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TERMS :-'-Tiro Dollars ptr Annum--In Advance.
' EE JUST : LET ALL THE E2t DS THOU AW EST AT EE THT COUXTBTs, GOD'S, ASD TRUTH'S.' A Fanilr Seirspaptr:..lEdtpnJtEt oa ill Saljcttj. BY G. W. BROWN & CO. LAWRENCE, KANSAS TERRITORY, SATURDAY, MARCH 31, 1855, NUMBER 13 VOLUME I. Excelsior. BT w. z. r. lU.tS.XU.. r Live them down , ' ' Bear the rod Look aloft And trust in God. It Enry'f poi?oned darts assail, ' Live them dowu ; If Slander lisps her venomed tale, - Do not frown ; If bloated Pride should block your war, Or Malice her cold steel display, Or Hatred's firea your heart dismay, Live tbem down 1 If squalid Foverty is yours, . Look aloft! ' ' '"; If cold Ambition's flame allures, 'Ti ruin oft ! If sad misfortune o'er you lowers, And stern Affliction's mournful powers Should crudh your heart's most cherished flowers, . . Look aloft! If friends yon long have loved forget, Bear tho rod ! If life's strong waves against you set, Trust in God 1 Man 1 onward marching to the tomb, , -Ict Chriotian hope your skies illume . These self-same paths of doubt and gloom Your Saviour trod! Jtje .Sniglrajjfj From tie Phretnittjgical Journal. A Letter to Working People who Pro pose Going West. Header : Having acquired consider able experience in western life, during a residence of nearly twenty years in Illi nois, Missouri; and Iowa, and observing that emigration for these and other west ern States and Territories is receiving a new impulse, I have thought best to ad dress this epistle to my fellow-working-men, in the hope of rendering some slight service to such of them as are about set tling in these vast agricultural regions. You need not expect a geographical or geological description of the great West, as I am not competent to such an under taking, and I presume you do not wish for it, and would not be as well pleased as you will with what I shall write. I am often asked for the best place to go to, or settle in, in the West. There is no best place ; so you might as well make up your mind where you will stop before you start; if your object is to set tle down at once, and (here commence the foundation of your future home. I said there is no best place ; simply because, taking townships, counties, States, and, for aught I know, Territo ries, and there is but little to choose be tween them. The whole West is, as it were, a vast garden, with scarcely any waste land, with so little variety in scen ery, soil, and productions, as to render it rather tame and monotonous. This, I think, i3 the general rule, though there are exceptions. There are places, too, which I should prefer above some others ; but what would be my choice might not be the choice of the majority ; still, we should doubtless think alike upon some points: for instance, none of us would choose or prefer a situation where mos quitoes and ague prevailed. And if one builds in the high open prairie, with no fields, low trees, or much shrubbery close to their dwelling, so as to impede the free circulation of air, the prospect for health and freedom from mosquitoes is better than many places in the older States But to say that you are not rather more liable to bilious attacks on that rich aim rial soil, than you would be in a mouri tainous, sterile country, is contrary to my experience. But with the precaution that I have and maysuggest,-your prospect for healthon the whole, taking all dis eases, is just about as good as in the more eastern States, with this exception, per haps I think a majority of persons would enjoy better . health by , remaining near their native place. 1 he climate, soil, and productions of one's native country are more in harmony with their organizations than a foreign and dissimi lar one can be. This is natural. If one is more liable to bilious complaints West, I think they are compensated somewhat by being less liable to cataarh and pul monary affections. Colds are not as common, and are not prolonged as in the eastern States ; but they are equally as severe while they last, and not unfre quently terminate fatally, in "fever or pneumonia. Long, drizzling rain-storms are not common, as, usually, when it rains it comes in showers, and they are generally accompanied with thunder and lightning, not unfrequently of the most terrific kind; especially in the rainy season, which usu ally commences in May and ends in Jane, and in which more rain usually falls than in the rest of the year. So the farmer should have his corn planted the first oi May, so thai it may get up and have one plowing before the rainy season sets in, which Is generally near the middle of the month. Though this is by no means a uniform description of the weather, still, I have observed it to be a very safe rule for planting. I might as well make some further re marks here, not only on corn-raising but all or various productions. In raising corn, plant it as close as you can ; if cul tivated with horse and plow, do not have ihe hills more than three and a half feet apart less, if possible; put plenty of seed in the hill, but thin out so as to leave iut two or three stalk3 to the hilL-and see that every hill has its complement, because you will have to plow