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TTTV .j ; mm TERMS :Two Doliara per Anaaa-Ia JUfiiice. i; ',. Z 'rZ'X't-y . ' TV ? ' jcst? i aixthsksdstW ;X ; -liT"" Sheets.-: : : , Song of emigration. I ' " ; BTXBa. HIXAXa. Tim wu heard s fong on the chiming tea, . . ; A mingled breathing of grief and gle: -Sfan'a vole, unbroken by sighs, was there," i Filling with triumph the sonny air; - . --Of fresh green lands and pastures new : ' It sanz, while the bark through the targes flew. But ever and anon :- ' - "A murmur of farewell ' Told, by its plaintive tone, v.. . That from woman's Ufa itfelL ' , 11 Away, away, o'er the foaming main," ' This was the free and the joyous strain, "There are elearer skies than ours afar, . We will shape our coarse by a brighter star: Then ars plains whose verdure no foot hath ' pressed, -And whose wealth is all for the first brave guest." ; "Bat, alas I that we should go," , . sang ine tareweu voices tnen, " From the homestead, warm and low, . By the brook and in the glen." ' We will rear new homes under the trees that " glow As if gems were the fruitage of every bough; O'er our white walls we will train the vine, " And sit in its shadow at day's decline; ' -And watch our herds as they range at will - Thro the green savanna all bright and still." But, alas for the sweet shade ' " ' Of the flowering orchard trees, . . ' Where flrst our childhood played, - .. r 'ilidut the birds and honey bees f ... ' AH, all our own shall the forest be, As to the bound of the roebuck free !. . Jf one shall say, 4 Hither no further dsis H We will track each step through the wavy grass; And bring proud spoils to the hearth at right." r . , fBut,oh! the gray church tower, And the sound of Sabbath bell. And the sheltered garden bower, ;.'-i,i'.;.,W have bid them ail farewILn . 41 Ws wIH give the names of our fearless race ' Wa will leave our memory with mounts and floods, 'And the path of our daring in boundless woods; And our works unto roaay a use's green snore, - Whore the Indians' graves he alone Defore." "Bat who shall teach the flowers, Which our childhood loved, to dwell In a soil that is not oura t Home, home and friends, farewell I" For tie Herald of Frudom. : . Freedom or Slavery in Kansas. BT K. W. GOODKICH," ESQ. - We are now close upon the ere of an election, which will be the most import ant event in the history of Kansas, wheth er as Territory or State an election which will tell most powerfully; for weal or for woe, upon Kansas, for long, long years, if not through all future time. Therein a deep ana -weighty obligation Testing upon us to approach this ques tion with deliberate calmness, and inves tigate and decide, with a full sense of the responsibilities under which we are act ing. ; It is our duty to lay - aside all prejudice and passion to strip the ques tion of all disguises, and look at it and examine it as it really is. And what is this question ? , It is nothing more nor less than to determine whether the incubus of slavery, with all its: paralyzing influences, socially, mor ally, politically, commercially, shall be fastened upon us, and. the Territory be Africaniiedrr-or whether we shall start out, basing our future prospects upon free labor, with all its genius, enterprise, and energy, so much better adapted as the whole experience of our : new States proves most clearly t-to improve and de velop the resources with which nature has so bountifully blessed our Territory. IVe should decide upon this question without any reference to what may be the preferences or wishes of any and every class of men out of Kansas Territory. The institutions of Kansas' should be so iramed as to meet the wants and wishes, and promote the happiness and prosperity of the people of Kansas Territory. Are the neoDle of Kansas Territory the vassals of the people of any State or section of ..i -r r - . , ... . r iL.? one union, mat tney snouia irame meir laws, and adopt institutions to meet the particular wishes of any class of people out of the Territory? ' It is those who be come citizens of Kansas, who mate it their home, who are to decide upon he j position and course of policy; and they must be strange men indeed, if they would be governed by . the ' wishes and interests of men out of the Territory, in "stead of acting for the welfare and inter: est of the people of the Territory. , ! ' Our interests in Kansas are all the same, no matter from what, section of the Union we come, whether from the North or the South, the East or the lYest; and the promotion of the general good of the people of the Territory should receive : our concentrated efforts. ; We should lay aside all - the old questions trhich have divided us in the old States ithe local questions of difference between uie vruiauvi ura uuum, v&nvw. . 1 amd democrat, and all the divisions and the riorta and the cxnitn, oetween y nig .questions about which we may nave ..differed. A man's political antecedents should be traced no further than his en trance into the Territory. " If you under ttake to trace a man's political position In the Stole from whence he came, irid pro scribe or indorse him as you approve -or disapprove of his previous course j what , is the consequence ? x Why it is -- simply this :" those men who Lave occu- pled a particular position in the States, will rally around and defend and sustain -teach other, and you effect the organiza tion of as many parties as you have in the old-States; and if you proscribe men on Xaccxwnt of their' previous position as fkAl licians, you can never1 secure a union of ithe different parties to accomplish any v: o- wordhlnrr.hA .mn-iin menced.on a new, basis." Let the, only political organization we have be a union j of effort to accomplish any object which I -ma wont the greatest good, lor tne pres ent and the future, to the people of the Territory. , . - t fl trust that on the question of slavery you certainly could not white the act 01 11 a citizen 01 aiave Diaie couia .e every man will carefully review the ques- 1 C2Q remained n its fall force ; ;and ;yet his slaves into a Territory, and hold them, ' tion in all its bearings, its influences, in : there