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The Washington union. (City of Washington [D.C.]) 1857-1859, April 03, 1859, Image 2

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I WASHINGTON CITY.
i IVNDAV, APRIL a. iHbH.
' We are authorized to announce that Hon. Howell 1
Cobb, Secretary of the Treasury, haa beeu directed
by the President of the United State* to act ae At- ,
torney General during the temporary absence of
Hon. J. 8. Black, the Attorney General, from the
ephere of hia duties.
THE CLAYTUN AMI BUL,WJ!,K ItttAlI
A few more worde concerning this treaty. This,
not in a spiritof controversy, but to afford reliable
information to the public.
1. The dangerous controversy, which has so long
existed between the two governments in regard to ,
the true construction of this treaty, is now in the
process of satisfactory adjustment. The principles
oi this adjustment have been finally settled between
the parties, and Bir William Gore Ouseley is now in
Central America to imbody these principles in the
form of treaties with Nicaragua aud Honduras. The
sovereignty over the Mosquito territory is to be surrendered
by Great Britain to Nicaragua, on terms
which were satisfactory to the Senate of the United
States, when they had the Dallas-Clarendon treaty beI
fore them. The sovereignty over the Bay Islands is
also to be surrendered to Honduras, to which they
have ever rightfully belonged. Thus, the American
j construction of the treaty has substantially prevailed.
! The great object of this treaty, on tbe part of the
United States, was to remove Great Britain from the
' coast of Central America, which was theu almost
11 entirely in her possession. We thought this had
I been accomplished by the treaty in plain and intelligible
language. This was strongly contested by the
British government. In this position of affairs, it
ij was the policy of ticneral Pierce's administraIj
tion to hold fast to the treaty until the object
was accomplished ; and it was to vindicate
11 tlio American construction of it that the presII
ent President of the United States was sent as
5 Minister to England. It was to carry this policy into
L I effect that the Dallas-Clarendon treaty was conclu11
ded. The same policy was fully endorsed by the
k Senate of the United States when this treaty was
E | before them ; and the amendment proposed by the
11 Senate more effectually to carry out this policy in
I i regard to the Bay Islands, caused the treaty to be
rejected by (Jreat Britain. The present President has
' steadily pursued this policy, now crowned with success,
from the beginning. Ho never thought of ab|
rogating the treaty, unless it should be finally ascer!
tained that the difference between the parties in re;
gard to its construction was irreconcilable. At one
j moment, there was cause to apprehend this result ;
and then the serious step, amounting almost to a
declaration of war, might have been recommended
of annulling tho treaty by act of congress.
Si 2. In regard to Sir William Gore Ouseley, we
f | shall say nothing more than repeat that he had no
ft connexion whatevor with the negotiation, and took
S I no part in it. Indeed, it was not brought to a coni
f ..i.u? i,..h i?n w,?i,
ington.
3. But reports have been in extensive circulation
| that Lord Napier had offered during the pendency
of the negotiation, in behalf of the British government,
to abrogate the Clayton and Bulwer treaty
The fact, however, has been carefully suppressed
that, connected with this odfer, or rather suggestion,
i Britain would hold on to the possession of the Bay
Islands. This proposition, with the condition ani,
nexed, was promptly rejected by the President
1 And why? Buatan, tho principal of the Bay Islands,
is one of those comniaudiug positions which the
British government have appropriated to themselves
all over the earth. * Mr. Buchanan, in his statement
to Lord Clarendon of the 6th January, 1854, speaks
of this island in tho following terms: " Ruatan is
known to be an island of great value and importance,
Ion account of its excellent harborB, which are rare
along that coast. Iudeed, it has been described by
a Spanish author ' as the key of tho Bay of Honduras,
and tho focus of tho trade of the neighboring
countries.' Such is its commanding geographical
position that Great Britain, in possession of it, could
completely arrest tho trade of tho United States in
its passage to and from the Isthmus. In vain may
the convention have prohibited Great Britain from
erecting or maintaining any fortifications command
ing the Nicaragua canal, or in other portions of Cen
I tral America, if she shall continue to exercise dominion
over ' the Bay Islands.' "
Let the American people judge whether the administration
ought to liavo received favorably any
proposition to abrogate the Clayton and Bulwer
B treaty, subject to the condition of allowing Groat
I Britain to remain in possession of the Bay Islands
If this proposition had been accepted the Clayton
Bulwer treaty and the subsequent negotiations con
ceming it would only have resulted in a concession
by the United States to Great Britain of a clear title
to the Bay Islands. The abrogation would not even
have left the Central American questions in the same
condition in which they were before the convention
was made, becauso it would hav* been coupled with
a condition that Great Britain was to retain its most
important possessions in all that region.
THE MORALIST AND THE STATESMAN.
There aro few men who can flourish as political
parsons. Now and then, a man of real genius can
bear up against the consequences of his idiosyncracies,
and with his eloquence compensate for his follies,
but the waves of the Atlantic are not more numerous
or mutable than the company of thoso who
pass through a temporary martyrdom into oblivion.
We are reminded of this by seeing, in the Cincinnati
Gazette, a long statement of the second disaster
! } which has happened to a gentleman of tho clerical
d profession, (of which profession we desire to speak
| with respect,) who, two or three years ago, mado
himself notorious in Washington by temporarily
scattering an old, respectable, and once prosperous
r? Church, which did not relish his^abolitioniet notions.
i At tho North he was fdted and feasted, and finally a
J rich, numerous and united Church in Cincinnati
( gave him a v6r3' Haltering call; and the poor, crushed, j
jb and wounded martyr found consolation in a larger
I salary and tho admiration of his new parishioners; !