all alike, even if one half of your hills or stalks j are missing ; and where you do not raise j a crop of grain, nature will raise a crop j -of weeds. She seems to be opposed to j nakedness, and determined to clothe the j earth whh something. Therefore, what-1 ever you plant, be it corn, vines, or any thing else, plant close, so that when up the earth will soon be shaded ; then na ture seems satisfied, weeds will not grow, and if your plants are too thick, you can --easily thin them out, which, if you ex pect a crop, must be done judiciously : and; thoroughly, as they grow. Begin-! We think the author is not well advised, and ' that Kansas it the best place" for the pioneer. Oar reasons for each- conclusions, sr found in j jreviutts numbers of the Iljuu or Fsexdox I ncrs often miss on this point ; when plants are young and growing finely, five or six in a hill, looking so fresh and vigorous, it does seem almost wasteful to pull out half or more ;-but spare them not, if you want good corn, melons, beets, tc. In going to a new country, tike no nice articles of the furniture, crockery, or glass kind, r ine clothing, jewelry, mu sical instruments, and what silver-ware you can anord, you might as well have there as elsewhere; if they give you pleasure here, I am sure they would there; but take nothing that is easily broken, or requires tight dry rooms to preserve it in, for it will cause you more trouble than pleasure, as the care of it is so great. Take plenty of the common dry goods blankets, sheetings, - shirtings, and goods for common clothing, and such tools of a good quality as you may have on hand, or can get very cheap ; for you can get all such things as tools and hardware, stoves and farming implements, as cheap on the Mississippi river, at and above St. Louis, as this side of the mountains. A hand-mill, too, would be an excel lent article to take ; for sometimes you can get corn and wheat when and where you cannot get flour or meal. If possible, every adult person should also take a small canvas house, or tent, say six by twelve feet, so constructed that it can be easily tied up. It should be good and strong, so that one can sleep and ketrp their clothing and other per sonal matters in it. Where a company or large family are together, these little houses would be very desirable, especi ally to those who have been accustomed to have separate rooms, and it is partic ularly desirable where there are both sexes, which, if possible, should be the case, as this seems to be the natural course; and what is natural, I reckon must be about right. I do not approve of tin plan of having men go out and live in the wilds alone, without females. I see many -reasons against it, and none in favor of such an unnatural course. No ; let man's help-meet go with him and share in the toils and pleasures of erect ing a new home, which are neither few nor need be particularly disagreeable. A large tent, too, I think would be an excellent thing for a company or several families to take, especially should they be going so far out that lumber could not be had conveniently. Tent-cloth would al ways be useful until fairly worn out, should it List until you had built good houses and barns, and even after that, for j covering threshed grain, and to erect in ! harvest-fields for shelter. By the way, I am surprised that tents are not more used now for this very purpose in the settled parts of the West. 1 do think it would be a matter of health and econo my. A good strong tent or canvas house would answer some time for a dwelling, j I should prefer it in many respects to an 1 ordinary log house, which, of all human j habitations that I have ever seen or had ' anything to do with, is the least desira ble, and about one of the hardest and most expensive in constructing, especially 1 if made neat and comfortable. In short, I would try every conceivable way of building before I would use logs. The reasons are unanswerable, and almost in-; numerable, why I would do it. j I have had some experience in this' manner of building, and perhaps, after all that I could say, you would not bo satisfied but by learning the same way. If so, go ahead; you may be satisfied with the result. There are many, doubt less, who do like log cabins, but were I : now going West, I would sooner take a canvas house, or perhaps several small ones or rooms, that could be securely tied , together to a light frame. For a large ! tent or honse, it seems to me that the hex- j agon form would be economical and com-' fortable ; one of thirty -six feet in diame ter would contain seven rooms, six around ; the seventh central one, and not a foot of waste canvas or room. I would use no ! water-proof or fire-proof preparation on ! the canvas, as it causes it to crack, and makes it much heavier; consequently, it will not last as longhand adds materially to the expense. Should your canvas not be thick enough to keep out wet and cold, line or double it. Bv all means take all kinds of fruit-seeds or stones, especially should you go out to the border of civil ization; and whatever else you neglect, do not nesrlect them. Put them in the ground at the proper time, and watch, them with care, as health and wealth win : flow to you from their culture and use. Just heed what I am now saying, and act ; up to it; don t say, My neighbor is going j largely into the business, and will supply us all. Don't leave this matter to your; neighbor, any more than vou would to j supply your daily wants; for should he go into the business, there will ba room enough for you and him too. A few quarts of fruit-seeds, properly i attended .to, will lay the foundation of a I fortune in any new country where fruit ! will grow, llad I folio wed. the. advice which I now give you when I first went West, I might now have been sitting un der my own trees and vines, with an abundance around me, instead of being a poor wandering journeyman mechanic, without home or trees, except hired ones. After having bought your land, look around for berry bushes and vines. Set out all you can of those, and with good care they will soon furnish, you the most desirable, healthful, and consequently important food .you and your family can have, especially if eaten in their natural sta.e, and fully ripe. I hardly think one could get sick, if ; good ripe strawberries, raspberries, and j blackberries, with good coarse bread, were their main articles of food in the summer months. Especially if they did j not work too hard ia the hot sun, and were ; correct and regular in all other habits. J Use no milk with fruits, and the least, of it you use the better. I am confident j that its almost universal use at the West ! i one of the main causes of the bilious s diseases which are said to be so preva lent there, but which, by the way, are probably not near so numerous as eastern people suppose; but whatever there are of them, have a causa for their existence,' and among these causes I do think milk stands pre-eminent. It is milk, milk, morning, noon, and night, with many families, especially in the summer, when plenty. Milk, hot dodger, light biscuit, and fried bacon in the morning. - Milk, with boiled smoked pork and greens or beans, cabbage and corn, at noon. Cof fee, hot biscuit, and butter, chicken, and milk for supper. I do not wish to ridi cule any one's, food, but I must say this kind of living never did agree well with me, and I do believe that it is not the food best adapted to stomachs in general. But the question naturally arises, What shall we eat? or what would be the best food for settlers in a newcountry like'the West? As far as possible, use that kind of food you have been accustomed to, that agreed well with your organization, And gradually make all changes in your First, then, we will begin with the diet, so the system will recive no sudden soil, as being of primary importance. revolution ; for revolutions are generaUy In the eastern portion oi' Kansas we have destructive and tend to discord, for the ' a rich and inviting soil, consisting of time being, at least, politically and social- rolling prairie, bottom and timber land ; ly, as well as physically, though they are the prairie greatly predominating, yield sometimes necessary and ultimately tend ing an exuberant growth of grass, indi to harmony. J cative of great fertility One hundred A very safe diet, if you are accustom- and sixty, acres of this land, taken as a ed to a mixed one, which most of us are, j body, as rich as any in the world, lies at is wild game, good bread, dried apples the option of any person who ehooses to and peaches; all of which can generally j make it his home, at 61 25 per acre, begot anywhere withina reasonable dis- j with something like two years or more tanco of the Mississippi river or its nav- ! for a pay day, in all probability, during igable tributaries.. And most of the sea- J which time the purchase money can be son you will find a great variety of veg-; made from the land itself by making kn etables that are well adapted to give you mediate improvements. health and strength, without the flesh of j Many of you, no doubt, are working domestic animals, or milk, which are both ; lands in Ohio on shares, at an expense of more or less diseased, and the latter not one half of your labor, or on a rental of adapted to the stomachs of any but the i from $5 to 510 per acre. . What, then, un weaned. -would be the result of the same amount As to health among the native popula-: ef labor bestowed upon lands jn Kansas tion West, I think it will compare favor- for two years only ? Let us see. av- ably with the older States, especially in the open prairie country, and where a ; large proportion . of vegetable food and fruits are used I do insist that it is of the first importance that the young es- pecially should have an abundance of the pleasant acid, fruits berries, kc.;. and . there can be no good reason why one however, in au unusually dry season, bo should not have them by the second year, an entire failure ; but they generally pro in the mean time raising an aoundance duce from ten to twenty bushels to of tomatoes and melons ; and do not fear the acre say twelve for an average. to make a free use of them, especially if ; At fifty cents per bushel and we think the appetite should crave them, in sick-.it will not soon be less it would leave a ness or health. I would hardly dare say j balance tlie first year of