is a proviso ia the repealing section becanse slavery was . legal in the State every point of view, upon Ihe Territory expressly providbg that no such old rule from ;wbich - he . emigrated, ' why,- then : and.the; people. .X know that many peo- or regulaUoii shall be revived. :. Nowyou .xher emigrants iiughtclaiincertaiarights, Jple are a!armed.atvje cry of Abolition: ;ssume, by your position, that .such old j because the law of the State ifronv whence nsm, whkib. b thrown at all yho are. in . rule, as before mentioned, has been reviv-; the came recognized the.:right; .and & ' favor of making Kansas free', and exclud- ed, while the repealing act ' say8 it shall , the . ights of each citizen, of, the iTerri iingalaveryi -Now this 'cha'rge is a;triclc, not be revived, r w w h uj Itery wouM .depend, notvipcm.thelawsof and a very; shallow trick; toc .What ' 3.rThe repeaImgf but upon. th ws of the loes Abolitiomsai mean 1- Why, it mean :45tent and meaiibg ot the ctis toleive' State, from whence. Jhe, came j ; an4Lif ii to abolish something that exists, and upon me slavery question, is appncaDie to a class of persons who are in favor of im mediately abolishing slavery in the States where it exists in favor of severing at once, absolutely and unconditionally, the relation of master and slave, and placing them upon an equality, civil and politi cal, side by side, in the same community. The term, then, is altogether inapplica ble to any party in the controversy pend ing in Kansas Territory, because no such questions can arise. .Those who oppose I the introduction of slavery into Kansas, occupy precisely the same position which would be occupied by those who should oppose the introduction of slavery into the United States, provided slavery did! not exist in any State, and the question j the "free right of the people to regulate was whether , we should introduce ' it. : their own institutions', which is expressly They occupy- the same position which conceded in the organic law. You may has been occupied by thousands of south- turn the question into any : form you em men of high political standing, fathers7 please, and the investigation of every of democracy, who were opposed to the ; branch of the question shows conclusive extension of slavery into our new Terri- ' ly that slavery does not and cannot exist tories.v It is unfair, as well as false, to in Kansas without legislative ' sanction, charge Abolitionism upon the opponents But somebody whispers that Congress to the introduction of slavery into Kan-' has not the right to legislate for the Ter sas; for a large class of them from the ritories, therefore we can only resort to North have always stood, frequently like first or elementary principles. : "j the i forlorn hope of an army, between j ; 1." As a judicial question, the power of the rights of the South and the assaults ! Congress is not an 'open question, the of Abolitionists. Because there may be - Courts in northern ana southern States, Abolitionists in Kansas opposed to mak- and the Supreme . Court of the United ing Kansas a slave State, is no more States; having all uniformly decided io reason for charging all who are opposed, : favor of the authority of Congress to pass with Abolitionism, than because there ; the' ordinance in reference to the North may happen to be adishonest man among 1 western Territory, which was to that Ter the pro-alavery men in the Territory, to f ritorr what the act of 1 820 was to Kan- charge all who are in favor of making Kansas a slave State with being dishon est men. -There are probably Abolition ists in .Kansas; but - they are -.very few, and they will have no more influence in moulding; the future policy of -Kansas than they will in determining the result ot tne comDat of armies in the old world. I speak of the introduction of slavery into Kansas, because I assume that, as a legal question, it is idle to talk about slavery now being in Kansas. There is no 6uch thing.- There may have-been negroes owned as slaves in the States, or bought and brought into the Territory; but they are not slaves if brought in vok untarily by the' pretended owner -for permanently keeping' them here, or for any purpose except that of merely'' pass ing through, (and this exception is a dis puted point among legal men;) but they are free negroes by operation of law. It is a well settled principle of law, and so decided by northeroand southern courts, that if the owner of a slave takes the slave into a jurisdiction where slavery does not exist by law, or permits the slave to go, to stay at service, to labor for the master, or any' other person, or to reside, that thereby the slave becomes free. - - Slavery does not exist in Kansas, because there is no law in force creating the relation of master and slave. Slavery is the creature of a positive law, extending only as far as the jurisdiction of the authority which created it, and no further. If slavery did not require the sanction of positive law to sustain it, then if there were any negroes without owners, the man who could first seize them and re duce them to his possession, would own them, just as the man who is fortunate enough to catch a wild horse, he becomes the owner. v. ;' . The speech of Mr. Franklin, of Mary land, in the House of Representatives of it. TT O .ui - e n m m 4i . uie v. o. at uie session ot iooo, on me Kansas-Nebraska bill, is an able review of the question, whether slavery can exist without positive law, and all of his con clusions, form a review : of the nature of slavery, and the authorities on the sub ject, are, that slavery does not exist, and cannet exist in Kansas or Nebraska, with out statutory law; in each Territory creat ing it. Mr.. Franklin represents a slaver holding district. : ; ,: . -" : .'; -'': But there is another, reason, perfectly conclusive to every reasonable manr why slavery; does not exist in Kansas, 'and cannot, without the action of the Terri torial Legislature., The act of Congress of March 6th,' 1 820, section 8th, forever prohibited , slavery ia Territory of. which Kansas was a part. The act organizing the Territory, where it repeals the -said Cth section, only repeals it conditionally and partially, rcls ... n , The true, intent and meaning of the re pealing clause is specifically stated to be not to legislate slavery into the Territory or exclude it therefrom, I but to leave the people thereof perfectly free to regulate the matter themselves.i :. I.' Slavery did not exist in Kansas previous , to the passage of the organic law, because the act of March b, lUzy, - ties of tne United states, the act of Con specially prohibited. it .