' here he should have been happy ; no chains clank- |
5 ed unpleasantly in his hearing , he was at perfect
liberty to discourse of freedom to his heart's content
; but, alas ! that love of display, that unholy
thirst for popular notoriety which prompts all the
'(
II
|i
erratic individuals who sesk to degrade the pulpit
to a mere roe tram, compelled him to seek come new
theme , it was bo uae to pitch into el* very, for he
could tiud 110 opponent, and where there wee no opponent
there could be no victory. In hit desperatioD,
he determined to combine the character of a
fast young man, a German uiyetic and a saint, and,
it need scarcely be added, he signally iuiled in each
and all. Another prosperous church is sacrificed on
the altar of wrong-headcdness, and another pebble
of political priesthood falls into the sea of oblivion.
We refer to the matter, unimportant as it it, simply
to record our conviction that the many
misfortunes which arise from clerical interference
in politics all spring from the common,
aud sometimes honestly committed, mistake of confounding
the spheres of the statesman and the moralist.
As we have no disposition just now to reopen
a discussion of the right or wrong of slavery in the
abstract, wo will waive that point, and respectfully
submit to would-be Heechers and prospective Parkers,
that their wholo argument, their entire life
work is founded upon a great fallacy, and must be
productive only of disaster in the end. Supposing
them to be honest, they forget that the sphere of the
moralist can never overpass that of the statesman
; the one may say what ought to be, the other
must only declare what curt be. All attempts to overturn
this law by using the pulpit for the utterance
of party views must end unfortunately, and sometimes
the retribution reaches a long way forward.
EUROPEAN AFFAIRS.- THE EFFECTS OF A GENERAL
WAR UPON ENGLAND.
Diplomats havo boon busy with the map of Europe,
during the last few weeks, and the arrival of
each steamer is looked for with the greatest anxiety;
for amnl couriers are dashing through France and
Italy, white-coated Austrians are being reviewed,
and ominous wagon loads of lint are concentrating
at convenient points. Europe is in an unmistakable
state of ferment, the portents are dark and fearful,
and only relieved by the doubtful application of the
rule, which applies to national as well as to private
quarrels, that where thero aro many words there is
seldom auy bloodshed. Wo have no prophetic office,
and do not pretond to read in tho disturbances
of despots the Mene, Mene Tekel Upharsin, predicting
a general overthrow of sovereignties, and tho universal
establishment of republican forms of government.
Less sanguine than some of our cotemporaries,
we have loss liopo from the results of a European
war, if it should occur. It is true thai
Mazzini and Louis Nupolean appear to be busy,
but the latter, if successful in his supposed projects,
will not bo likely to favor the schemes ol
the former. Wo fancy that, as to tho consequences
of a war in Europe, the public attention
is lurnou towarue 1110 wrong piaco on me map. inc
ceno may bo in Italy?a ground wliich Napoleon
hafl a traditional reason for selecting ; but tho cfTecte
of tho war will bo loss felt by the Italians than bj
the English. In the lattor nation, almost every cam
paign has been followed by a political movement al
home, by which the aristocracy has lost and the
masses havo gained power. Tho Peninsula and
Waterloo were followed by changes almost radical
in tho government of England, and tho Crimea weeded
out nearly the last vestige of aristocratic power,
when it was seen how utterly incompetent was the
boasted blood of the peerage to lead the people.
Houseless, shoeless, sick and disheartened, that
? x iuuu enough to roach rue
ears of tho people, and tho result was the institution
of open competitive examinations for many of the
government employments ; and although the attempt
to abolish the purchase of commissions in tho army
has temporarily failed, yet other measures have been
adopted which virtually declaro that hereafter fitness,
and not blood and connexions shall decide
tho rank of Englishmen. Cobdon.and Bright
are more to be feared by the English aristocracy in
the event of a war than Ma/.zini is to be dreaded by
the continental sovereigns. The tiger instinct is
strong in England, and tho subserviency of English
statesmen to tho wishes of Napoleon would not
want for popular endorsement when tho scent of
blood was borno across the sea; but the reaction
will place in the hands of tho radicals a tremendous
power, which they will not be slow to use for universal
suffrage, vote by ballot, and the separation of
Church and State, political reforms of immense mag
nitude, and dearly purchased at tho price of Buffering
and carnage, neceBKarily attendant on a general
European conflagration.
rOSTMASTER GENERAL HOLT.
The Philadelphia Daily Argue of the 28th ultimo pays
tho following handsome compliment to the new Postmaster
General:
" The speeches of this gifted statesman so abound with
striking imagery and beautiful gems of masterly eloquence
that it is extremely difficult to decide where to
select, so we have taken them almost promiscuously.
We cannot too forcibly commend them to the particular
attention of the readers of our paper. They are as cogent
and powerful in their logical deductions as they arc
bold and beautiful in their form of expression. We look
upon their author as one of the most eloquent, men of
the age. Famous as his native State has been for the
production of distinguished men, gifted as her sons have
undoubtedly l>cen for almost matchless powers of oratory,
the subject of these remarks is second to none among
them all. Tho renowned intellectual effort which some
years ago secured tho nomination of Col. Richard M.
Johnson as the democratic candidate for Vice President,
was overwhelming in its effects upon that highly respectable
assemblage of the representatives of the American
peoplo. It won for its author imperishable renown.
" The speeches which this eloquent orator has made
since that time in behalf of the democratic party and in
the advocacy and defence of democratic principles arc
models of beauty and ability. Thoy produced the happiest
results, not only upon the multitudes who had the
privilege of listening to them, but the still greater number
of those who read them after they were printed and
published. It is from these masterly efforts that the extracts
have been made which our readers will find in another
part of our pa|>cr to-day.
"We cannot close this hasty notice without again expressing
our views in relation to the profound wisdom
and srgacity evinced by Mr. Buchanan in selecting this
gentleman to fill the exalted and responsible station he
now occupies nt! iinvr rarciy, 11 ever, Known an ap
pointmcnt to lie inaile wliich seenrod such a perfect unanimity
of approval, such universal and emphatic satisfaction,
as has thin. It has extorted unqualified praireeven
from our bitterest political enemies, the universal cavillerr,
the croakers and fault-finders. Even the New York
Tri/wnt forgot for the once its vocation, and its characteristic
venom was laid aside in commending the appointment
of Mr. Holt. Tho able and Intelligent Washington
correspondent of the North Am-noon, the leading republican
paper in this city, approves in manly ami generous
terms of his rare qualifications and eminent abilities.
