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TERMS Two Dollars per Awma-Ia AdraBcf.
BE JVST : LET ALL THE EXD8 THOC AIM EST AT BE TIirCOCXTETS, GOD 8, AND TRUTH If. BY G. W. BROWN & CO. LAWRENCE CITY, KANSAS TERRITORY, SATURDAY, JANUARY 20, 1855. number volume l,. lBdnigit Watch of the Indian Warriors. TLe iaoon, m hiVb, U wiling throogh A ea of pale and cloadlea blue : ; While to the earth a mantle bright 1 8he Cintrs her clear and Mirer light ; .- , . And tall gray rock and Cowing stream . Kend up to bear en a jojou gleam. " . Valley and forest all are still: 'Area where the voice of whippoorwill, Wkh saddened tone, and full of care, "float plaintive on the mkluight air : Or owl, from top of scathed tree, . Wloota oat, with strange and lonely glee. Pron J forms are thnee that leave the shade Dark on the forest carpet laid, . And firm, thou? h aiXeat, is their tread, . . .. I'd the lone valley of the dead. Tbey seek the spot where rests their hires, Keeping, with Death, their council-fires Beneath the (rrass that rankly waves, 'Toncbed by Ute night-wind o'er their graves. Once, warriors of the forest they, Kre the pale stranger crossed their way : When the whole pathless wild did own -The red man for it lord alone. Bot now the children of their race. Who slow approach their burial-place, Seek other hunting-grounds than those The wisdom of their father's chose : And chase the wolf, or grizzly bear, Or spotted deer, no longer there. . No longer wait they by tlie stream " Where glide the trout and finny bream ; "-' Nor where the cascade fills the air With music, can they linger there. . But on, still onward are they prest To the grim mountains of the west : " " Destined, at last, to make their grave Beneath the western ocean's wave. . I ! they have paused that warrior band Their blanket, folded proudly, round Their noble forms are wound Among their fathers' graves the" stand, Like statues, in the cloar moonlight That fills the temple pf the night. . No tear comes glistening to their eye . . From their proud hearts tliere swills no sigh, But, stern and voiceless, there tbev stand J " Among the graves that warrior Sand. T Public Lands and Pre-emptions.' We copy below the instructions issued to Registers and Receivers of tho Laud Offices, under the act of Congress of the 4th of September, 1841, with the neces sary forms for proceeding under it, with the act itself, which, by the act of July 2 2d, 1 854, was extended over Kansas and Nebraska., This act, with the instruc tions, are invaluable to those interested in making claims to locate in the Territo ry, andjshould be preserved with care, .as the reader will hare almost constant occasion to refer to it, as he will to acts -and instructions published in each of our preceding numbers. The reader, by making himself familiar with those laws, will save the necessity of constant eon . sulfation with members of the legal j)ro : fession in relation to his claims, and from much vexation lor a want of knowledge .as to his legal rights : The individual claiming the benefits of the act of 1841, as amended by the act of 1843, must be 1. Either a citizen of the United States, or have filed his declaration of in tention to become a citizen, at the time of the settlement on which his claim is based. j 2. Either the head of a family, or a widow, or a single man over the age of twenty-one years. 3. An inhabitant of the tract sought ito be entered, upon which in person he .has made a settlement and erected a dwelling-house, and otherwise improved said tract since the 1st of June, 1840, and .prior to the time when applied for ; which land must, at the date of the settlement, have had the Indian title extinguished, -and been surveyed bv the United States. . By the ninth section of the act of the -3d of March, 1843, the entry of a claim under the act of the 4th of September, 1841, may be made, although it may be for land not surveyed at the time of settle ment, where such settlement was made prior to the 4th of September, 1841, and .after the extinguishment of the Indian title. A person failing in any one of these requisites can Tare no claim by virtue of this act; 1 ' A person bringing himself within each of the above requirements by proof sat isiactoryto the register and receiver of thejand district in which the Lands may lie, taken pursuant to the rules hereinafter prescribed, will, after having "taken the affidavit required by the act, be entitled to enter, by legal subdivisions, any num ber of acres not exceeding one hundred and sixty, or a quarter section, to include his residence ; and he may avail himself of the same at any time prior to the day of the commencement of the public sale, including said tract where the land has not yet been proclaimed. Where the land was subject to private entry at the date of the law, and a settle ment shall thereafter be made upon such land, or where the land shall have become fix shall hereafter become subject to pri--rafe entry, and after that period a settle ment shall be made, which the settler is , desirous of securing under this act, such notice of his intention must be given within thirty days jifter the date of such settlement.- "Such notieVmall cases, must be a" written one, 'describing the land, settled upon, and declaring the in dention of such person to claim the same rfder the provisions of this " act ' Tho . proof affidavit, and payment must be "inadft wthjn twelve months after the date .of slv settlement ' ' ; ' '. Where the land has not been offered at public sale.:a4 &us rendered subject to private entryr a sisilar f notice ia writ ing must he fled irithin, three months after settlement, (or sooner, if the land is proclaimed for sale;) and the proof, pay ment and affidavit of the claimant mast be made before the day xed for the com mencement of the public sale. which shall include the tract claimed.' ; ; ' V A' person who has filed, or shall here after fife, according to law, a declaratory statement for a tract of land subject to private entry may "enter the same after .the twelve months from the time of his settlement' shall have expired; without filing airv woof of his right as a pre-emp tor, provided fje is the first applicant, after that time, for; the . entry of the same at private sale. . The tracts liable to entry under these acts are some one of the following desig 1. A regular quarter section, notwith standing its quantity, may be a few acres more or less than one hundred and sixty ; or a quarter section, which, though frac tional in quantity by the passage of a nav igable stream through the 6ame, is still bounded by regular sectional and quarter sectional lines. 