on the coast of Africa futile this, too, when tin
British squadron counted twenty-seven vessels, compris
ing several steamers, carrying about three hundred gun
and three thousand men. The annual expense of tin
squadron is about $3,500,000, with auxiliary establish
ments on the coast costing at least $1,500,000 more .
totid cost annually of five millions of dollars in pursuant*
of a system which cxpcrienco lias proved to is* futile.
In 1847 tlie Brazilian slave trade wn in full activity
It lias been entirely suppressed for several years. Tli
slaves now shipped from tin- coast of Africa are exclusive
ly for the Spanish islands, it is not easy to estimate Hi
number. From the best rlatn, however, it is suppos. now
to be from twenty-five to thirty thousand per year
it would cease t > exist the moment we acquire posse: $io:
of tlm Island of f'ub.i.
i The Importation of slaves into the I nited States \u.
prohibited in ]*0S. Since then, e period of more tier
fifty years, hut one ease has occurred of its violation, tlui
of tltc Wanderer, which lias recently excited so much at
e Anotlwr consequence which should equally enlist th
<1 syei|>atliio6 of philunthropiists excepting that cla ss who*
<- tears arc only shed for those of ebon hue. and who till
y with inditl'eienco from tlic sufferings of men of any oth<
I i complexion. i- the suppression of the infamous Cooli
I i trntlic- i trattic so ma. h the more nefarious as the Chliu
h is elevated abov e the African in the scale of creation
more civilized, more Intellectual, and therefore feelin
i- more acutely the shackles of the slave ship and the liars
;t discipline of the overseer. The number of Chinese ship
ped lor Cuba since the commencement of the traffic up t
u March last, is 2(1,777of whom 1,1.14 j>erisked on th
passu ire. from that date up to the close of the year th
,. number landed at Havana tvas '.(,4411. Wo blush to mi
v that three-fourths of the number were transported nude
the American and British Bags- under the flags of th
iy two countries that have been the most zealous for th
il suppression of the African slave trade. The ratio of mot
,y tidily on the passage was 1 lj| |ier cent., and a much lai
-s ger proportion of these wretched being were landed in a
n enfeebled eouditiou. Coining too, from a temperat
in climate, they are not capable of enduring the exposur e t
it tie tropical sun, in which the African delights to bisk
When their allotted time of service shall have been com
iv pie tod, the small remnant of the survivors will lur dsl
jg conclusive evidence of the harlwrity with which they nr
it treated. The master feels no interest in his teinporar
slave lieyond that of extracting from him the groatos
jt possible amount of labor during the continuance of hi
j servitude His death, or incapacity to labor at the en
s ' of Ids term, is to the mnster a matter of as much Indiffei
I, | Mice aa is the fate of tlic <t]ierativ? employed in his mil
I L' . - -Specim
\9iki 9 to Subscriber*
Fh/jth fit f, f |ub*crl|'ll> h.l A|?l be mail* it?ni)i|il?iy ixk *# ? , ?
.? IV ?, ll uh'.?r? >m ail, t*fifiur?i , ( tilt exfktaAlit.o of lit* p*H?d
ci 1,4*1 i r tint* iVu Kurtif Milt li< ^it <"u luculiHtit'iini
Ri miI p*4* i .-i li) Miuit %r?it i?e ?t Hit' i vf i Sc *?!?** rtbrrt ??*? nvi
l a?pi<tre 1 day $0 Ui I sqnitre 'I imailU l>
1 Uu 1 w??k 1 lb , Jt do .1 (uiMut-it* It 0#
I U' '1 MC kit ;j 00 1 ? <> 0 muiitUn II <*
I <ln 1 lui'Utli $ii 00 I 1 ilu 1 yumr ,80 01
Eight I ill** or Iran make * >-?juar? , ledger advrrUMMttttft ill
l>r.?|.oi'iiou. ?u?t all (Miyiibk in ttdvauci Atl\urttooiiMttttft wttwrtu ii>
twice or thrice a week will becltargvd JJ7>$ cento per aquar*fbr Mflh
itnerUou aftor the drat Advirtwem?*nt? <mm? a week In tthBdutty.
? uulri per aquure for each )io?urtiou. Special uottcun tiftNUFfetf ttMatm.
i the foregoiug rate*.