We might take exceptions to tho remark that Mr. Holt
'is no politician.' If by ;xJi/ic?m is meant a demagogue,
a trickster, a selfish, designing, unscrupulous individual
who has principle only in proportion to his interest, then
no man living is less of a politician than the Hon. Joaeph
Holt. He is an eminent politician in the true sense of
that much-abused term." ?
FROM 0(jg (JWX CORRESPONDLflT. |
N*w Yobk, (Kuday Lowing,)
April 1,1MB
bo thoroughly have the ('sntral American correspond <i
' ente of our city papers Imbued their readers with the be- I
lief that Mr (lore Oust ley has cheated us in Nicaragua, l
that American interest* in that mighty republic are lees g
protected than ever ; and that a monster plot aigoug the 1
European powers, In which miserable little Sardinia (why g
not Monaco ?) is included, has beeu formed to defeat the li
Monroe doctrine, and establish a check to the growth of t
American supremacy ; nothing else is now discussed in q
political circles than " what are we going to do In On t
tral America f" Makiug every allowance for exaggeru ,
tiou, and iutereated perversion of facts, there can be no u
! doubt that the time Is come when the wretched faction I ?
of semi buibanana who now play the part of government g
i In Nicaragua should be taught by the most summary
, process that uo amount of Ouseley or Belly protection
can screen theiu from condign puuuh- I
inent, unless they atone for [met outrages against
the person and property of Americau cltixeus, give
ample security for future good behavior, perform
their coutracte made with us, and declare the isthmus I t
' route free and open to the entire world. 'Che American ]
people are indignant that the last Congiess ucglected to ; \
authorise tire l'resideut, as he urgently requested, to Use \
the sea and land forces of the United States to defend 1 1
and protect our interests. Whatever of evil, of inisfor- i ,
tune or dishouoi tic-falls us as a nation lu connection with t
affairs In Central America, the whole weight of the re- |
spouslbility fulls on Congress?the President must be ex- f
ununited by every honest imm in the Union. The fac- |
tious, trutlilush organs of the black repiililicaus, who <
would not give the President the power he wanted, and i
which every sentiment of houor and patriotism dictated <
that he should receive, may uow endeavor in the ]
shameless prosecution of their disgraceful dodge, |
try to shift the responsibility, and thus try to make It <
appear that liu:l the President " used his power he could f
have settled the difficulty" with the greutest ease. But (
the people c moot lie deceived ; they know better Were |
Mr. Buchanan to send a naval force to seise .San Juan del j
Norte and Han Juan del Sur, and troops to seise the t
Isthmus route and hold it, the American people would
applaud and endorse his act almost unanimously, even
though it might lie considered a stretch of his constitutional
powers. 1 have heard men of all grades talk over
the matter in connection with the most recent news from i
Nicaragua, and they all pronounce in favor of strong ,
measures, and express the unqualified conviction that if |
the President will issue the older the people of the Uni- ,
tid States will sustain hiin, and Congress daro not run
counter to the populur wish. Jf the convictiou in the |
President's moderation, sagacity, calmness, and perfect
sense of justice wore less general and deep rootod than it i
is, the people might hesitata to iutrust him with power |
to muke war without the concurrence of their reprosenta- i
lives ; but the inost perfect romance is felt that Mr.
Buchanan would use the power discreetly and wisely,
and thnt justice and iMttrioiisin would be the sole guides
of his conduct. i
I There is a great outcry against General lamar, which i
is not confined to the black republic-tis. Many who do
not credit the d leered'table rumors which have been recently
circulated with regard to the General's piivate
habits believe that ho hue not shown tlie energy ami
tact which our representative iu Nicregua tught to possess,
end tiiat he hits allowed himself to be outwitted by
Ml.- a nrwt ll.n lUIIv Til,. ITniU ll
States minister to Nicaragua at this juncture ought to be
a man of first-class abP'ty, caution, diplomatic address,
and finished tat* r /aire. The consuls at the chief ports
of Nicaragua and at 15011 should be men of tact, education,
intelligence, and high character, so that both the
country should be well c id worthily represented, and out
iuterests faithfully uttd ably guarded, but oar govern
ment kept constantly and thoroughly informed of all
that passes in Nicaragua as well among the people as the
' diplomatists and their agents.
i The struggle between Mayor Tieinann and our board of
alderman relative to the dismissal of Mr. Morton, the
' city inspector, uud the appointment of a successor, still
continues. The aldermen ilght the mayor with non-action
on his messages and recommendations, anc, in pursuance
of this policy, adjourned last night without no'
ticing a communication front his honor, repeating his rec
i ommenrlution of Elijah F, I'urdjr for tire responsldii post.
All decent people condemn the action of the adermen.
and those who suffer from the present state of our afreets,
and think of what they will have to suffer when the warm
weather conies, anxiously inquire of the aldermen
how far they mean to abuse the patience of the citizens
of New York. I fear that the words of the greet llomnn
i orator might lie truthfully applied to our city fathers :
'Nihil It urbit vigiltz, nihil timor jiopuli, nihil consensus bonorum
omnium."
Within the few dav* ?? ?* *' present
n-gismlure (for, as they nre only paid their ,
per diem for one hundred days, and they are not the men
to work for nothing) we may expect all sorts of iniquitous j
legislation to issue from the grinding mill which lias been
set in motion, and is now in full operation. We shall
probably have what is called a "personal liberty bill"
in other words, a bill which nullifies ttie law of the United
States which gives the right to capture a runaway
slave in any State in the Union. Even in Massachusetts
suck a preposterous piece of treason lias been voted down
by tlio legislature. In New York it is hardly to be ex.
pected that a similarly prudent course will be followed.
A shocking accident took place in Broadway this afternoon.
A Iroy of about fifteen years of age was riding on
ft truck under which was suspended a granite column
weighing between fifteen and twenty tons. He accidentally
fell frotn his seat In front of the truck, and the stone
which waft snsnended unite chate to the navement. in.
staidly crushed him to death. The driver of the truck ,
has been arrested.