2. A fractional section, containing not over one Hundred and sixty acres, or any iracc Deing a aetacnea or anomalous sur vey, made pursuant to law, and not ex ceeding said quantity. 3. Two adjoining half quarter sections of the regular quarters mentioned in the first designation : or, two adjoining eighty acre subdivisions of the irregular quar ters found onjthe north and west sides of townships, where more than two such subdivisions exist or the excess may ren der them necessary, provided in the latter case the aggregate quantity does not ex ceed one hundred and sixty acres. 4. Two half quarter or eighty acre sub- an lsions oi a fractional or broken section, adjoining each other, the aggregate quan tity not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres. ; 5. A regular half quarter and an ad joining fractional section, or an adjoining half quarter subdivision of a fractional section, the aggregate quantity not ex ceeding one hundred and sixty acres. 6. If the pre-emptor should not wish to enter the quantity of one hundred and sixty acres, he may enter a single half quarter section, or an eighty acre subdi vision of a fractional section. 7. One or more adjoining forty acre lots may be entered, the aggregate not exceed ing one hundred and sixty acres. ' C. A regular half quarter, a half quar ter subdivision, or a fractional section, may each bo taken with one or more forty acre subdivisions lying adjoining, the ag gregate not exceeding over one hundred and sixty acres. Forty acre tracts or quarter-quarter sections, are subject to entry, selection, or location, precisely in the manner that eighty acre tracts, or half quarter sec tions have heretofore been. Only one person on a quarter section is protected by this law, and that is the one who made the first settlement, pro vided he shall have conformed to the other provisions of the law. A person who has once availed himself of the provisions of this act can not at any future period, or at any other land office, acquire another right under it j j Ao person who is the proprietor of three hundred and twenty acres of land in any State or Territory of the United States, is entitled to the benefits of this act. No person who shall quit or abandon his residence on his own land, to reside on the public land in the same State or Territory, is entitled to the benefits of this act ; and satisfactory proof must be furnished that he has not done so. Land is not properly, legally surveyed, until the surveys made by the deputies are approved by the surveyor general; but in accordance with the spirit and in tent of the law, and for the purpose of bringing the settler within its provisions, the land is,to be construed as surveyed when the requisite lines are run on the field, and the corners established by the deputy surveyor. No assignments or transfers of pre emption rights can be recognized. The patents must issue to the claimants, in whose names alone all entries must be made. SUSDRV DESCRIPTIOXS OF LAND WHICH ARK EXEMPTED FROM THE OPERATION'S OF THIS ACT. 1. Lands included in any reservation by auy treaty, law, or proclamation of the President of the L nited fctates, and lands reserved for salines or for other purposes. 2. Lands reserved for the support of schools. . . 3. Lands acquired by either of the last two treaties with the Miami tribe of In dians in the state of Indiana, or which may be acquired of the Wyandott tribe of In dians in the State of Ohio, or other Indian reservation to which the title has been or may be extinguished by the United States at any time during the operation of these acts. 4. Sections of land reserved to the United States, alternate to other sections granted to any of the States for the con struction of any canal, railroad, or other public improvement . 5. Sections or fractions of sections in cluded within the limits of any incorpo rated town. 6. Every portion of the public ' lands which has been selected as a site for a city or town. ' - 7. Every parcel or lot of land actually settled and occupied for the purposes of trade, and not agriculture. ; - C All lands on which are situated any known salines or mine. Persons claiming the benefits of this act are required to file duplicate affidavits such as the law requires, and to furnish proof by one or more disinterested wit nesses of the facts necessary to, establish the three requisites pointed out in the commencement of these Instructions, and that referred to in a succeeding place, in relation to the claimant not having quit or abandoned his residence on his own land. - . - i The witnesses are tobe first duly sworn or affirmed to speak the truth and the whole tenth, touching the subjectof juquiry, by some officer competent to aminister oatha and affirmations ; and, if not too incon venient by reason of distance of resi dence from the land office of the district or other good cause, must be examined by the register or receiver and the ; tes timony reduced to writing in their pres ence, and signed by each witness, and certified by the officer administering the oath or affirmation, who must also, join in certifying astothe .respectability and credit of each witness. ' : In case adverse claims shall be made o the same tract each claimant will- notified of the time and place of taking testimony, and allowed the privilege of cross-examining the opposite witnesses, and of producing counter proof, which will also be subject to cross-examination. , . . When, by reason of distance, sickness, or infirmity, the witnesses cannot come before the register or receiver, these offi cers are authorized to receive their dep ositions, which must be, in all other re spects, conformable to the within regula tions. . . The proof furnished to the register or receiver, in all cases, should consist of a simple detail of facts merely, and not of statements in broad or general terms, in volving conclusions of law. It is the exclusive province of the register or re ceiver to determine the legal conclusions arising from the facts, I or instance, a witness will not be permitted to state that , . . . " 7, j " , .. 