three dollars per so much in regard to fruit3 and their use 1 acre for planting and harvesting, alter by children, had I not reared children ; deducting the breaking. . there ; and with my experience, I cer-j The second year the land will be in tainly feel that I have not said too much, condition to bring good crops from thirty And I do think one is much more likely to sixty bushels per acre say forty for a to be sick when the food consists princi-: safe estimate. Twenty acres, at forty pally of the flesh of domestic animals, bushels per acre, would be eight hundred (particularly hogs, ) milk, and eggs. j bushels, which, at fifty cents, would bs After all, it is not the food alone that j 6400. ' Half of this 6400 will pay for a causes all the sickness. Too much labor ! quarter section ; which half, were you and care is another cause of sickness, working land oa shares, would go to the especially to those who have had every- landlord. One more crop will remuner thiug about them convenient and agreea-j ate you for your fencing, fec. Thus, in ble; and woman, particularly, suffers, for j three years, you have a farm improved by her constitution and training she can j and paid for out of what you would pay not as well adapt herself to the incon- j for the rent of lands of the same quality, veniences of a new country; hence the ' Here, then, we can see one great funda sickness is more common and more fatal mental inducement for all those who have among them than it is among men. j no farms, but desire them, and are wil- But much of this sickness, care, and ling to work them, to come to Kansas, toil might be avoided if. men would not j - But.it may be objected, that our esti attempt to. do so much Every tlnng is of he ice of J in . uo high ; and on a large scale at the West especially this leads J to th3bconsidento o prairies and rivers ; and the farmer who j prospects of the markets for ome Tears to has been confined to little fields of from 17 permit us to say that V3 can two to five acres of rough sterile, stony seo nothinrbut what is cheering and land, has his ideas wonderfully expand-promisi For five years atJea!t the ed when he gets on to the creamy soil of tioQ wffl bcontinualiy the prairies, and immediately goeson the 5 int0 our.Stat8 will make a' fivelv other extreme, and attempts to mcbse en- home markctfor all UjaS theolder settler tirely too much, especially when he has caasuppiy. and a3 as theeastrn so many other things to do-house to porf onSf Kaiwas can afford a surplus, build, well to dig, kc, &c. He attempts . there, will be a constant! v increasing outlet and means ; the consequence is toil, care. sickness, and short crops. N Keep within your means; far better do too little than too much ; but whatev er you undertake, do it right. And by ii i l aii means ao nos mi to purcnase a piece , oi land and rav tor it all down, though it may not be more than an acre for each member of your family. And to me- . J . ' , i chamcs I would say. do not think that you will better your condition by going W est and depending entirely upon your trades for a supp rt, without getting you a home of your own ; as you will do no better there than in the eastern States, as a general thing; and all over the country, both East and V est you will find men who have tried it and found it so. But consume; so, if business is dull, or prices j too low at your, trades, you can cultivate the soil, and thereby retain that independ- j ence which is so agreeable and so essen-! tial to the true dignity and happiness of man. And if you have not means to get such a place near alarge town or city, go where you can get it. Do not think you must huddle together in order to live. This crowding up' in towns and cities is no doubt a fruitful cause of crime, pov erty, and sickness, and surely there is no need of it at the West, for you can get a good living almost anywhere by work enough to keep in good health. Kansas Circular The following circular, addressed to the people of Ohio, fell into our hands a few days ago, .issued, by gentlemen of probity residing here formerlv from the i Buckeye State. It will be found to be very interesting: At a meeting.of emigrants from Ohio, held at Union Hall, in the town of Law- tr m a 1 J committee to prepare an aaoress, ana , unite in the toiiowing: Believing that manj -of ; their ; fnends wnom they have left behind i wdl be in- terested in a candid and reliable sate- menfc of facts as they exist m the Ter- ntory, ana knowing inai many connict- impressions many ot which persons riavbrened reuce, ruis&s lerniory, oa uie oa aay j wnrcn win oe an ornament ana sure pro- j e are neiuier, then, out of the world preach the gospel at Rome also. He of March, 1855,. for the purpose of en- j Section to the farm, instead of the rickety, ; nor on the borders of oblivion. - Many ; sows the seed among the toiling and toil couraging emigration from the State of failing, and insecure worm fences, that; of you remember the hardships, toils, pri-! worn, always the regenerators f the Ohio, the undersigned were appointed a - require half the winter in repairing, and vat ions of tlie early settlement of Ohio, j world. They receive the divine truth. iug repreuuwjviua