- ' 1 3 vp i gross prohibiting it in the territory north 1 2. .If th position that slavery . exists j west of the Ohio was .certainly uncon n Ifancute nnc- urcrA tru- how does it ! Btitntional. as an attemnt to restrict, the --. legally exist? Why the person who takes that position, must answer . that Congress has : repealed : the- prohibition,!. and - we j and yet in no Court North or South, in have a right to. bring our property into which the Validity of that act .was de the Territory' Slaves in jthe ' State from 1 cided, didany one think of taking the po which we came are property ; therefore, if j sitioa that the act was unconstitutional, slaves Jiave been : brought ; here, slavery j because the - constitution authorized the exists. - But this position, w31 not hold ! introduction of slavery into the ; Territo good.: Congress, in the repealing section, j ry,: while the act of Congress prohibited expressly .declares the intent and meaar lit, thus coming in direct collision with ing to be, hot to legislate: slavery, into the ! the. consti tution. Y If the position were Territory. ij If .'your position b , true ' correct, the Territorial Legislature would Congress hlU-fegiskted slaveryinto th j be powerless, and the power after a State Territory,"; because, the, repeal of the pro- j organization might , well be more than bibition,- according to ; your position; lo- J doubted.-Suppose LeomeState .were, to gajizes'slavery directiy.Ja the Jeeth of 'change the time, for the emancipation what Congress declares lo. :be the true of childres from the control oC the. pa intent i and meaning of q the- repealing: t?tst and fix the age at thirty years, and 'clause. slavery .can Jegauy exist now thft Territonr. without statutory action Ion, the partof th$ Territorial Legislature, then it certainly could before thepassage of the net of -1 820 and then; it, is upon . revised' rujc or rcguwusiii, yivynj , iwiiidjL w io;ivj - subu wun -"-v i ruie, as you.hpld:you ,cau, bring,-your- law of that State , was so', yrhj not the skvery men 'as L hate alluded - to; and i tUvo hAra Ttow and hold. them, which child until thirty years of age ? i, . also of Abolitionists who lonr foran oc- the people of the Territory perfectly free to regulate their own institutions. ; Jow, if the position be true, that .the owner of a slave may bring the slave into Kansas, and legally hold the slave as such, and thus create slavery in the Territory, the people would not be left perfectly free; their hands would be tied because the Territorial Legislature could not exclude slavery; it could only prohibit the bring ing ui any more into me territory. . il could riot divest the title of those then held; because, having been legally held as slaves and property, the Territorial Legislature could not divest the master of his property in the slave. 86 that the ciaim oi ngnt to noia slaves in rkansas, at present, comes in direct collision with I sas. As a legislative and apolitical ques tion, and one of policy, it is open ; but judicially, it is sealed by an unbroken current of decisions, i When it is a ques tion under - a law; then all are bound by the judicial decisions upon it; but when it is a question of repeal or enactment, or re-enactment, before Congress or the peo ple, the constitutional question is a proper subject of inquiry and investigation, and judicial opinions are entitled to just as mucn weignt as tneir reasoning . gives them, like the argument of a private cit izen. ; ' ' -5 2. The people of the Territory, bv acting under the organic law; (and they act under it by voting at any election got up under its provisions, ) thereby accept afl its terms and conditions, and admit the authority of Congress to - legislate for i Kansas Territory. The organization aud ! action under the organic law, by the peo-1 Very few of you expect to-buy slaves, pie of Kansas, is an indorsement of con- j Their high price khe large investment gressional power of- legislation. 'Thejof money It 'requires the risk"'you run people 01 ivansas cannot act under the ; organic law, and at the same time deny the power of Congress to pass it. 3. Uur territorial judges would place themselves in an awkward dilemma by deciding against the power of Congress to legislate for the J emtones, as they as a-general thing; that if slavery and hold their ofiices by virtue of an act of : the negroes -were out of the country, it Congress by virtue of an exercise of : would . be better for '.the country. Cer the claim of power on the part of Con- tainly there is nothing peculiarly pleas gress to legislate for. the; Territories ant in having negroes about you. There Surely they would not sit on the bench : is nothing so attractive nndagreeable under a void authority, one which they about them "as to make their presence had . decided to be void, and try all the j around you peculiarly desirable. If you varied questions, even of life and death, j were hiring help to work on your farm, which must come before them. you would.certainly prefer to hire a white 4. Elementary principles would hardly j man ' instead of a negro. It would ccr-help-the claimant of- the existence-. of j tainly be more pleasant to have a white slavery in Kansas out . of his dilemma ; j woman about your house than a negress. for he would search in vain till doomsday i Every thing which can reasonably be re for any elementary principle of law which Lquired of a negro or - negress to do, a would recognize the existence of slavery white man or white woman performs with where it was not specifically sanctioned cheerfulness, and generally much better by the law-making power.