1 a claimant is the "head of a family," &c, following the words of the law, but must . , , : : . , 1 wM.i,onwnicniegrouuuaSuc!th;s . "not th" owner of auegauons; because sucn a moae o j three hundred and twent acres of hnd testifying substitutes the judgmentin Tenitorof Unitcd ister or receiver, and allows him not only to determine the facts, but the law. A witness may possibly conscientiously testify that a minor son, living with a widowed mother, was the bead of the family ; and in another case, similar in point of fact another witness, equally conscientious, might testify that the widowed mother was at the head of the family, There can , not be a uniform construction given to the law, if it is carelessly left to the opinion of every witness. Registers and receivers have, therefore, been instructed not to receive as testimony or proof a general state ment 'which embodies,, in general terms, the conclusions of law, without stating the facts specifically. lhe witnesses must state, if the pre- emptor be the " head of a family," the facts which constitute him such ; wheth er a husband having a wife and children, or a widower, or an unmarried . person under twenty -one years of age, having a family, either of relatives or others de pending upon him, or hired persons, or slaves. All the facts respecting the settlement in person, inhabitancy, or personal resi dence, the time of commencement the manner and extent of continuance, as well as those showing the apparent ob jects, should be stated. It must be stated that the claimant made the settlement on the land in person ; that he has erected a dwelling upon the land ; that the claimant lived in it and made it his home &c. By this means, the regis ter or receiver will be enabled to deter mine whether or not the requisites of the law have been complied with in any given case. The only affidavit required of the claimant is that prescribed by the thir teenth section of the act of 1841. See affidavit This affidavit must be taken "before the register or receiver of the land district in which the land is situated," before an entry is permitted, and must be of the same date with the certificate of entry. An affidavit before any other per son will not justify the entry of the land. Duplicates thereof must be signed by the claimant A claimant is bound to prove his right to, and enter all the land embraced by his declaratory statement, if liable to the operations of the act No transfer or as signment of his claims can be made by a claimant under-the law of 1841. The law declares such " null and void." The proof filed by every claimant must show the time of the commencement of the settlement. The second section of the act of March 3, 1843, provides for the rights of parties who shall have died before consummating their claims, by the filing, in due time, of all the papers essential to establish the same. If proof of such right shall be filed, and payment therefor be made by the executor, administrator, or one of the heirs, during the period prescribed by the law upon which the claim is founded, the entry may be made in the name of " the heirs " of the deceased claimant. A patent on such an entry will cause the title to inure to said heirs, as if their names had been specially mentioned. In cases of this kind, the affidavit required of the pre-emptor will be taken by the person so filing the proof; and should such person be one of the heirs, he or she should be of age, and mind competent to appreciate the nature and obligation of an oath. The fourth section of the act of 1843 declares it unlawful for an individual, who has once filed a declaration for one tract of land, to file at any future time a second declaration for another tract This has reference to those required, un der the fifteenth section of the act of 1841, for land subject at the time of set tlement to entry at private sale. The fifth section requires that similar notices or declarations in writing should be filed by settlers, under, the act of the 4th of September, 1841, on land not sub' ject to private entry. These declarations are to be hied in the omee oi me register or receiver by every such settler -within three months after his settlement - : By the sixth section, a claimant is au thorized hereafter to file a declaration, under the law of the 4th of September, 1841,. or to make an entry of a claim un der it although the time prescribed by the law for the filing of such declaration, or the making of entry shall have expired, provided the claimant was prevented, by vacancy in either the receivers or regis ter's office, from performing said act or acts within such tone, and shall perform the duties required by the law within the same periodafter the disability is removed, The law proTide that " if any person shall wear dselr in the premises, he or aha shall be aabjaci to all tha paina and penalties of perjury, and fchall forfeit the money which be or she may havo paid for aaid land, and all right and title to the Mine; and any grant or conveyance which be or she may, bave made, except in the haada of bona fide purchaer, for a valuable consid eration, shall oe null and votd." .Thin Ht ia mil imTxrtaitt lor toe rorroae i j : . determininslnall es whether the kttWot made within the proper time, ami w neuter declaratory statement wasfiWmdaeseon, that h or she has and the entry made within the legal period after i . T - T" -th settlement..