uwu oy nui pwut irom experience, tor the period gie moatn accomplishes as much as the goes to decay, nerer to be restored again persons that have paid a flying visit to of a full year, as none of us came here pre-, revolution of a year did ia Ohio in early nntil the West becomesthe East, andcrr the Territory, ekued or depressed by first vious to May last; but what we have seen, Jimea.: Your children wilL scarcely ilization and empire have spread around oursoil we have addressed vou this cir-1 cularas embodying the best judgment and experience of a residence in this Territory from its first settlement to the j themiddleof July to the middle of March, present time which we can command. ! we have but little rain. We have not Our chief object being to set forth a seen a mud puddle since we have been in truthful statement of matters and things the Territory. Everywhere the roads are as they exist mixing the bitter with the smooth, dry, and hard ; but we do expect sweet r stating obstacles as well as' ad-', a different state of things when the spring vantages ;. we shall cheerfully leave it rains begin to fall, i The atmosphere is with the sagacious reader to determine ' clear, healthful, and invigorating. We whether there are sufficient inducements have in the son an almost constant com forhimto emigrate to Kansas. Allow panion. An Indian-like summer seems us, first, to present in a succinct and con- T to prevail most of the time through the cise manner what we think, are. the ad- Ifaljand winter -Up to the 26th of Janu vantages. possessed by this Territory j ary, our winter hadnot set in. - February and then we will cheerfully submit all t 1 1 J'fv. !. 1. . ii ! f the difficulties, impediments, and draw-! backs to its settlement, of which we are i aware. ing out the fencing for the present, of which wo shall speak hereafter, we will set down the breaking of twenty acres of prairie at three dollars per acre. This planted with corn costs nothing but the planting, as it is not customarv to tend corn on sod ground. Sod crops may, m the new States that are destined to grow up west of us on or near the route of the great Pacific railroad, and Kansas must be the larder in the prosemuiort of j that great work; and whenever the woik j iro. iiuiuc w iuwi:aau cine?, uit tnu ui ;wnose trreai- now to th iaau c, in j . r . i j son to fear a repletion; or that tillcr Lcci ilt u j u'e maiier oi marKeis, ei for hU effort We are fullconfident ; that the of farm produo can ner. er recede hcre unless ffc, bfJ from wme h; h ratea eaused b a3 jat the present time . t t We have spoken thus confidently of !our &rmiQ5 faciUties. Wo ,desirJ to ? gpsak rcey of it3 obstaclS . and the first j which occur to vou oa comw into there j3 not timDer sufficient to fence the prairies is most certain ; while we believe tnat there is for all building purposes. Thi. at first, will armr tn manv a an insurmountable objection ; but let us not be frightened too -soon. That we can be well supplied with building material is clearly established, and flattering pros pects of ample coal fields relieve us of all apprehension on the score of fuel. - Then there remains the fence question only to be seriously . considered. - We shall not be required to feace against hogs; which will reduce the expense more than one half. A post and rail fence sufficient to turn cattle we believe can be construct-; ed as cheap upon our prairies as an ordi nary hog fence is made iu Ohio. A tem porary fence formed of prairie sods, fa ced with a ditch, can " be easily made to protect the farm until a hedge can be ! wn,cn musl evensuaiiy come inio S:uerai use mrouguauioe western o;au. ut what will be the resultof this fencing difficulty ? Inconvenience at first, but in the end good durable life-long hedges, ' -m . . j ... a good portion ot the summer m hunting jhogholes. Thus stands the fence ques- two, which has deterred more people from coming to Kansas than any other can?. The next thing we shall call your at- tendon to is the climate. Ofthiswecan- and what we can learn irom pldresidnts, will communicate: Our 'rains fall mostly in the latter cart of sprin? and1 ! beginning of summer, at the time they .'are most needed for vegetation.7 From has given us some cold weather, accom 1 '.t 1 panied with sharp and piercinc winds. and for a few days only was the ther- mometer below zero. The weather is now mild, (20th March,) balmy as May, National migrations seem to be prompted and soon the plows will be started. Al- hj divine and human purposes. together, we deem the climate much mild- There are always tyrants to conquer, op er than the southern part of the State of preSsors to flee from, a Bed Sea to cross, Ohio. But as there is nothing perfect ia a wilderness to traverse, and a promised this orld, we have also to state that we iaUd to attain and possess in the end. ' are subject to strong and high winds, j The history of the world might be di which sometimes are very unpleasant, but x-ldeA iike a drama, into five acts, four of seldom cold. Lands in Kansas are not yet purchasa ble. They are acquired bv makim? a residence on them and improving them, j - - men entities tne occupant to enter them at government price