- He might and more readily. All labor is' honora perhaps find some consolation in going ble. . The- man who earns ; his ' bread by back to those ages when men claimed the ' the , sweat of his brow, no matter how right of taking the lives of all persons humble his employment, is just as respect made 1 prisoners of war, or of sparing able and honorable, and more so, than the their lives for the convenience of the man who. never earned, his salt. Thb captor, and making them slaves while it pieasea - nis iancy to let tnem live. - out at anything honest; are sunk too low lor those ages are too dark and barbarous for J contempt , It is no disgrace for mail or me to draw my principles from, and those ; woman to labor for others . for a living, who wish to gather their'g there are wel- But it you introduce slavery, into . the come to the exclusive opportunities it af-; Territory, white men and white women fords..:: ? ; -.; - ; ', r. ;?! jwill dislike to place themselves on a level r 5. But, says another; the right to bring with the negro. All thc.pride.of human slaves into- Kansas and hold them exists - nature is aroused. " Kansas can never be by-virtue of the extension of the consti- a slave State with a sufficient number of tution of the United States over! the Terf slaves ,to perforrii all the . ; labor which ritory f Ho wean this be? 'What do you ; slaves can. perform ; and it 'will create a find in that constitution to warrant such serious, difficulty to . those , who have to a conclusion ? There is : nothing. : , The - hire, in obtaining the ampunt of help ac constitution does not create slavery, it tually needed. , Slavery will keep out a does not extend slavery. Slavery is not class of laborers generally needed. ; Ex a creature of the: constitution, does: not elude slavery, and you will find that the rest upon the constitution for itsexistence ; ' supply of laborers will keep up with ithe it exists independent of the constitution; demand. . Now. Kansas is in a position to its control is a matter of State sovereign- j exclude slavery and protect herself from ty, aa well as its creation and continuance, i the evil of. the presence of free negroes. ttri .t . . . .1- t '.: .. n ny, 11 ice oonsutuooa sancuonea me introduction of slavery into the Territo- j ; r . . , , . j operation of -the constitutwn. by prohib- t iting what the constitution authorized; a rnan. with cmidrear were, to nwveiato Kansas, do vou, suppose those children would bebound to labor for the , parent unUl.thirty years of age? 1 If anegro brought from; : the same State could be should turn out in some case that each litigant was backed by the laws of his btate which controlled the case, the court would find itself between the horns of a dilemma, from which no ingenuity could extricate it. The case could never be de cided. The claim of right on the . part of a slaveholder to take his slaves into the Territory and hold them, because slavery was legal in the State ' from whence lie came; would ive him the right to hold them in defiance of territorial authority. It would make him above the" reach of territorial law ; and if the principle were good in this case, it would hold good as to other emigrants. ' But there is nothing in this new-fangled mode of getting sla very into the Territories.; The idea is a plant of nightshade growth, and withers in the sunlight of reason. The conse quences of the claim show its absurdity so manifestly,' that .it is astonishing any sane man eould ever become so deluded as to have the face to urge it as a right.: Senator Atchison, of Missouri, . in . a speech at Libertyi Mo., Nov.' 6th, i854, says: '. The organic law of the Territory vests in the people who., reside in' it the Ewer,- to form all their municipal regu tions. They pan either 'admit or exclude slavery." ' Herd, then, is a distinct ad mission that slavery does not exist in Kansas, and the legitimate action of the people is required to admit it. The peo ple may admit:, that is, let in, or exclude keep out slavery. All men.in every thing they doi act from motive. They nave an object to accomplish in doing as they do,. So far as our acts affect others, we are morally bound to so aet as to do them no wroner. . Now,- what motive "can ' you have ' in voting for slavery m Kansas ? What can be your object? . How will youraction, if successful; affect the people of. Kan sas, present and future? .What effect will it have upon the prosperity of the Territory?" These are questions which you should ask yourselves, and -should coolly and carefully examine and decide by the full exercise of all the powers of mind -which r God has given ' you ; and when your decision is made, it should bo made feeling a sense of the obligations you are under to do right. v ': ' : ,..1. As to your motive and, object, in voting ior slavery in jvansasj ior tne mo- mve and object really amount to the' same thing." Why should you do it ? What benefit do you expect to . derive from it? or their loss ol health and death, and running away, makes the investment a hazardous one. I. have conversed with some of the most ultra pro-slavery men ; in slave States, and they say slavery is 'an evil; that slave' labor is Unprofitable, men who consider it a. disgrace to labor un mis point sne can place, nerseu in nearly as favorable a position as though there was not a negro in America. Ex elude slavery and free negroes, and make Kansas a State for the abode of white men. " I heard an ultra pro-slavery man complaining . bitterly,, the other , day, at mis, m a. siave oiaie, aiiegmg tnat tne tendency "of excluding ' free negroes was to heathenize them, and make them as barbarous as they " were in Africa. . ' , That allegation I consider a base slander upon the people of the slave States.' .1 do not believe, if Kansas excludes free negroes, the people of the slave States are going to push them'aH back into the darkness, barbarism, and heathenism of 'African negroes The' idea of such a thinjj is preposterous. But the motive, the object, which induces 'that man io promulgate such notions is .transparent. . He is one of those men who would like to' get all! umj iree negroes oui oi uio suive oiaies, to remove them from association with' the slave. If