- .j b .a k the benefit of any right of r as he . would have had if such vacancy had not occurred. .' r . The only things required of a purcha ser of public lands are, that he shall make an application in writing to the register for the tract desired to be entered, and pay to the receiver the purchase-money. He will find a ' blank application at any land office where such purchase may be desired to be made. ; 1 , ; ; AFFIDAVIT REQUIRED OF PRK-KMPTIOS i : CLAIMANT. ... I, John Doe, claiming the right of pre emption under the provisions of the act of Congress, entitled "An act to appro priate the proceeds of the sale of the pub lic lands and to grant pre-emption rights," approved September 4th, 1841, to the northwest quarter of section number two, nf lnJnAm....l...:. wtl. ..f nmVJ, TOcf . t frt V ot nfr ' j t r r az u i ea?o, do solemnly swear Tor affirm as the j ' M j hav r had the ! l v t e j j benefit of the right of pre-emption under States, nor have I settled upon and im proved said land to sell the same on spec ulation, but in good faith to appropriate it to my own exclusive use" and benefit ; and that I have not directly or" indirect ly, made any agreement or. contract in any way or manner, with any person or persons whatsoever, by which the title which I may acquire from ' the govern ment of the United States should inure, in whole or in part, to the benefit of any person except myself. JOHN DOE. ." I, John Smith, register or John Joses, receiver, of the land office at Chicago, do hereby certify that the above affidavit was taken and subscribed before me, this first day of November, one tlwusand eight hundred and fifty. , - JOHN SMITH, Register, or JOHN JONES, Receiver. AN ACT to appropriate the proceeds of the sales of the public lands, and to grant pre-emption rights. . Sec. 10. And be it furtlier enacted, That from and after the passage of this act, every person, being the head of a family, or widow, or single man, over the age of twenty-one years, and being a'cit izen of the United States, or having filed his declaration of intention to become a citizen, as required by the naturalization laws, who, since the first day of June, A. D. eighteen hundred and forty, has made, or shall hereafter make, a settlement in person on the public lands to which the Indian title had been, at the time of such settlement, extinguished, and who shall inhabit and improve the same, and who has or -shall erect a . dwelling thereon, shall be, and is hereby, authorized to en ter with the register of the land office for the district in which such land may lie, by legal subdivisions, any number of acres not exceeding one hundred and sixty, or a quarter section of land, to in clude the residence of such claimant up on paying to the United States the mini mum price of such land, subject, how ever, to the following limitations and exceptions: No person shall be entitled to more than one pre-emptive right by virtue of this act ; no person who is the proprietor of three hundred and twenty acres of land in any State or Territory of the United States, and no person who shall quit or abandon his residence on his own land to reside on the public land in the same State or Territory, shall acquire any right of pre-emption, under this act; no lands included in any reservation, by any treaty, law, or proclamation of the Pres ident of the United States, or reserved for salines, or for other purposes ; no lands reserved for the support of schools ; no sections of land reserved to the United States alternate to other sec tions granted to any of the States for the construction of any canal, railroad, or other public improvement; no sections or fractions of sections included within the limits of any incorporated town ; no portions of the public lands which have been selected as the site for a city or town ; no parcel or lot of land actually settled and occupied for the purposes of trade and not agriculture ; and no lands on which are situated any known salines or mines, shall be liable to entry under and by virtue of the provisions of this act i And so much of the proviso of the act of twenty -second of June, eighteen hun dred and thirty-eight, or any order of the President of the United States, as directs certain reservations to be made in favor of certain claims under the treaty of Dancing-rabbit creek, be, and the same is hereby, repealed : Providtd, That such repeal shall not affect any title to any tract of land secured in virtue of said treaty. Sec. 11, And be it further enacted. That when two or more persons shall have settled on the same quarter section of land, the right of pre-emption shall be in him or her who made the first set tlement provided, such persons shall con form to the other provisions of this act ; and all questions as to the right of pre emption arising between different settlers shall be settled by the register and re ceiver, of the district within which the land is situated, subject to an appeal to and a revision by the Secretary f tlie Treasury of.ttVr United States. , 1 , Sec. 12. And be it further enacted. That prior to any entries being made un der and by virtue of the provisions of this act, prof of the settlement and im provement thep.'by required, shall be made to the srisfaction of the register and receiver o'i the land district in which such lands may lie, agreeably to such rules as shall be prescribed by the Secre tary of the Treasury, who shall each be entitled to receive fifty cents from each applicant for his services,' to be rendered as aforesaid: and all. assignments and