in preference to any : other person. The first settler on a quar- j ter section is the one that will be permitted io pre-empt, x ms occasions tne erecting of cheap , and temporary houses, which must give way to more costly and com modious ones as soon as the hues are run. The timbered lands in this part of the Territory are nearly all claimed, but tim ber can be obtained reasonably, and there is yet much timbered land in the south and western parts of Kansas unclaimed. We have plenty of choice prairie that is waiting to welcome the new-comer with her blandest smiles and gayest attire, pre senting everywhere a cheerful face and bosom, ready and willing to yield back with ample interest everything confided. There is enough for all that may choose to come for the next three years, and we believe that all may be suited, save only in the matter of timber. Nevertheless, it is important to come soon, as no man ever made anything by delay in investing in a new country. As many pe rsons of all classes, from tho day laborer to the capitalist, may be look ins Kansas-ward, and all anxious to know what their, chances : will be, we would simply say if you are able and willing to work, you may safely come, though it" you have not a dollar when you get here you can lay the foundation of a competen cy, if you like; or you can bo thriftless and penniless here as easy as you can at home. - To the man of - moderate means we would say; come along. You can thrive best when in a race with even com panions, free from that discouraging dis tance in point of wealth that exists iu most of the old States. . To tlie capitalist we need scarcely say a word ; for what moneyed man is there who is not aware-of the proceeds of cap ital invested in pew Stales. Kansas is to be settled, and that mora densely than any other western State. All other States have been in market with their lands be fore they have been much settled, and large tracts have for years been precluded from settlement by the unholy appetites of land gourmands.' Not so with Kansas. The sordid gripe of speculation cannot fasten upon one acre of her soil, for (thanks to the pre emption law) long ere her lands will be exposed to public sale each quarter sec tion of desirable land will have its occu pant. Then imagine a country like Kan sas, with a yeoman upon every quarter section of choice sow, and what State can produce a like spectacle. Will not such a country require innumerable towns .. . rv v r tilist disposed to accept the proffered boon ? Mills and factories of all kinds required in new countries will pay "well as soon as settled. - With saw-mills wc cannot be over-stocked. Stock-raising, either on a large or lim ited scale, can be ;made profitable here, from the fact that tlie price of all kinds of stock, . compared with the expense of raising them, will contrast favorably "with any other State. . ' - In short, there is an opening in Kan sas for all matter-of-fact and operating men that can take hold and lift lustily at the wheel. But, above, all other things, we would caution the blane mange nurse lings of feather beds to eschew Kansas. She has suffered enough in repute.. 7 But we wish to speak further ofthe fu ture prospects of Kansas. It needs not much prophetic ken to predict for her a glorious future. That the present emi grants in Kansas are a superior class of persons to those who usually pioneer new countries,- caunot be denied by any that are acquainted with the facts. - Time was when stolid men occupied the frontier ; but now intelligence and sagacity seems first to plant itself oa tho silent western prairie. To our Ohio friends, we would say, have no tears oi pmnging your selves into barbarism or obscurity in com-(in ing to Kansas. Lying near the center of the destined confederacy, soon she will Pss from a border to a middle State, hav mr- :j. : LI. j inr tho Missouri on one side, a navigable river through the interior, and almost ia direct Atlanl . and instinctively shrink from the pros- pect of enduring them again ia aTnew! country. But new . countries are 'not settled now as they were : then. Instead i of the alow process of years, you find yourself surrounded by .1 neighbors the first season; and the revolutionof a sin- btmutoIv have time to unpack their books ere the ffclwoHouse will -be ready to "receive communication oy rauroaa wiui tne j inrougn. perus, tarouga storms, through ic cities, lying alon the great high-persecution and suffering, he has come wayoi me continent irom ocean to ocean, even into me presence ot JMero, saying, whocaadoabt for a moment her destiny?; "So far as in me lies,,! am willing to - , T v - . O' them. The last vibrations of the church ) going "bell will hardly have died upon your ear when you hear the hymn of thanksgiving and praise on the western prairie. - But if you fear that Kansas is n jw scarcely whatyou wouhi like, come, then, and help to make her what she should be. :" ' H. BRONSON, S. N. WOOD. - J. K. GOODINV Committee. JOHN SPEER, WM. LYON, ' From th Odd &2lrt Cad ft. The Westward March of Empire. Human hJstnrv i n Twrrvhial exodus. which are already played out The cur tain is just rising on the fifth and last. 1. The Are nw Pji-nrrrvs on the