In ! treatment aiui iiM roused happiness of the slaves now ?.>
nt | inting iu the island that would inevitably Mow from it
ut I As a general rule, the slave i? well ticatod In proportk>u
in to bis productiveness ami con vet tilde value ; as an ex
>n peusive instrument is mote can-fully handled than owe <4
s- less cost. WLion the importation of slaves froui abtumi
iy is arrested, the Lome production aflorda the only meat.-,
?j I of supplying tin- inci casing demand for labor. It may l?
ii assumed Sus mi axiom of |>olitical inuuHiiy that the in
; ereuse of population, if not the only true test, is tbamosl
, reliable of the average well-being of the class to which it
it j Is applied. Tried by this test, the slave of the United
, Stains affords u veiy high standard aw compared even
it ! with the white population of our favored land. Rut when
ie eouiparisou is made with tin- statistic* of African slavery
I In ult European colonies, the results arc startling. Mince
K> I Las Casus, iu his steal lor the pruu-cliou of the 111
is dian, originated the African slave trade, it is esli
c mated that the whole number liaiis|>orUxi to the new
II { world has beeu about S,o7.\00l). tlf those, we ia out
i> J colonial condition, and since, have only received about
n :i7.-.,0W> By natural increase, after deducting ail who
ii arc free, we had in Is.ej .1,1104,000 slaves of the Afilenn
d >ace. Those, allowing the same percentage Of increar
I; for nine years, as the census returns show during
, the last decennial period, would now number ores
r- I,.'100,0011 wliiic from the soma data, the fnse-enl
i <>r,d |K)pulatioii would amount to 411#,600. The
g British NVsi India colonies received about I,70U
. 000. The whole population of those islands, meliidin.
i lainaii a and i riuidad iu,'i|uirud from the tetaniards, and
it British Onlnna, black, wMt< and mixed, is but 1.0(12.
e ?* The Spanish and oilier Wesl India islands WoetVcU
if about ;;,G00,uo0. This is very muelt move titan theii
entire population to dav. The proportion Mt'UM* hi
;t some of the colonics, hut the general retrilt wW hfl"|butid
j : even when' the same. A very much iCitf numfcr nov
a I existing ot'Airicau dow ent, cither puny or mlxodpahh-m
have been imported from Africa.
tl ; There is another aspect in which this
' Itc viewed which i deserving of serious v*>oiM$^KU6L 1'
i is forcibly put iu the ITtvid- nt'g umtuU i|tefaago~4te|M
multiplied aggressions upon tin' |<or<toip> MMMm w
j oub citizens by the local aUlVioritli* of CiilOpiWanv
years past present, in tha personal the atpillii<yilW>l.
the anomaly of absolute power to indict lately w1lh<JUt
any corresponding faculty to ro-lrt rw it. He gin, almostiailght
of our tthoros, confiscate, without Just cat*?, tin
property of an Amcricun citizen, or tn?ureera?? Jib per
' sou ; hut if applied to for redress, we are told that Ic
n aanuut act without consnltiug liis royal mistress at Mh
r ilrid. Theru v,e i? informed Unit it is ueeeertMy to await
j : the return of u report of the ? ??? which is ty be obtained
1 from Cuba ; and many years ' la]>nc before it Is ripe fo>
9 decision. These delays in meet Instairoes ' Miomtt
1 ; to an absolute denial of justicti. And ovwt- WKen
Lithe obligation of indemnity is admitted, the sfut
t 1 of tlm treasury or a change of ministry b pkui
cd as au excuse for withholding payment. 1 'fbis
j would long since have justified us in reHOfttng to B?cns
urea or'reprisal ttiat would have ltecesmmy led fftww.
and ultimately resulted in the <ou<ineMM-flw island.
I indeed, such is the acute sense of thosw WSOUgS prevwii
ing among our people, that nothing but our rijfict neutrality
laws, which, so long as tlicy remain unrepealed or
unmodified, a Chief Magistrate, acting -nudatiSMS^'ilUtt"
tiou of Ids official oath to see tlmt the laws be fijithfolty
executed, is l?oimd to enforce, lias prevented ,thc jhtpecs*
j- of; organised individual entm-prlsss U*fc' ?r?
r tliis have revolutionised the island, ltds in rnrt, Mnbu,
bly, for tliis cause that lite I'redden 11 ms rewinmVndcd
I the policy which tliis hill imliodlos, uml tlaf world cannot.
fail to lucugnise in its adoption by Uongmsn a dctermit
nation to maintain liim in Ids efforts to preserve uri
, tarnished our national character fur justice and fair deal
The effects of tiie ncspiisilioii of Culm will Is1 no less
Imneficial in its commercial than iu Its political and moral
aspects. The length of the island is alsmt seven hundred
and seventy miles, with an average Wea lth of about
forty miles, comprising an art a of .'!I ,UiH square miles.
; ! Tiie soil is fertile, climate genial, and its ports the finest
Ill lin. IVOI1U. I HU Mill IS I1HIII! JUimiiUliy KIIOWU lO US,
lov iijiurt fii>iu our extensive trade, which employs sev
fin I hundred A irierlean vessels, thousands of our eitiz"ns
linvo touched lit (lint; port in our steamers on their Wiiv
I away linn - -i. ...i
; harbor, iinil have breathed uiuent prayers that tlnur next
; visit should lie hailed by the nlars and stiijiCs floating
from the Moro. And yet (tuba can lsmxt ol' several other
harbors eipially safe and more extensive than that of
Ju Ibo.i the importations, by ollieial custom-house returns,
were t.'i 1,2111,000 ; the exports, $34,803,000. As
duties are levied on exports as well as imports, there can
be no exaggeration in these returns, and the real amount
is undoubtedly considerably larger.