transfers of the, right hereby secured, prior to the issuing of the patent shall be null and void. L . : - . Ssc. 13.. Ad be U furiher.enaeted, That before any person claiming the ben efit of thia act shall be allowed to enter such lands, he ct she shall make' oath be fore the receiver or register of the land i ,.,...! ..... v , -.j.j ivio hi GiSUTtX in wnictl me laud is siuru, i wno are Hereby auuionzea to aammiaic-r never naa pre-emptioiij. under this act ; that he or she is not the owner of three hundred and twenty acres of land in any ' State or Territory of the United States, nor hath he or she settled upon and improved said land to sell the same on speculation, but in good faith to ' appropriate it to his or her own exclusive use or oencni ; and mat ne or sne nas not directly or indirectly, ' made "any agreement or contract ia any way or manner, with any person or persons whatsoever, by which the title which he or she might acquire from the govern ment of the United States, should inure, in whole or in part, to the benefit of anv person except himself or herself ; and if any person taking such oath shall swear falsely iu the premises, he or she shall be subject to all the pains and penalties of perjury, and shall forfeit the money which he or she may have paid for said land, and all right and title to the same ; and any grant or conveyance which he or she may have made, except in the hands of bona fide purchasers, for a valuable consideration, shall be null and void. And it shall be the duty of the officer ad ministering such oath to file a certificate thereof in the public land office of such district, and to transmit a duplicate copy to the General Land Office, either of which shall be good and sufficient evi dence that such oath was administered according to law. -.t ,; Sec. 14. And be it further enacted, That this act shall not delay the sale of any of the public lands of the United States beyond the time which lias been, or may be, appointed by the proclama tion of the President, nor shall the pro visions of this act be available to any person or persons who shall fail to make the proof and payment and file the affi davit required before the day appointed for the commencement of the -sales ; as aforesaid. Sec. 15. And be it further enacted, That whenever any person has settled or shall settle and improve a tract of land, subject at the time of settlement to pri vate entry, and shall intend to purchase the same under the provisions of this act such person-shall in (he first case, within three months alter the passage of the same, and in the last tvithin thirty days next after the date of such settlement, nle with the register of the proper district a written statement describing the land settled upon, and declaring tho intention of such person to claim the same under the provisions of this act ; and shall, where such settlement is already made, witiun twelve months after the passage of this act, and where it shall hereafter be made, within the same period after the date of such settlement make the proof", affidavit and payment herein '. re quired ; and if he or she shall mil to jile such written statement as aforesaid, or sliall fail to make such affidavit proof, and payment, within the twelve months aforesaid, the tract of laud so settled and improved shall be subject to the entry of any other purchaser. Approved, September 4, 1841. AN ACT for tho relief of the citizens of towns upon tho land of the United State, under cer tain circumstances. Be it enacted, d'e, That whenever any portion of the surveyed public lands has been or shall be settled upon and occupied as a town site, and therefore not subject to entry under the existing pre-emption laws, it shall be lawful, in case such town or place shall be incorporated, for the corporate authorities thereof, and, if not incorporated, for the judges of the county court for the countv in which such town may be situated, to enter, at the proper land office, and at the minimum price, the land so settled and occupied, in trust, for the several use and benefit of the occu pants thereof, according to their respect ive interests ; the execution of which trust as to the disposal of the lots in each town and tho proceeds of the sales thereof, to be conducted under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed bv the legislative authority of the State or Terri tory in which the same is situated : Pro- tided, That the entrv of the land intend ed by this act be made prior to the com mencement of the public sale of the b dy of land in which it is included, and that the entry shall include only such land as is actually occupied by the town, and be made in conformity to the legal subdi visions of the public lands authorized by the act of 24th April, 1820, and shall not in the whole exceed 320 acres; and pro vided also, that any act of said trustees, not made in con form it v- to the rules and regulations herein alluded to, shall be void and of none effect; and provided also that the corporate authorities of the town of Weston, in the county of Platte, Missouri, or the county court of Platte county, in said State, shall be allowed 12 months, from and after the passage of this act to enter at the' proper land office the lands upon which said town is situate. Approved, May 23, 1844. Important Question. In one of the iwestern counties of a neighboring State, resides an individual who is by common consent hailed as "judge.V The manner in which this ti tle Was acquired' was thus : "He was' a member of a jury who had been empan neled to fix the damages to be awarded in. consequence "of defendant's swine making an inroad upon plaintiffs potato patch. The counsel on both sides had a good time in examining and cross-examining the principal witness in the case. At last our hero, who was never back ward in coming forward, intimated to the court that there was one point upon which he, as one ' of the jurors, wished a little information. He was requested to put the question, an answer to .which would relieve his doubts.' 