Arte or Artistic Beaut:. Fifteen hundred Tears before the birth of our Savior, the VOrld wasin a petrified condition. It had no history, no States. All that had been done in Assyria, in Persia, and in Egypt, jwas in a -stagnant condition. At that j jriod, action began to ooze out, taking its origin in Western Asia, - the souro of all future civilization. Two young men are students in Ejrrpt. Each is intent upon ' his unknown but lofty purpose, which he first matures, and then sets out to accomplish '. Ono crosses to Greece. He brings letters with him, and sows on Greek ground the primary seeds of civili zation. Nine years afterwards, the other a man of down-trodden race, an out cast, ' a man who was born to. overthrow tyranny, and who burned under its influ ence sets outon his expedition, and leads his brethren over sea and land, into the wilderness. With these two f Cadmus and Moses) originates the history of the world, secular and sacred. Passing on to about 700 B. C, we find genius devel oped into beauty. ' It is the age of beauty in art, in sculpture, in architecture, m literature, and philosophy everywhere beauty.-- It is the age of Socrates and Plato, of Aristotle and Euripides, of He soid. and Sophocles, of Jischines and Demosthenes, and Praxiteles and Phidias; in a word, the age of Pericles, for in him all the elements of the highest Grecian culture were exemplified. He was re splendent with all that could communi cate grandeur. Ho stood forth, amid forms of artistic excellence, the exponent of a beauty that the world has since only ! approximated. In literature, in painting, i in statuary, in architecture, the world ; tians copied them in structures above has only dug up the defaced and broken I ground. The Greeks borrowed or stole fragments of these days, and yet they are 'all that went before them, (it is a mark of master-pieces which its best workmen j great genius to be a good thief many of have never since been able to equal. the greatest intellects have become so by 2. The Ace or Augustus, oa the Agk J appropriating other men's ideas. ) The of Martial Foece. A colony of adven- j Dorians took the column and perfected it, turers are driven upon the Italian coast ; ! making it a model of beauty. They pla they lay there the foundation of a future ced the entablature oa the colonade, and city, and as they are digging the first ; upon the pediments opened a space for trench of its 'walls, the soothsayers, taking ' geniu3 todevelop its thought in sculpture, their inspiration from the sight of a bloody j The Romans invented the arch, and this, head, (caput, ) predict its future greatness. I in turn, was the germ of the dome adopt- This," say they, "shall be the bloody ' ed by nations still further west. It was caput; the warlike metropolis, the capital 'this which first gave enlarged space and of all the world." Oriental knmior o-ives : proportion to architecture, for the Greek way to strength and vigor. The brigands go on gathering energy from their super- stitinn. Thev fro out acrainst theirneurh- bora and subjugate them. They conquer new territories, and each conquest paves peaces ior religious woremp. iub iwjui the way for another, and another, until ;ca were the .finest buildings of the age, from the shores of the Mediterranean to and so, when Christianity became the re the healthy hills of Scotland.'' from the lunonof the government, they were ta- Euphrates to the Rhine, there is but one government, one language, one religion, rooms Decame ccurcuw. w It is a grand amalgam of nations, a blend-1 the place of the judge, the male and fe ing Of all tribes. ' It is' just perfected male ponions of the congregation took whenthe Roman Emperor proclaims him-je place of male and female .witnesses, self Pontifex Maximus.- The monument and the choir was substitued for the bar. of that age is the Pantheon. ' All the i From Rome and Byzantium the current great monuments of human progress are architectural. What the Pantheon was to Greece the Pantheon is to Rome. It is a type of the people, gross as they are themselves : not beautiful, like its Grecian prototype, but bearing Greek beauty de faced and defiled by Roman toucn ; the touch of iron muscle and iron mind. That Pantheon is filled with the deities of con- ouered nations. As province after pro v- inco is subjugated filled. KtatHA atfcr s after god takes its place among the divin ities of, Rome, until the list is complete. Then as the sculptor is putting the last touch to the marble, a light breaks in the East. - It comes from tlie fountain head of civilization ; just as tlie field is cleared of the obstructions of martial force, just as the world is prepared for universal re ligion. - He is born in Bethlehem, who is to dethrone all these gods, enlighten and bless all lands, and send out a re deeming influence, westward, all over the world. -' " 3. The Age of Leo X, or the Age of Exlabged IjTVEjmoif. A man, Asiatic temperament, European in education, j towering above all the people in noble- ness and culture, lands on the coast of Italy. Jle, too, comes from the East- He is the predestined herd, qualified to appear just at this ripe period in Europe. and Christianity comes upon the