When we consider that more than Iwo-tliirds of the
whole urea of the island is susceptible of culture, and that
not a tenth part of it is now cultivated, we may form
some idea of the immense development which would be
given to its industry by a change from a system of monopoly
and despotism to free (rode uml free institutions.
Whatever may bo the enhanced cost of production caused
by the increased value of labor, it will be nearly if not
ipiitc compensated by tlio removal of export duties ; and
oi those levied on articles produced in the Uuited
States, which arc now by unjust discrimination virtually
excluded from consumption. It is not possible within
the limits which your committee have prescribed to themselves
for this report tc? cite more than a few of the most
important. Of Hour, on an average of three years,
from 1818 to 1800, there were imported from the United
States 0,<i42 barrels, paying a duty of $10 Si per barrel,
i From other countries, and it is 1 relieved exclusively
i from Hpnin, 228,002 barrels, paying a duty of $2-62
I per barrel, a discrimination against our flour of
1 nearly two hundred per cent, on its present av1
orugc value in our markets, on lard, of which the
importation from the United States was 10,108.000
,. pounds, a duty is levied of $1 per quintal, while of olive
- i oil 8,481,000 pounds were imported, which is ohiefi)
used as its substitute. paying a duty of 8< cents partprin
I llll. ' 'I ncoi. urj IllUI JCIKOO, UUI. .it".', I'll powers wen
. ! imported from the UniUxl Stat.-- paying a duly of SI !H?
,, per quint.il, while the importation from other quarter*-,
: principally from I'tienos Ay re.-, was 1.000 (touitd.
paying n duty of $1 17. the difference h inir. in fivi, :r
protf . tiuu of the Spanish Ihig, wllieh thus enjoys ft monopoly
of this hnimh of trade, To-day, with it* in
. leaned populniion and wealth, ii is'fiir to presume that
f. werf flrtha annexed to the Uuited States, with the stim
,1 til it- afforded by low prices, her annual consumption
of our tlonr would he lillii.tMMi laurels; of our bird,
n 'f.* ,0**0,ftftlt pounds' ; of our hepf, ' 20,000.000 'and ?'>!
I polk, tiro ino-t solid and nutritious food for the laborer,
10.000,000 p .inids. I I* Due ratio of increase
i, would he exhibited in our whole li t of exports. Many
,t articles that now appear li-d at all Of In very llmlt'd
quantities would force their way into general consumption.
The Spanish ling, deprived of the advantage of ilia
c criminating duties of reunagc and impost, wonld so.m
c almndon u irompotition which it could not sustain oir
n equal terms, and tire whole carrying trade, foreign ami
,, domestic, would full into the hands of our enterprising
(. merchants and ship-owners, hut ehietlv those of the north
in and middle States, while the fanner of the Wosl
w >uld have ii n* w and constantly-increasing market, <?]>eit
11? him for the products of the soil. With all the dlsidI
vantages under which we now lalsn , the American vessel,
entering tin; (arrt of Havana alone last year itmnhwl
0 nine hundred and fifty-eight, with a tonnage of four him
e dred ami three thousand four hundred and seventy-nTttc,
e (403,479.) To what figure will this lie extended when
oiii-h shall lie tire national flag of Cubaf
*i The cultivation of sugar is tire chief buds of the wealth
c and prosperity of 'ulxi. The average nnnual produetion.
P exclusive of what is consumed in the island, is about
400,000 tons ; that of Louisiana about. 175,000 tons.
I I if.; wiiv/ic; iiiiiuuiib ?'? *-iuig niigm iruiu WJ1IUU |WI1I|W iiihi
? the Knited States are supplied is estimated at 1,27 i.ihhi
0 tons ; of thin, Cuba and Louisiana now furnish soniewlmt,
0 more than 15 [s-v cent is it extravagant to predict tint,
with Cuba annexed, we should in a few years have us
' complete control of this great staple?which has Ion
I) siuee leased to be a luxury, and become almost a ins
sity of life as we now have of ootton '
y There is one other consideration, of minor impnrlaie'
it when eonipared wltli tlie vast political interests Involved
s in the question of acquisition ; it is that of cost. Tun
J years past, as appears from the published correspondent
our minister at Madrid was authorised to offer one hnn
II drill millions of dollars as the extreme price for the put
I eii,iso of Cuba. If that was its value then, something
,| may in added 16 It now Winning it to ho twenty-five
. ,IV,. I I 1,1 ,, rot inn PA'.? I \

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