we exclude them from KinKas, we shut off the chance of throwing a portion of them upon nis. ; If the posi- tion of excluding slavery and free negroes b taken by Kansas,5 and carried out, we hand and give him 'a cordial "groeting - The two extremes would denounce such territorial actionrahd such denunciation, irom ine extremes oi uitraism, wouio, pe strong evidence ia favor of the correct ness of our medium position! - ""y '' 1 Negroes have no cmrn of right tocome ihto the Territory. ' - They are not citi zens cX the United States. - The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania ha3:sa;ifeidedj I The U. S. Court in Illinois has decided the same, and several other courts. They have claims in those places where they have been bora to rights, (how many it is not necessary to inquire,) and it would be .wrong to exclude them from such State ; but the talk about negroes having been brought to this country, and those who are in the country now having been born in the country, and having rights from that fact, applies to other ' portions of the Union it is inapplicable to Kan sas. ; They had better stay whererthey have their birth-right claims, than to come here where they have none. Long before the Revolution, Virginia, by legislative enactment, attempted to re strain the importation of slaves ! The whole system of slavery they regarded as an evil, as also the presence of the ne groes'; and they said ."the interest of the country manifestly requires the total ex pulsion of them." But all their acts were negatived by the Governors or the King. Jefferson, Richard Henry Lee, and Patrick Henry, were among those I who advocated legislation against the im- evil of the presence of. the negro, thus occupying the same position of those who would exclude slavery and free negroes from Kansas. Other slave colonies ap preciated the . evij, among which were Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, and New! x ork ; and so did all at the Revolution. 2. As to the effect upon the Territory and the people thereof, if slavery is intro duced, v One thing is certain all past experience must be reversed, or it will retard. the settlement and prosperity of the Territory. Look at the vast popula tion, commerce, manufactures, activity, enterprise, and prosperity of the hew free States northwest of the' Ohio, and com pare them with an equal number of slave States'admitted aboutf correspond ing pe riods of time. Compare Iowa and Flor ida, Michigan and Arkansas, Wisconsin and Texas, Ohio and Kentucky. Sum up the total population of the fivo free States and; then of the. five slave States. Ex amine the value of real estate, of produc tions of the soil, of manufactures, of the tions oi tne son, oi manuiactures, oi tne numberof children taught in the schools ot tne number oiaauiu wno cannot reaa, or write, and. a variety of other points, and then contemDlate the vast Drenonder- ance in favor of the free States. All ex- anct in ia or oi inc irec ouuls. vu penence proves that slavery excludes that energy and perseverance which have built up the vast manufacturing interests of the S orth. Less of tho varied manufactured articles required for common use are made in the slave States than in the free States. " You seldom see in 'a free State anything manufactured in a slave State, while iu a slave State you must keep your eyes shut to avoid seeing almost contin ually the , manufactures of the North. You see in the North the productions of the soil of the South, those which cannot be produced at all or with profit in the northern clime of the free States, and that is all you very often see from the South'. And look at another fact : a large amount of tobacco from the South is taken North and manufactured, and taken back South and consumed;. so of hemp, and some other things; but only contemplate the vast amount of cotton goods, in every variety, which are consumed in the slave States, manufactured in the North, out of cotton from the South 1 All these things paying, transportation twice and a prof it to. the northern' manufacturer, while if the South manufactured these things, these iteiris of transportation and profit would be retained in the South. But the South lias the wrong kind of. laborers, and with them, she can never compete j with the North. Will you force upon j Kansas such laborers, and thus 'make her tributary to the free States ? Now, it is certainly for the interest of Kansas to produce and manufacture as many of the necessaries and luxuries which her citi zens will use as she can. It will increase her population, increase their wealth, and add to their conveniences and comforts. It will increase the value of land, increase the quantity and value of otherproperty, increase the number of taxables, and de crease the taxes you will have to pay. You will bffable to obtain tnahufactured articles of every kind to suit you. -You can have them made to, order, and you can buy them cheaper than though they, were" transported hundreds of miles: by steamboat or railroad, " k"! . r ' -r , The report of . the postmaster General, for the year 1854, shows one striking fact, wh ich tells most po werfully upon the influence of slavery. 'The surplus of receipts by the Department 'during the year, over and above all expenditures', from the free States, was 91,560,545 60, while the deficiency in the slave States was 8703,459 96. During the year 1 854 the North paid 8703,459 96 for mail transportation for the South, and also paid a bonus into the Department of 8867,035 64. .And this is but an, iso lated case of the withering influence of slavery ' i; !"i " ; - v -- -r All experience proves that slavery is a clog upon the utilitarian energy and en terprise . of the age. . .r.Whateyer it ,rnay have been in times long past and gone, it is not adapted to the character of the I present' age. - Ia those States where it exists, it -certainly exerts a lethargic in fluence upon the practical enterprise and energy, and the general progress and ; prosperity. This age is truly a utilita- -Tne 'pneeto bo- paid to tne government, ran ae, ntore peculiarly so than any pe- whea surveyed, is one dollar and twenty riod tirongh which man has passed. 