The rupture between New York Central, the Erie, the
Pennsylvania Central, and the Unltimoro and Ohio Kailroad
(lorn pan ies has hurl n very depressing influence on i
the railroad stock market, lire prospect of a suspension
of dividends keeps oil bona fldt investors, and has
caused New York Central shares to fall to 76J, with large
sales at that price. Money is dull.
ADSUM.
POLITICAL INTELLIGENCE.
The democratic convention of the district latelv represented
by Hon. .lohu l<etchor, of Virginia, hns nominated
James H. Skinner, of Staunton, for Congress.
Hon. f). W. Hopkins, late member of Congress, was
on Monday nominated at Abingdon as a candidate to represent
Washington county In the house of delegates of the
legislature of Virginia, and has accepted the nomination.
The Louisville (Ky.) Courier of the 31st ult. thus speaks
of the fourth congressional district of that State :
" The convention which met at Jamestown on Saturday
last nominated Hon. J. S. Chrisman as the democratic
candidate for Congress in the fourth district without opposition.
The singular unanimity for Chrisman 1r the
strongest testimony that could be offered of his worth and
efficiency. His services have ever been at the command
of the democracy, and in every close and exciting contest
in that district he hns devoted himself zealously nnd laboriously
towards the success of the democratic cause. He
is an excellent spenker, nnd will make a faithful nnd effi
cient. canvass. He is lioldly and ably advocating the
right, nnd although the 'opposition' will make a desperate
attempt to carry the district, yet we have entire confidence
that Mr. Chrisman will achieve a triumph both
brilliant and decisive."
THE NORTH CAROLINA DEMOCRACY AND
THE PRESIDENT. I
. 1
At a meeting of the democracy of Nn?h* county, North ;
Carolina, the following resolution was adopted fully en- |
doming the President and the course which he line pur- j
sued in administering the govcrnmont :
Resoltvd, Tuat in James Buchanan, our Chief Magistrate,
we rocognise a statesman of great experience, ability,
and patriotism, and wo hereby tender him our
thanks for the noble stand be has taken during his administration
in defending the constitutional rights of the t1
whole country and protecting the rights of American j
citizens at home and abroad.
A resolution whs a'ao adopted approving of the course (
of Hon. L. O'B. Branch, and indicating a preference for (
his renomination as their candidate for Congress from that (
district.
According to an account mado up from official documents,
the number of cigars and cigarettes consumed in v
France in 1857 was as follows : llavnna anil Milla cigars, f
36,086,500 ; cigars made in France, 481,071,500; cigarettes,
6,478,000 ; total, 523,636,000. , j
Several French Chambers of Commerce, including that I
of Bordeaux, have expressed ail opinion in favor of a re- I
dilution of the duties on sugar and coffee The Chamber 1
of Commerce of Bologne-sur-Mer advocates the total snp f
pression of the duty of coffee, in ord jr that, "the eon- 1
sumption of sugar may be thereby Increased." I J
V KMT UAL A MURK A.
(from lh. LoMua Tlaw-., MurcU ? )
Exactly u the British (Vihamout wm uimnifin 4ng tin
llsctission of its most important business, that of tin
Jnited States was closing its session, 'lite Americai.
Jong loss adjourned on the 4th met ; but about a fort
light before it serrated it received a message from ttn
'resident, which is deserving of some attention on thii
tilt of the Atlautic. Mr. Buchanan points out to tb<
sgislature what he conceives to be a defect in the Ameri
an Constitution, and asks for powers wbich the founden
if !>? Union not onlv did not o, .lull to the chief niacin
fate of the republic, but which they probably designed
J withhold. Nevertheless, we think the President hiu
ood grounds tor his expostulations, though the clrcuiiitauces
are not a little extraordinary % The executive
;overuineut of the United States differs in this impoitxnl
articular from those of Rurope, that it does not posses
he ]K>wer of luuking war War can be declared in the
imcrican Union by Congress alone. In the case of hoeile
attacks upon American territory this restriction is sc
ar suspended that the President can at once employ the
orces of the nation for national defence, but, saving thii
inturnl exception, the head of the republic is powerless,
t requires no words to indicate the motives bj
vhich the burners of the American Constitutior
verc actuated iu making tiris provision; tior is 11
ikely, indeed, that its expediency would have been evel
mentioned, except for a state of things which the con
emporariefi of Washington would have been the vorj
ost iheu in the world to foresee or believe, lire simplt
act is, that iu all the States of America, hut that of tin
Union itself republicanism has proved a failure, and tin
?nsequence of tills failure is that the President is caller
lpon to deal with circumstances which under a systeu
A belter organized communities could never liave arisen
In Mexico, for instance, the condition of affairs is suet
llrat no really responsible administration can be suid t<
xi-it. if there were uuy goveruiuunt of this charitcter
die power of the United States would of itself ho a suffi
dent security for the rights of American citizens, but it
die anarchy which prcvai's over the once civilized doriiiu
ions of Montezuma these ordinary guarantees lose at
their force. The factions by which Mexico is ravages
have no fear of retribution before their eyes ; their ver
want of character gives them impunity, and they ventur
upon outrages from which any accountable govemincn
would shrink in dismay. In the same maimer the pas
rage of the Isthmus, which has now become the higliwn
jf the American world, is us unsafe as a road in Greece a
Syriu, so that Mr. Buchanan's countrymen cannot rcckoi
ou protection for themselves or their propel ty.