'Pd like 'to ask that ar witness jest one question right on the p'int- Was them ar titers rooted up afore they were planted, or arterwards ?" h-. . . JEST. To find , one who, hath passed thmntrli life -without snrmwl TOU must find one incapable of love or hatredVof hope or fear one that hata no memory of the past and no thought of the future one thai hath no sympathy with hu manity, and no feeling in eoamott waa the rest of tlie species - Colonel Jo&n C Fremont. There is a history of Fremont of very deep interest to every brave and. honest American, to be related in the plain sen tences of truth, which the present is a propitious time to tell. It is thus : In the Presidency of Van Buren, Mr. Poinsett of North Carolina, being Secretary of War, the topograph ical survey of the interior .of the conti nent was commenced, and the examina tion of tlie whole country west of the Mississippi, and between it and the Mis souri, was committed to Mons. Ricolet a scientific Frenchman, a resident among us, and very learned, in topographical knowledge. It was the wish of the Secretary to place under command of Mons. Nicolet one or more of the young graduates of West Point to have the beneht of his instructions, and at a future day, on the retirement or death of Mons. Nicolet, to fill his place and carry forward the work. This being proposed to such, they sneer- mgly. and unanimously refused, con temptuously setting forth services in the outer wilderness under a citizen to be beneath the dignity and privilege of a West Point pet Under this rebuff, the Democratic Secretary turned hi eye to civil life, distinguished a youth at once full of talent and modest, the son of a deceased friend, and employed in con tributing to the support of his widowed mother, sometimes bv teaching school and sometimes assisting the engineers up on the survey of Charleston and-Cincin nati railroad. This youth, studious, full of the fire which. condenses when op posed to difficulties and poverty, received from the President the appointment of brevet second lieutenant of topographical engineers, and ia 1839 jomed Mons Nicolet, and proceeded to the exploration ot Northern Missouri and Iowa. Thus commenced, some eighteen years ago, the public service of John Charles fremont. Accompanying Mons. Nico let, three years were devoted to the com plete reduction to astronomical profile of the whole country embraced between the rivers Missouri and Mississippi from their junction to the British boundary line. rhis celebrated map and report, the joint production of Nicolet and Fremont under his guidance, and pre-eminent for accuracy, coming freely into the hands of the people, kindled everywhere an ap petite for so delicious a country, previ ously unknown, or esteemed to be a des ert. The simplicity, the accuracy, and wonderful completeness of the work, at once sealed the efficiency, skill, and relia bflity" of the constructor in' thepublic confidence. About this time Mons. Nicolet died, leaving to bo accomplished, after the same manner, surveys on ward to the west ern ocean, the great prairie plains, the primary mountains, and the table lands and coast &f Oregon. To Fremont as his assistant and suc cessor, was properly assigned this work in the great wilderness. He had in the mean time married Jessie, the daughter of Senator Benton, who appreciating the abilities of tlie man and the national im portance of the work, stimulated his ar dor and fortified him with his experience and counsel. In 1842 Fremont ascended the Great Platte, explored the South Pass, and reached the summit and measured the al titude of the snowy crest, beyond which the waters flow to the Pacific. He now produced his first map and report These, remarkable for brevity of lan- gonge, yet copious iu matter, and true in the delineations of nature, attracted tlie popular mind, and first kindled that ap petite for adventure in the vast and sub lime portions of our continent which, dur ing the twelve years since following, has reset the afiairs of the American people on a new and grand order of progress. and has chained the admiration of the world. The exjjedition of 1843 and '44, made by Fremont through the continent, and marked by the opening of a wagon road to the Pacific, the exploration of the Salt Lake Basin, the planting of Ameri can settlements and goeniment upon the Willamette, and the winter passage of the Cordilleras into California, has been studied by erery American, young and old, and bv millions in foreign lands. These expeditions, unparalleled for the immense region explored, the noveltv and grandeur of the countries revealed, the intense and desperate character of the dangers encountered and surmounted. served to lift Completely the veil of mys tery as yet enveloping tiro thirds of our continent, and to turn thither the elec trified attention of mankind, as with the rush of an ocean of waters long pent up. To fill up the details in tlie profile oi such immense, countries, rapidly trav ersed, Fremont again departed in the spring of 1845, crossing the continent by a line intermediate between his former explorations, revealing to us the eonfigur- J stkm and chawtenstics of the Great Mountain Basin, the direction, altitude. and peculiar position of the snowy An- J oes, and tne aeucious rnaracw r oi mar-, hhne California. " Whilst engaged among the rak of the snowTchains that surround the source of the Sacramento river, the alarm of war reached his ear. "He hastened to the field of conflict rallied around him the pioneers, tlx Americans dispersed over inhabited L-alilonm, wno, unoer n com mand, completed . the connuert of tlie country, and reduced it, in a few mouth, to passive submission to our national nag. ' bach, during ten years of intense thityr ; alternately4 - lost as it . were ia the immeasurable waste of