'five, cents per acre., The, same bacomes Human skiUaudingenuity,enterpriseand ih. ja single year worthy many hundreds, activity, are directed to those tMngs which In this Trise the company are the .sharers, add to the comforts and conveniences of "They '"receive a parC tne remainder be Kfe, fat, far beyond all former precedent, loags to the original settlers as tenants in sSIaven? hangs like a dead weight-urxmeomnKm.K The city f Lawrjence; which Will you admit ah institution, into Kan- example .of the workings of thb!new the sas which will so seriously affect her c-ryj" Ks first sottlers'arrived in the laiter i on. Jie'r" people? .pause, I beseech y6u,'rulatioaof-near00,aad.upwardaof one and pondr iorig'and " deeply upon tho ' hundred "rdenoes, of rude construction subject! before 'Tou take a step of rach .raomeptous consemzence,ad tastedupon Kansas an institution which w21 east a I mildew blight upon her prosperity, - i Jf-aftftKarStaWTi Irona . a happy faculty of overlooking our owodejecte. Timctluuu tn.t Kansaft Emigrant Aid Society. . -The common observation, that this is an age of invention, is not more aplicable to the physical sciences and mechanic arts,, than to rohtical .tconomy. Ihe discoveries in the application of steam and electricity,- are matched by tne dis covery of the Maine Law, and other new principles; which are destined to create as great a revolution in moral and social af fairs, as the former in the various indus trial pursuits; The principle of mutual aid, by which action and re-action takes place upon bodies, instead of single individuals, if not new in itself, is new in many of its' applications and the vari ous objects to be accomplished. ; " '. The Kansas Em igrant" Aid ' Society, unless we mistake the characteristics which it exhibits, deserves to be classed as one of the new discoveries in Political Economy. Its operations, thus far, have rriven stronrr oviHpnr-.PS of what it is ra- !pabie 0f doing ;! and unless some defect, not now apparent, are discovered, : it is destined to play an important part iu populating and giving character to the vast unsettled part of our western ter ritory. It is estimated, with how muth cor rectness we cannot say, that more than six : hundred thousand emigrants annual ly cross over and settle in the new terri tories. Of these a large proportion are foreigners, who, upon lauding here, im mediately take up their journey for the back settlements ; many are from the older western States, while but compara tively few go from New Englaad. These foreigners are of the lower classes of Eu ropean population, entirely destitute of the institutions of Christianity or educa tion, and . the result.is, that society iu all those ,. back setltements can hardly be said to be civilized. A . theater is thus opened for the spread of infidelity and vice, requiring the labor of generations to eradicate them. In the midst of such society, whatever may be the natural ad- vantages, lew who have been reared in fcw who have been reared !the midst of good instjtutions care to enter The enterprising sons of New landat the heads of families who have blesscJ whh the ; common j .i t. i. ui i. ..c;n - , "U ure uuu -""4 a onnrin eye from. our sterile soil and !cold to Uie fruitful fields of the far West, choose rather to remain and struggle with scarcity, than to repair to tho land flowing with milk and honey,' leaving behind the means of mental and moral cultivation to their rising families. The history of the California emigration, from the Noith, shows how deep is this i sentiment. ' Of the . thousands that have I annuany gone mere, scarcely any nave at Newburgh, New York. ' They relate done so for the purpose of settling ; aud J mosty the of iQternaI improve. scarcely ew England family can be j ments ia Virginia.. In one of these let found m its precincts., ... . ; . ..; , terSf after referring to the honor accorded The object of the Emigrant Aid Com-j, by posterity to De Witt Clinton, for his pany is to remove these difficulties. It 'agency in the construction of the great is to enable the. emigrant to "reach his-Erie canal, and comparing him with Mr. destination in the shortest time and at the least expense to place in his reach the most desirable location, and to transplant those institutions, in all their usefulness . and vigor, which he has enjoyed at home, j Agents are first pent out to explore the country, learn its natural ad vantages, and select its best sites, uontracts are then ; made - with different transportation com-. panies to carry emigrants through with- out delay. 'Agencies are established in ainerent parts oi ine country, wnero tickets are had at the contract prices- A moderate-sized family can, by these reg- J ulations, be placed in Kansas for less than ' a hundred dollars, and in less than eight' uaja mm; aitur ivawtig. Aiiuca sic oki, for leaving", and all who go congregate , at different starting points on the route. ' The emigrants are thus thrown together, and by the time of -arrival at their desti-j nation, become acquainted, and are thus prepared to settle side by side as old neigh- their lot may be cast, for they are all to bors. The first thing done by the Com-j be the artificers of their own fortune, pany, after selecting an eligible site - for ; But wherever it may be, I hope they will settlement, which is usually on the banks j let politics alone ; seek to be useful mem ofthe rivers, is the building of a public . be'rs-' of the community in which they house, for the accommodation of the cm- j live; and study the welfare of the Com igrants, before they can build houses for ! mon wealth to which they belong. . 