The forco required for the coercion or teiror of the ol
fenders is certainly not considerable, hut the restriction
wo have mentioned apply to small as well ns great OM?f
?ud, as the employment of arms against nil iodependen
State, whatever may he its dimensions or character, i
an act of war, the President stands forbidden from tli
exorcise of even the smallest control. A man-of-war'
boat, with a dozen marines, might answer every purpos
in milking American lights respected. A single canno
shot from the guns of a sloop would probably bring th
authorities of a port to terms. But Mr. Buchanan car
not order a gun to be lire! or a seaman to be landed
and, as his neighbors are perfectly aware of his predict
rncnt, they presume accordingly. The case is aggravate
by the contrast presented in other quarters. France an
England can send their ships to Vera Crua for the pre
tectiou of their respective cit'zoi.'s, and it is known the
they can promptly follow up a word with a blow. Mi
Buchanan can also send an Ameiicun vessel into the hui
hor, hut in this case the captain can remonstrate only
and it requires an appeal to Congress before there can b
any apjteal to force. Under these circumstances, Mr. Be
chanaii now asks for such a pint in I relaxation of the con
Btitutional law as will enable 1dm to encounter these nut]
contingencies. The founders of the Union no doul
imagined that so moment jus a question as that of pcac
or war would receive all the better consideration froi
the delays and the difficulties with which they envelope
it, but their contemplations did not include transaction
of such a charnct jr as luivo since l>cen witnessed. Mj
Buchanan wishes not to make war in any ordiunry se.is
of the term, but to obtain a general authority to protec
American citizens in their passage over the Isthmus h
any of the routes in use. He alludes to notorious reason
for presuming that the necessity of such action may nrisi
and in this event lie would lie compelled either to remai
a passive spectator of the offence, or to take upon him
self the responsibi'ity of exceeding the law. lie admit
without h :itatiou that in such an emergency he woul
venture upo.i the trcsjiass, but lie reasonably desires to b
relieved from so disagreeable an altc .1 stive by previon
legislation. Congress, lie thinks, should pass an net ai
thorizing the President to employ the land and sea force
of the Union in securing the past-age of the Isthmm
such limitations uml provisions being affixed to th
r.._.Ar .on v. veil ? m?j. < looltlC IOl IUC prescrvil
tiun of principles established. His not to he denied tlia
distinct considerations of no small importance are involve
in this question, hut, without concerning ourselves wit
these at present, we must needs point out the charac
ter which in this document is ascribed by the represents
tive of a republic to republican communities. Mr. Bu
chatmn is fain to observe that from the very hour who
their independence was first achieved all the republic
south of the United States have "unfortunately been i
a Btato of revolution and civil war." 11c speaks of "th
banditti which infest our neighboring republic of Mexico
always claiming to belong to nno or other of the hot
tile parties," and he intimates that any acts of brigand
of ,.n? C,,,,. 1,A from mud. ,,,..,,,1
without a chance of prevention or redeem) on the part c
the government of the country. That thin picture is no
overdrawn as regards the Mexican territories we are wel
aware, and it iH one of the most stiiking features c
democratic lawlessness that a jxiople who would b
utterly powerless against any serious approach of thei
formidable neighbor are nevertheless rash enough t
venture ii|K>n every species of provocation. They instil
and plunder citizens of the greatest States in th
world, British, French, or American indiscrinri
uately, with as little concern as Arabs or Malays
and furnish anybody witli a justification for attackini
tlieui. It has been often said that weak government
ire the very governments who take the greatest liberties
but the case, is still worse where there is no governmen
it all. Mr. Buchanan's argument is, that tbroughoui
the States in question there does not exist the power
even if the will lie presumed, to provide American citi
tens with protection for life or property ; and we knov
very well that this description of affairs is perfectly true
Whether the American Congress will grant the powers re
inircd, or whether it will think that the terror of Ameri
an arms is sufiioicntly efficacious, even if reserved fo
the disposal of the legislature alone, rooming to be seen
but the appeal Itself, and, above all, the circumstance
in which it is baaed, merit a passing reflection. Ilepub
kanisro, though aides! by all the'favorable circumstance
>f superabundant territory and external peace, has failed
n the examples before us. to furnish nny guarantee fo
mppiness, order, or even civilization. Yet the inhabit
ints of these regions were in great part of good Euro
lean race ; they had shown themselves cnpahlo, undo
ither governments, of very considerable progress, an<
vhen?.they threw off that government and U'gan tc
tct for themselves, they retained a framework of civi
ind ecclesiastical organization which might have been o
(reat assistance to them. The result, however, is wha
ve see. The very Indians of the plains might recover tin
erritories of Mexico if there were nono hut Mexicans t>
irevent them. '1 his consummation, indeed, of a nation'
din was thought to lie impending some ton years ago
mil it is nvowedly for the control of these nudaciou
lilies that the iTosident recently proposed the establish
ncnt of an American garrison in the northern province
if the Anarchical republic. If democratic institution
ould secure good government, Mexico ought to huv
ieon one of the best-governed countries under the sun
Ve can hardly say it is now one of the worst governed
or it is not governed at all, but it has fallen, at nny rate
nto such a condition that in dealing with its people it i
eor.lr thnm with f,h#? Moors of Rarhnrv ?r H?,
Moiling of tho desert,.
NAVAL INTELLIGENCE.
Tho Secretary of tho Navy has appointed a board o
laval officer* consisting of Commodore Gregory, Captaii
tlnke, Commanders Foote and Tucker and Lieut. l)avii
). Porter, to visit the various navy-yard*, examine inh
heir condition, and ferret out any changes for their bet
er and more economical organization. They will com
ncncewith the New York yard, and then visit others ii
accession.
The six small aloopa-of-war now on the stocks at th<
arious navy-yar<l* have been nameil, by order of the de
imrtment, as follows :
Where building. Names of steamer,
loeton I Narraganaett.
'ortsmouth ........ .... Mohican.
Jew York... Iroquois.
'hiladelphia Wyoming and Pawnee.
lorfolk ? .. Dacotah.
'ensacola .Seruinolo.
tare Island, California.... Saginaw.