plains larger than the ocean ; among; mountains so vast in bulk and number that generations will not coant them i in bbyrinths of gla ciers overhead and buried riven scarce visible beneath ; in days and nights of cold and heat and storms, perpetually desperate with death and bristling fwitli thirst starvation, the subtle savage al ways near in embesh, and exiled long years ia the wilderness, cat off from the solace of soeietj and social ties '. and ajh ternately a prisoner to his desk in Wash ington city, supplying the generous and patriotic taste of the people with descrip tive volumes and maps, unsurpassed for modest. , language, immense, usefulness, and accuracy ; such stands in the presence of their devoted servant John Charles Fremont a soldier, senator, patriot, and man without blemish. ' - " r. But as merit capacity, and energy wonderfully illustrated and combined. chain ottr admiration and touch our grat- uuue, so are ooin oi mcse neignienea ov f malignant blows of enw, and the stabs which malice has pointed at his breast and fame. ... - . Though long holding a commission. Fremont .is a soldier isolated from the standing army and among the people. His services have been rendered and his triumphs achieved with citism soldiers only. From the first hour of his lieuten ancy, through every sui) of his brilliant career and brightening fame, he has been pursued by the malice and detraction of tne standing army, acting against mm from a rooted principle of envy, soured bv chagrin. This ordeal has burnished the luster of bis character, so that noth ing in him has been left untested, or any fault left unrevealed. He has never be traved any symptom of vaincrlorv. It was his country that dictated his meas ures, and he himself no more than the hand that executed. By conduct vigor ous in actions, but modest in the reports of his exploits, he leaves the verdict to be pronounced by tlie people. The military mind trained in the camp is supposed to want the power of uice dis- cnmuiatRau - Tho jurisdiction of the camp is little solicitous about forms and subtle reasoning; military law is blunt and summary, and where the sword re solves all difficulty, refined discussion is never practiced, r remont, Iwwever, in debted to nature for a certain rectitude of understanding, is not out of his sphere among men the most refined in questions of political jurisprudence. In the na tional Senate he discharged tlie duties of his station with gravity and easy dignity. In his actions no tincture of arrogance, no spleen, no avarice was ever seen. Even the love of fame, the noblest incentive to generous minds, has neitlier betrayed him into an ostentatious display of virtue, nor induced . him to practice those spe cious arts that court applause and often supply the place of merit. The little ambition of rising above his colleagues is foreign to his heart. - All spirit of con tention he studiously avoids ; for in such struggles he perceives that victory may be gained without glory, and a defeat is certain disgrace. "White Indians. A writer. in tlie Mariposa Chronicle furnishes the following description of the village and surrounding country inhabit ed by the tribe or white Indians, be yond the Sierra Nevadas, about which so much has been formerly said by other writers : "This village is pleasantly and roman tically situated in a beautiful and rich valley, guarded on either side by lofty aud precipitous bluffs, which from "the ever greens grown upon their borders and va riegated colors, present a singular pictur esque appearance. The mountains and table land adjacent are thickly studded with magnificent and lofty pines, cedars, and oaks ; while in the valley, dressed in her richest and rarest colors, Flora supreme. We were agreeably surprised upon entering the village, toob serve the taste and utility displayed in its construction. The stnt-ts were very regularly laid out in a circular form, shaded by trees resembling the magnolia. The houses are partly Grecian in stvle. and of very gnl workmanship. That occupied by the chief or king wnild re flect honor upon a mon; enlizhtened peo ple. It is a gigantic structure, built in the form of a pyramid, and surrounded with a succession of corridors, n.ing one above tw other. Upon the railing of each corrider which is wide, nndirrov- cd for the admission of earth are culti vated the most bautiful aud fragrant flowers, so arranged that, at a short dis- tance, tlie palace resembles an immense j bouquet The pi ple seem to have great respect fiir their chief. wIh is a venerable and benevolent man of about xty. Wc were received and entertained bv him during our stay in the village, with tlie warmest and most profuse liospitality. A part of his suite was delegated to accom pany us in our inspection of the village and surrounding scenery. In trnth, so much attention wa.4 lavished upon u, that at times I was almost iuduced to be lieve that a surveiILttK-0 was pUccd upon our movements. "We were told tliat the vail y extended nearly to tlx desert, but that a view of it entranc was obscured by hills of sand. Of the origin of - this people I could karn little reliable. Thev have a tradi- tioH, Itowever, which may shed om im portant light upon tlie subject It is that their fathers came from across the grwit water ; they were visiting, as was their custom annua Ht, a neighboring nation, when they were driven by a gale from the land. . The gale continued with Ler rifieforcefora number of days, driving them rapidly to the east After enduring t-ar, hunger, and thirst until they were driven to despair, they came in siglit of land. . This land proved to be inhabited by savages, by whom they were taken in to the interior and b4d as slaves. ' Sooii after, a plague appeared among the In dians, which made fearful ravag."- Tb Indian were tanhs to believe tnat it was a judgment upon then lor 4ni4avtng the white men; -and they .were accordingly liberated. Their fathers then established themselves in the' valley which they now occupy. They are evidently of Asiatic origin i: -Av,:.j -A, :-?:;r-J . 