'Let themselves. : A saw-mill and grist-mill this be a rule of conduct with. you now; comes next, then a church and school- for little boys make themselves useful as house, i The former are built at the ex-j pense of the Company, to which the set tler does not contribute, unless he is also a member. " Nothing then remains for tho emigrant than to select his 163 asres of landv mark its boundaries,- build hU house, and in a few weeks he finds himself in a NewEnorTand spttlenumt surrounded hv ! mtof th nriviWo h enwYeA in his' oldNew England home. The pre-emp- wonder, and we stand amazed at the por tion laws of the United States secure to CT and greatness of God, a he "pours it him his land at ;the government price. Thns mav a man. with soiree a hundred dollars in his pocket, leave a barren local ity, "where he ha3 been starving ' for years; and in a fortnight be -located in a country where soil and climate justly en title it to ,be called fthe. garden of the world, in the midst of good society; and in the enjoyment rof all necessary privi leesA'Tliis:mncli to the settler. " - Now;- as to the remuneration Tor the expenses i ncurred.- This remuneration is obtained in the rise of; real estate.-' In those. localities where .villages, and cities spring up' almost by the touclvjof enchaat- menvme rise in real esci-je is very great. t is tine; a steam saw-mill, turning out its inree or iour tnousaau vxv oi iamur : dally V there arealsd a number of board- j iag-houses, two stores, and ssjeral others ftranr-ttreo "aati-shtrerr taoerW weekly. .oae of: whicb, the Herald of Jfrtedanifr '-nearly as large aa&a Urges taihis &ate; and an Athseneum, in which a course of lectures on various scientific subjects are actually being given. The land on which x DUIUU9, AUU M U 11. II n 111 UVI ygjiuitftu by the government for some time, has al ready risen iu value to mucli more than enough to pay the whole expense of the j comrjanv in nlantincr the colony. While this excellent institution is thus opening one of the grandest " schemes of emigration, in which tho refinements of civilization follow close in the track of the emigrant, and take up their abode by his side in the wilderness, and thus con nect him back with the scenes of social life "he has left, it is doing-a' far greater work for human freedom. It is placing impregnable fortresses throughout the debatable land, against which the forces of humau slavery may battle in vain. If a single" individual m the South, "'or a single publication, immediately sets the whole system of slavery into vibrations, with what crushing weight would a few cities, even like Lawrence, with her Herald of Freedom, her free schools and churches, and, above all, her intelligent, - ; j -i . l r. . t .1 VT . "t ujm . .lire inAiniAnt cfonviO 7 IV I no trA fi i runn. ers to guess.. . No movement of the North has at tracted so much attention and roused up I the feelins; of the South to the danger of her peculiar institution, as this Emigrant Aid Society. The fire-eaters of Missouri arc resolving and re-resolving concerning it, and the whole slavery interest 'trem bles at the prospect. Should the success attend, the enterprise which is foreshad owed iu its first movements, not only Kansas, but all the surrounding unoccu pied territory, is destined to become the home of freedom and free institutions. This great movement is enlisting the sympathies of the whole Freesoil people of the North. . Large amounts of capital are being invested, aud emigrants are flocking by hundreds to the different stations, to put themselves under the auspices of the Company. Eli Thayer, Esq.,, the originator of this enterprise, has been lecturing before the two houses of the Maine Legislature, and in various parts of New England, upon the subject, and we have heard but one opinion given upon the matter, and .that is, that no enterprise has been pro posed "which so emphatically meets the f wants of the age, and no measure for ; xrnnB ?' i a tn ngKi tr can be cyp-to the. Emigrant Aid Society. Progressive Age, Bath i Me - Good Counsel for the Times. Prof. Maury, Superintendent of the National Observatory in Washington, is writing-a series of letters, through the columns of the Richmond Enquirer, ad- HrPSKfl it i Tna' Kin" wri" is nnw nf oliswil Jefferson, as to all which that great man achieved as a political subsequent to the establishment of the Federal Government, he says : . Thus you see, "my son, that one can become a great' man, can win the bless- ings of. posterity, receive the praises of the good, and die crowned with honors, without being a great general or sea cap- tain, or anything else in the gift of Uncle Sam I hope you " will never seek his service.' l consiaer tnat i committea the great mistake of my life when I accepted a midshipman's warrant in the navy, To the truly wise and good man, office, place, honors, distinctions arc desirable oihv us iiivy iiivivax ins vyuviv ui use- fulness, and enlarge his privilege of do- ing good. . To win such privileges I hope will, be the highest point towards wh.ich the ambition of any one of my sons will ever be directed. I do'not know where well as great men." Silent Influence. . It is the bubbling spring that flows gently, the little rivulet that glides through the meadows, and which runs along day and night, by the farm-house, that is use ful, rather titan the swollen flood, or the warring cataract. . iagara excites our lrom 1113 noiww nana. cut one iiag- ara is enough lor the continent, or world, while the same world requires thousands and tens of thousands of silver fountains and gently flowing rivulets, that water every farm and meadow, and every gar den and that shall flow on every day ad every night, with their gentle, quiet, beau ty. 