?? tf?*'W*' *'
THE ATJfrAHTIG TELEGRAPH CARLE
To Ou Editori of tkr Journal of Ohnmntt
, The subject of the Atlantic telegraph la-lug again I * fore
, the public, I would beg leave to make a few remarks on
, the causes of its failure, and suggest the means whereby
It uiay be mate to work successfully. 1 would wish it
, understood, however, that my conclusions as to its suc,
cess are baaed on the assumption that there had been
electrical effects produced through the present cable. Taking
that to lie a fact, then mv conclusions msy be relied
, Upon, for they are not lowed upon theories, but actual
knowledge, obtaiued In etpei linen ting wltb the battery
I j upon conductors of different sizes and conditions. Al
i though my experiments were not made with reference to
telegraphing, they nevertheless proved what is desired in
, ! the present emergency, namely, "what is the law that
governs conductors of electricity in circuits of great
i ' length?" The result of the experiments made with the
, | present cable, so far as I can ascertain from what has
been made public through the papers, prove that currents
, of electricity can he obtained through it, but they are so
, feeble that they are useless for the practical parposea of
, telegraphing. Now, why is it ? 1 answer that it is bei
cause the copper wire used for the conductor is too small
for so great a length, and that the form adopted in its
, construction, making it in Several small wires, has in
L creased its inefficiency very materially. Had the same
weight of metal per yard been in one single strand or
wire, a very different and more favorable result would
have been hud. Klcctricity, like water, has a resistance
. iu its passage through a conductor caused i>r friction.
s j Tha degree of resistance in the two elements is very great,
. ; but still there is friction, and a consequent resistance,
I even in electricity. Here lies the trouble with the pies
! ent cable. The bnttery has not the power to overcome
the resistance incident to a conductor of so small a size
t and so great a length. It has been a serious misfortune
j to the Atlantic Telegraph Company, as well as a disappointment
to the public, that more practkal knowledge
was not used in the construction of the cable.
^ If A No. 8 copper wire, or a larger size, had been used
for the construction, the Atlantic Telegraph would now
I lie in successful operation. The ndoptiou of the plan of
j several small wires for the present conductor, can only
y be accounted for on this supposition : that they acted on
e the theory hercforo held, that the amount of lurfaet pret
seated determined the amount of conducting power,
i Now, this theory is fallacious, and can be so easily proved
y thut one would have sup)Kised that experiments would
, have been made to test it beforo hazarding so great an
u enterprise. With reference to the possibility of working
with the present conductor, 1 think it barely possible that
p. it can be done ; but it would be at great cost, both in
lH the outlay for batteries and current cost of supply of
, acids, zinc, &c. There need lie no fear of injuring the
j cable by the application of a powerful battery. All the
jH batteries in existence will not harm It, simply because
c you cannot get euough electricity through it to do so. It
a would require a thousand times more electricity to pass
through it to harm it than is necessary to oncrate their
n instrument* successfully. So long an they cannot get
e sufficient electricity through the calile to work their instruments,
tliere in no fear for its rafety. Suppose tlio
engineers of the Croton aqueduct had placed a pi|>e, say
j' twenty-four inches in diameter, to biing the water from
,] tlie Croton river to the city, 'lire result would have been
j that a very small drizzling stream would have reached the
city, owing to the friction incident to passing the water
through so long a pipe. The difficulty could in th>g case
Ire overcome by supplying aufficiuU power to force the required
quantity of water through the pipe, but It would
be apparent to any business man that such a way of
l0 curing a difficulty would not /my.
[. Apply tire above figure to the present cable and you
have about the rationale of trying to use it.
|| To remove anv doubt about the cause of failure of the
,( present cable, and to settle beyond question that one can
be made, I would proposo making three or four experl?
mntal tests.
,1 1st. Take one raits of the present cable.
|H 2d. The same length of No. lti copper wire.
3d. The same length of No. 8 iron wire.
;u 4th. The same length of No. 8 copper wiro.
I Now place each of those alternately in the eircidt bev
tween a battery aud an electro magnet of suitable size ;
1K tire attractive force manifested in the magnet will give
tire relative conducting power of each to tire other.
' The first will show but feeble action ; tiro second will
t be better, although No. 10 wire lias less than one-hall
.? the surface of the tirst, and will settle the theory of stir
(l face being a necessary condition. The third will show
l(! that the Great Atlantic telegraph cable has Icsh conduct
ly ing power than the common lines now used here for comi
parativcly short circuits. The fourth, when compared
R with the tirst, will show an effect so vastly superior, all
. doubts about the practicability of the enterprise will van
' ish. J. S. G.
Wuhcssieb, March 24. 1859.
it THREE
MILLIONS OF DOLLARS.
h
(From the St. hotits Kopublicau, M/irch 31.]
Not a word has been said by the black-republican orn
gang in explanation of the fact that, in the lust six years,
the debt of the city of fit. l/nils has been increased three
n millions of dollars. All this was done under the adminc
istratlons of Mr. How, Mr. Wimer, and Mr. Filley, and
" the one year's service of Mr. King, elected as the Amor'
ican candidate. They have not denied it, because the
official reports of the comptroller prove it. They content
' themselves now with intruding statements of the comp*
(roller to prove how successfully he has managed the city
t nuances wltnm the M year, though when examined
I they present a different aspect altogether. Like the
sluice which was opened upon Coste & Co. 's lager Iieer
vaults, under the instructions of the mayor and an in.
competent city officer, and for which the projier court
has entered up a verdict for some twenty thousand dolt
lars against the city, half a million of dollars have been
swept away, on an average, by remorseless demands upon
the treasury during each of the last six years.
? 7 HE STATE OF EUROPE.
H .
> [From the Boston Tost, April I.J
J Seldom do our foreign files present themes of the surpassing
interest that they do nt present. Three millions
' of our fellow-men now stand ready to fall upon each
other with all the tiger-like passions that arise in battle ;
not at the bidding of such a cause as produced the grniul
citizen soldier uprising on our IjCxington and Concord
day, hut at the bidding of two or three public functionaries
called kings or emperors. This is the ease as between
France and Austria.