3TTbe National Era web ssva, thai should , Kansas become . a . free State, through the influence of free emigration, it can be attributed to the Nebraska I bill with as much propriety as' the independ ence of these States cam be to th?t&9p act tea tax, nd Boston porttnL. y-lt :, Ttaraa Meeting ia XSaaaachusetfi- The Kansas meeting, which was held11 in the Lyceum Hall, on Monday evening' last was .fully attended, and was very interesting. Hon. Asahel Huntington7 was called to the chair, and Mr lLftwreficlV of the Journal, was chosen Secretary .- upon taking uie caair, ait. riunungton made a few pertinent remarks upon the' object of the meeting, the importance of mat oojeci, ana tne cuty ot tne iree States in regard to the settlement of the new Territories under their present aus- pices Mr. Huntington spoke eloquent- ly, and concluded by introducing to the meeting Mr. E. B.; Whitman of Cara bridge, the authorized agent of the "Em- igrant Aia oocieiy. - - Mr. Whitman made a very interesting statement of the purposes and designs of mis company . juese were, he said, to afford facilities for emigration with less- expense and more comfort than usually attends so long ft journey. Under the auspices of this Society, tt was designed that the emigrant to Kansas ehottld not only enjoy tlie privileges of speedy, com - fortable, and cheap traveling, but that h should not find himself deprived of his New England ad vantages In regard to -so- ciety,.common schools, and public wor ship. It was designed to effect a great philanthropic and patriotic; purpose by the means of anefficient and busriessjlte" organization. By the means of careful surveys, valuable information had been obtained as to the character and'1 advan tages of the vflrioHs parts of the Territory of Kansas, and bv means of contracts en tered into with railroad and steamboat companies, persons emigrating ."would be enabled to travel for about hall the? Usual rates of fare, with all the comfort afforded to first class passengers. ; In this manner the company hoped to see the Territory speedily settled by firm and reliable ad vocates of freedom, able and willing to' do their part in the great contest which tha Nebraska bill made us sure must be fought in that region, between slavery and free dom. - " ' Mr. S. C. Pomeroy, who lias been in Kansas as the agent of the company, and who will return in the spring with the first party, was introduced to the meeting, and made an excellent speech. r He gave " a very glowing account of the country.v and the advantages now offered to emi grants and also a detailed account of the method of getting to Kansas, and what1 would bo found there, . The Emigrant Aid Society was chaff tered with a capital of five millions, but since tiie incorporation, it has been thought advisable to pursue a different course from that first designed.- A deed of trust haa been executed to Messrs. Thayer, Wil liams,' and Lawrence,- with a capital of $200,000, divided into ten thousand shares of twenty dollars each. About a thousand dollars has already been sub scribed in Salem. . After the addresses by Messrs. Whit man and Pomeroy, the chair called for a proposition for the formation of an auxil iary society from this vicinity, and upon motion of It P. Waters, Esq.. the follow ing named gentlemen were chosen a com mittee to consider the subject and report at an adjourned meeting to be held this evening: Messrs. It P. Waters, 8. C. Philips, Win. Silver, Stephen A. Chase, Laleb foot, A. Huntington, and James Kimball; Salem Observer, Dee, 23. . . Why don't yon Sobacrlba ? Are you a poor man ? " Tak tlie papers, and you will learn to get rich. .. .. . Are you rich ? ; , . " Support tin? papers, and they will tett rw tlie shortest mode of becoming rich er ? - ' . . : .- ' :. : ' ... Are you a speculator ? , ; . The newspaper will k!kw you a chance to double your money. Are you a mechanic " The newspaper points you oufa cus tomer, and helps you to sell your "wares. Are you a professional man T The ncwsreiniT will teach yoa the war to obtain the practice. Do you seek honor and fame T The papers are mirrors of your fat are career; subscribe at once. x Are you a politician ? You can do nothing without the papers. Are you an lionest man ? ' The papers will shield vott from the tricks aud designs of villains. Are you a rogue ? , , You can find out by the papers when" you are in danger ; take them, by all means. - " ' . . Do you want employment f y Take the papers, and read the adrer i'mtnenl. . ; , . .. ; , , .... .' Do you need Wp? . Take the papers, and get the blessing; of the printer, and you will be immedi ately supplied ! i ' Do you want to hay anything ? Take the papers, and you'll find to whom to apply. ' - Do yoo want to sell f - "' Always look into the papers for a cus tomer, and advertiser ? ; , , . . r . , s Hare you a first-rate basinesa l: t Advertise, and make it better. , : " Have yoo no business ? ' ; r ' Subscribe ' for a paper : ydtt wi3 be wiser, and find plenty of employment - -" Do you want to be considered respect' abfc? . . ..... T Take the'jToiherwise you ar considered an' ig -ramus, and at for respectable society. - Do you wih to strengthen your credit i .Take this paper and pry for Ut " s . - r "The Jaicm ct tha Grrspav " : It i stated, upoo the authority of she Cincinnati papers, thai ssHesi thousand' barrels , of rxc' blood are used yearly, ia that city, in the raaaa&rtcre of sweet wine. The Albaf Ifegister thinks this explains tbg rednoset of trine bibbers,' acd their proclivity to gaiter l&rcise. - Elegance reskka pot ?HU the up holsterer, or deader i at i hangings cr 'esrtes jf it ys wrt ia tha mosaics, the cirjt&g, thei&3srd, Ukj raahogahy;'the' ;c&delata, r tha isar- ble otaamem it etfefc ih thtfsit pre- siding ia the chaiape Mv&fSt