'So with the acts of. our lives. Jtis not by great deeds'Iike those of the mar tyrs, that good is to be done ; it U ty the daily quiet virtue f, life -tha Christian temper, the: meek forbearance, the spirit of forgiveness iu the husband, the wife, the lather, the brother, the sister, the friend,tlie neighbor thag:oi is to be ajReAlbert'LMTte$.uy ' y ' Danrer of Idlenesau '. "It is no over-statement to, pay, that, other : things being cquaV the man who ha -the greatest amount f iateltectuil resources is in the least danger, from in ferior temptationsj-if for ..no ,cther reason, heeauss: he has fewer idle moments. The ruid of most merTdates frorn some va?arit . hour. Occupation'-w thearmor5 of-ilre !P'WM7.,,uoury T souL and the train of idleness i, bori up F h P411? h.v ull A rl. I romAmkr a riLthome, ebli?hing.,hcaWal. bodily poem in which the devil js represented as fishing for men, aifd adapting his baiU to the taste and temperament of his prey ; but the idler.' he said, pleased hint most. beeause he it tha naked.hook; HU liard'i Mefcajtfifejubrarj JUl&rets . ; tSS!4 Alcireerful temper,' a kindly heart, and a cosarteoua ton gue, cannot be too careluliyor scdufously cultivated. I U :' ' SlepDri&n3-Ieatal Dcay.:" ' The following naiwres are from a brief ! review, in a London paper, of Sir Ben- jaminBrodie's Psychological Inquiries : Dreams are next discussed, as also tho problem, ' What is sleep VJ which' bur author dechtres. insoluble. rJThe sense of weariness appears confined to those func tions over , which the will has power : all involuntary actions are continued through our resting as well as1 waking hours. Sleep accumulates 'the nervous force, which is gradually exhausted during the day. But these are words only; for who can define or explain the'nervous force?" Darwin's axiom,' "that the essential part of sleep is the suspension of volition," still holds good, and is accepted as satis factory. ) Talking and moving in sleep. though apparently, phenomena irrecon cilable with this theory, are not so in re- alify ; for there are degrees of sleep, and these things only occur where the slum ber is imperfect ! It may bo urged, again, that the mere absence of volition would not -produce that Insensibility to 6?ght and sound which is the characteristic of the sleeper. But few persons are aware how much the will is -! concerned in the reception of impressions on the senses. One who is absorbed in reading or writ ing will no hear words addressed to him in the ordinary tone, though their phys ical effect on the car must be the same as usual. '. . - . j J - . - l Dreams are inexplicable: LordBrwi'rh- am suggested that they took place only in tne momentary state ox transition irom sleep to waking. " But facts contradict this theory, since persons 'will matter to themselves, and utter inarticulate sounds. indicative of dreaming, at intervals of several minutes. The common puzzle as to how dreams, apparently long, can pass in a moment of time, presents no diffi culty to the psychologist. - Life is not measured by hours and days, but by the number of new impressions received; and the limit to these is in the world without us,' not iu the constitution of our minds. To a child, " whose imagination is constantly excited by new. object, twelve months seem a much longer peri od than to a man.- - As we advance in life, time flies faHler. The butterfly, liv ing for a single season, may really enjoy a longer existence than tiw tortoise, whoso years exceed a century. . Even between the busy and the idle among human beings- there exists a similar difference, though less strongly marked. . Alt has-been mcally .held that large heads are more powerful thinking ma chines than 'small, ones ; and, as a gen eral rule, experience justifies the conclu sion. But Newton, Byron, and others, were exceptions to it ; and it is quite cer tain' that a large brain may be accom panied with the most dens stupidity. - Many remarks scattered through this little treatise are orthtbe recollection of all ages and . classes, ." The failure, of the mind in old-age," says Sir Benjamin, "is often less the result of natural decay than of disuse." Ambition; has -ceasod to operate contentment brings indolence; indolence . decay of mental power, ennui and sometimes death. Men ,liave been known to die, literally speaking, of disease induced by intellectual vacancy. ' On the other hand, tho amount of possible men tal labor is far less , than many persons imagine. If professional men are ena bled to work twelve or fifteen hours dai ly, that is because most of their business has become, from habit, a mere matter of routine. From .four. to six hours is, probably, the utmost daily period for which real exertion of the mind can bo carried on.. ' ' ; ' s "Tour Paper did not Come, Sir." We recommend a careful perusal of tho following pkin ftatemenf, both to post masters and subscribers : The uncertain arrival or uncertain delivery of papers at tho country post offices is often the ground of complaint against publishers and edi-' tors. ' Jlany ofthe offices are poorly sup plied with conveniences for taking care of papers, no matter with what certainty they arrive. : The papers are jumbled in to a few Iittie pigeon botes, or piled, upon a detk, box, or barrel,' to await the call of the subscribers, in the midst of the boots, hats, bridles, ' horse-collars, and other coarse wares, which may be called for during the day by customers. . Country postmasters, in most cases, being engaged in some mercantile business, many news papers find their, way into some obscure ' "corner, where they were hid for a time from human eyes, as completely as if buried in a mountain cave, u In comes the man for his paper, and as it. cannot be found, of course it did cot come, Tho indignant subscriber consequently abuses tho rascally editor, and perhaps calls for a penink, and paper, to write a letter of complaint about not sendiBg his paper punctually, when, if the said paper were endowed with speech,' it would cry out, "Here I am, squeezed to death behind this box; or under this barrel.--; WehavB seen just duch. things at .caaoy cottntry post o2ke8r elsewhere, as weU. as in tha country, These remarks . have no Tefcr cu5c to ''"any ' particular IbfSooJ but are meant for all where they wfil applySc tniijie American r- s '-- . 1 " ; g .'-;;.' jgZ4t ' ' 'nV'Practicia c liedicJnf. . Thr.'r? are times,' uriquestioriably, when puisare gooa things out generauypu iows are better. ' We araof opinion that the former have often got not a llttk credit which fairly have belonged - to the latter. When a mantis. ilUjthe.doctor tells him to go to bad, aaiba contented; probably be giyes him a uteji physic ; btt$ qtxct, a recumbent posture,.aadttemrraTj abr', stinence, are,jia very '"many cases, the successful remedial agents after all.' Giv- S01 ! advice. -,. j; MA-Z , It affords us . macJSf" featisfactioa fa bo able' to 'state, thai oa and after Sairday next regular trains of cars wHl rua from -" St. Loou to Washiogton.'WlheMissottri JV . Jm few ; this pBce- r"'' -v-