' The caee, as between Italy and her oppressor, is another
affair altogether ; but the course of events has so
s mixed this country up with the secret purposes of imperial
ambition that the chance of its having a clear field
' and fair play is every day becoming less. The men of
Italy who seek to rise on such terrible oppression as has
been inflicted 011 the Neapolitan exiles- whose mjsfortunes
are now summoning from its depths the fine of
j public lil>erty that exists in the masses in England? are
} not in the enrolled millions that arc marshalled in Imttlc
I | array. The Italians have everything In the shape of orC
ganization yet to do. They are hiding their time. They
I arc waiting to see the foreign uniforms leave Home. But
at the very last dates there was no prospect of such a
( sight; for, If report bo true, the late official demand of
R his Holiness has been superseded by an intimation that a
longer stay of the French troops in Rome is desirable ?
' Tills is a salient point in the mass of European report.
It is a fart, that Austria liokls steadily on to her rights
by treaty. Austrian language is the interpreter of AnsK
trtun feeling. The prime object of Lord Cowley's mis
u | sion to Vienna was to induce Austria to graciously ooni
sent to yield to a portion of the popular dermoid of Italy;
j probably, to grant a few chi|>s nini straws of constitution
' | al liberty ; and to modify somewhat the 18Li treaties,
R ; by which she holds on to Italy. Austria, in reply, states
that she will do this, providing high-contracting parties
will covenant to protect her rights against, the revolutionary
party of Italy. Of course, no Britislr cabinet could
stand a day to guaranty iierpctual loss of nationality to
Italy ; and this will not be done. It is a significant fact
of the strength that Austria feels in her position, that on
tire very day lord Cowley left Vienna for Paris ?loft
on lAimiiK Willi 1110 cinpe'or ,iosopn to have A tnlk with
i the Kmperor Louis Napoleon the Vienna Gaaettf?after
1 a long analysis of the special treaties which Austria hail
j with the Italiun States?remarked that "Aimtria, in defending
these treaties, does not. only defend hor right hut
the foundation* of ttie independenee and of the hberty of
Furopcan State* in general.''
1 Italy and the treaties with her are the centre* around
which events now cluster ; and such I* the stiffness with
s which Austria clings to the treaties. She ia hacking up
. her word*, too, by accumulating demonstrations of physical
folte. The military preparation* in Iiomlinrdy aro
described as prodigious ; troops are pooling into it on
all side* ; fortification* are raising with rapidity ; extensive
hospital* are lining prepared ; large quantities of
military store* are accumulating ; indeed, all the *ign*
arc appArcnt of actual war And all this means, a Vienna
letter say*, that, "whatever may lie the policy of
the other power*, the Kmperor Francis Joseph i* by no
mean* likely to Ik>w the neck before tho Kmperor of the
; French."
TEN DAYS LATER FROM HAYll.
By the arrival of the brig John Hugart, from Pun an
Prince, we have advice# froin Hayti to the lith laatm
('aptaiu Blye reporta the place aa being very quiet.
'l'hc Committee of the Department of the North haa
published an addrcaa to the people and army, urging thirl,
ity to the President aud Uie republic.
The srhooner-of-war Maurice arrived at Port an Priino
from Jamaica on the 8th, bringing back to their hotnn
a number o< Haytiaoe who had been exiled by Sou
tongue.
The leading article of the FaaUt du Otmmtm treats of
the progreM of national nrueueiiU The writ, i at.
" It U our settled conviction lluvt the reigu of tyranny
ia over >u Hayti, and that the country, freed froui it,
trammels, will attain, before long, a poaltion of unheard
of grandeur,
" Our future ia glorious. Hayti will toon ragaie her
ancient splendor. This uiarvelioua aoil that our Inert, I
blessed by Uod, conquered for ua, will aoon yield to ua
the wealth now nidden iu its bosoui. Let our black and
yellow brethren, scattered through the Antillea and in
North and South America, hasten to eo operate with u?
in restoring the glory of the republic."
THE TRADE OF PHILADELPHIA.
[from ll?? Ptitiadvlpliia North American, April 2.) (
While the anlis Incident to the spring trade In this
city have been unusally Urge, the external commerce is
still more so. During the month of March, Uiis year,
there were 1,.'>46 arrivals at this port, agaiust 713 for (he
corresponding mouth of last year. The impr rvcinent it
most manifest in the counting trade, as will be seen by
the following : Arrivals coastwise at Philadelphia for
March of this year, 1,499; ditto for March of last year,
668 ; increase 831 ; e<|uui to much more than a doubling
of the coasting trade, lu Aie bulk, too, of the tonnage,
as well as in tire number of the arrivals coastwise, tlio
increase is great. During March of this year, there at
rived coastwise one ship, ten barks, twelve brigs, four
hundred turd forty-four schooners, foUr hundred and
thirty five sloo[>s, one hundred and three steamers,
eleven barges, and four hundred and eighty-three boat*,
while in March, last year, there arrived coastwise one
ship, five harks, eight brigs, two hundred and eightyfour
schooners, one hundred and twenty-four sloops,
forty-eight Rteamers, one luirge, and one hundred un<l
ninety-eight Units. Thus there has Usui an increase of
one ship, five barks, four brigs, one hundred and sixty
schooucrs, and fifty-five steamers, exclusive of the sloops,
barges, and 1 routs. These Irurges and Units are engaged
iu the canal comnieroe to distant places. Steam canal
Units ply regularly to Albany, Troy, New York, Hartford,
Baltimore, Alexandria, and other places, and the
bar ges and boats are concerned in other brunches of trails
equally valuable. j
The foreign trado of this city evinces also some move
incnt. For March, this year, there arrived forty-seven
vessels from foreign jiorts, against forty-six for March list
year. The tendency, as shown by the figures, seems to
increase the number of Imrks and brigs iu our foreign
commerce, and diminish the nuinliur of ships and schoon
ers. No iden of the prosperity of this branch of our
business can Ire gathered from these figures. A much
hett-r notion may lie formed from the regular statements
of imports. Since the first of January there has been
an increase of 20,434 lings of coffee, of diroct importn
tion from lUo de Janeiro and other norts. the total thin
year being 4'{,804 bugs, against a total of ouly '44,370
bngB for the corresponding jieriod of last joar. For the
month of March alone, this year, the imports of coffee
have reached 24,510 bags, while tho sales amount to 23,.
612 bags for the same period.
The imports at this port since the first of January j
show flic following increase, as compared with (lie cor- t
responding period of last year : brimstone, 278 tons; cot
ton, 15,114 bales ; fish, 470 bhls. ; hides, 24,334 ; In
digo, 153 (lockages ; iron, 1,001 tons ; 07,750 liars, 48,
450 bundles ; lead, 1,031 pigs; lemons, 3,133 boxes;
molasses, 1,403 hhds. and tierces ; naval stores, 4,430
bhls. ; oranges, 8,830 boxes ; rice, 12 tierces ; sumac, I
5,844 bags ; tobacco, 383 bales ; sugar, 6,014 hlids. and
tierces, 182 bbls., 15,531 bags.
It thus appears that, in the great leading articles of
Iron, cotton, sugar and coffee, there lias been a large and
gratifying Increase of our commerce, and this indicates
that our foreign as well ns our coastwise trade is aug
mooting, though the mere arrivals do not exhibit tho
fact. For the last week of March we exported to France,
South America, and the British and Spanish West Indies,
merchandise Jto the value of $86,871, consisting o( j
iron, soap, coal, candles, tallow, llonr, hams, butter, fee,
I In South America and the West Indies our manufacture*
I and product find steady and good markets.
As the above statistics would show, the shipping bus! 1
ncsN of Philadelphia is now quite brisk. Our marino tul- ;
vertiscinents occupy moro space than for a long period
heretofore.
THE LATE FIGHT WITH CAMAHCHKS.
[From tho St, Units Republican, Murcb 28.) !
The overland mail arrived late last night with San I
Francisco dates to the 4th of March.
Tho passengers consisted of Mr. McDonald and two I
others from Sherman, Texas, stopping at the Everett
Houso. Lieut. Powell, of Fort Arbuckle, who com
. runnded in one of the recent engagements with the Cn
manches, took the coach at Fort Smith, and is at tho K
same hotel. A passenger from El Paso got off at Fort I
Smith. From these gentlemen we have the following i
WAV news : 4
In Denton county, Texan, the Indians, doubtless ttio
Camnnches, had murdered several families, and run oft
their stock. The people on the frontier were greatly excited
hy these outrages, and were arming and organizing
with the declared intention of exterminating their Indian
persecutors.
The accounts relating to the late engagements with
the Curnanches are fully confirmed, and agree almost lit
orally with what bus already been given to our reader*
on the subject. The United States forces employed were
from Fort Arbuckle, where Major Emory is in command
Lieut. Powell twice encountered tiro savages on the 24th
ultimo, and both tinres defeated lhain, the loss of the
Caraanohee, itt both actions, being fourteen killed, in
stead of nine, as reported in ortr first advices. Among
the killed were two chiefs, War Eagle being one, and (Irs
other heittg a nephew of old Payuco, a warrior of considerable
renown.
Throe days afterwards the trpops under Lieutenant
Stanley had their meeting with the Indiana, and routed
them with a loss of nine killed. The Indians were well |
mounted, atrd the cavalry horses were in indifferent con- |
dition from constant scouting service during the winter.
REPORTED DEFEAT OF M1RAM0N.
|
[From the Washington Corrftfipoudeneo of New York Herald, April 2-1
Ttao Navy Department received despatches to day front
Captain Jnrvis, of the frigate Savannah, oft Vera Crux. i
He states that, an engagement had token place hotwwn j|
Miramon and the opposition forces, at a place called
Monkey Pass, in which the former had been repulsed and |
utterly routed, with the loss of Irotwcrn eighty nrtd one
hundred killed and many wounded. The particulars ars
not given. It was thought this defeat would retard hi* I
movements towards Vera Crus, and possibly compel bint I
to abandon his contemplated attack on t he latter city. j
Tiik "London Tim**" EniTomAi. Foncc. ? A pryer into I
the hoc ret workings of the London "Thunderer" "<
Printing-Housc square, the "Times," has made the fo! 9
lowing discovery : lie says that the actual editor ie Mr i
John Delano, hut the person intrusted with the greste-t H
responsibility is the "Manager," as lie in called, Mr K
Mowbray Morris. There are several lender writers, among ?
whom rue Ml. I Mane himself; Mr. l'alhn. hit Duel ' I
that, admirable actress, Miss Glyn ; Mr. Chenery, who
Wils the correspondent of tho journal Bt Constantinople
during the Russian war ; Mr. Moseley, Ac. The literary V
reviewer is Mr. Samuel Lucas ; the theatrical critic, Mr |j
John Oxenford ; the musical critic, Mr. J. W. Davison ; B
fine art subjects are treated hy Mr. Torn Taylor, and tho j
city article Is written by Mr. Sampson. The heads of tho B
reporting staff are Mr. Woods, who w as the Crimean cor- B
respondent of the Morning Herald, and Mr. J. MaodonaW, ij
who will bo recollected as the administrator of tho B
, "'Mines" fund at Scutari. I
A lis i i.i.iant Hi.i:nokb . A sciiHation ?u made in Io" I
uon, v anaaa west, a tew <lnys ago, by the ?nnowip"1"" n
that fifteen notorious counterfeiters from the States, B
armed to the teeth, had been taken front the cars by I
high bailiff and two assistant officers. Thousand* B|
' spectators rushed to see the criminals, when arraign***, B
or to inspect their anus fifteen rifles, eleven dirks, and H
thirteen revolvers. The party arrested turned out to b? |
fifteen I'ike's Penkers front Northern New York, ? n/"'' B
by the great western railway for St. Joseph, for which H
they had through tickets The blundering officials did B
not make this discovery until the prisoners had spent a |
night in the station-house, and were brought beforo the |
mayor Explanations and apologies followed, the arro* B
j and $1,400 in gold taken front the party restored, andI? B'j
| broad grin at the ex(ier.se of the chief bailiff was on ttr B
faces of the crowd of outsiders. f
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