earth. That same man lives to write a letter to Cesar's family. Though that truth is to be gradually corrupted and obscured and misrepresented, it will emerge at the end all the brighter for its trials. - ; i . Atthe end ofthe fifth century, the East ilizafjnn nri pynniro hare ed read the world in a track of unbroken splendor, - The rugged North, omes dowp, and ap . niche after niche : is ' the fourteenth century; u Trinity Church men of this tatne is erected Gad i m New oik is an example; of the sur foremost to parently annihilates the effete South, though it, in reality, is I but combining in both the leroentsof their future great ness.. Through the season of danger, By zantium preserves the treasures of science, of art, of philosophy, and literature ; and then, when it has passed, gives them back again to the West and disappears. Then came the so-called Dark Ages; for the Middle Ages are much tnisrepre sented by such a designation There were icn centuries oi great aegraaauon ana ig norance; but in these ten centuries there were elementsof light which are not to be found in the world at this day. A young man, wearied with tlie crimes and seek ing to escape the temptations ofthe great city,' leaves Rome. " He goes out to Sub iacco, makes for himself a lonely retreat there, and gives himself up to study and prayer Others, led by the same motives, follow him, and adopt him as their lead er. He becomes their instructor and pa tron. It is Benedict, the founder of - the Benedictine order of monks the class of men to whom we are indebted, more than any other, for modern civilization. When all around them was ignorance, and deg radation, and darkness, they planted the schools, the colleges, and the universities all over Europe. All the English colleges wero founded by them. ; AU the schools along the Rhine and Danube are indebt ed to them for existence.' Charlemagne, when Emperor, could not write hi3 name until they taught him; and they -swayed his influence to work their own great purposes. . They were the literary aristoc racy of those centuries, the conservatives of literature and art. The other similar great orders were founded by Francis and Dominic. These r ranciscan and Domin ican monks were the literary democrats of that day ; they were the first itinerant preachers, the Methodists of the Middle . Ages. They were not scholars, immers ed in books and libraries, but teachers of the workmen, out of doors, in streets, in fields and workshops. They trere all mighty in diffusing truth. In England, the names of the localities . indicate the first schools founded by each Blackfri- ars, by the Benedictines ; Grey friars, by the Franciscans ; and Whitefriars,by the Dominicans. The first press in Italy and the first one in England were put to work by the Benedictines.-. All of the finest cathedrals were built by the Benedictines. The best editions of tlie classics were is sued by the Benedictines." The greatest of the painters were monks. ' Most of the masterpieces of the fine arts were execu ted in the cloister by them, or by their pupils and proteges. The Dominicans excelled in sculpture. : The Benedictines are more famous m classic research and in architecture. Everything in art and philosophy is continually going forward toward the set- ting sun lake architecture a3 an exam- pie. The Asiatics dug caves, the Egyp temples were narrow and small, and their openings limited to the superimposed blocks of marble. -When .Constantine ; became Emperor, there were no suitable : ten for purposes of worship, and the court of architectural procrress went north and west, dividing on its way into the Normaa and German, or Gothie type. Lombardy supplied the campanile, which has since become the steeple. : Exeter, Winchester, and Salisbury Cathedrals, in England, are examples of the perfection ' that was finally reached, jrrommcmour ten models are copied. 1 he cathedral m Albany i3 a fine specimen of the stylo of teenin century, or tne last and, most per fect 8tyle of all But the architecture stopped.' From the sixteenth century to this day, there has not been an original building erected. The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park came pretty near it; but that is. the only one that even made the attempt, and that, too,' is a type . of the times-an exemplifica tion r the spirit Of tho nineteenth centu ry with a heart of iron, and looking into everybody's windows. - 4. The Age ot Washijtotox, oa the Age or UisrvEasAL CivtuzatIox. This commenced when the Italian astronomer raised his tube to the sky, and after un certain grbpings amid the darkness, at last learned and ventured to weigh the world and walls amid the stars. It com menced when a pilgrim from Genoa went wandering about from court to coqrt to find means to eratifv the impulse myste riously implanted in his heart, to seek a! path to the East througn tne unejwic seas, and at last, after long trials and weary voyages,' found in the West a pew world. The mind of the sixteenth cen tury has gone westward, and is going still. On the banks of the Rhine, a soldier at Mayence (bear in mind that as a priest invented gunpowder, and a clergyman percussion caps,' it was only reasonable tJiat a soldier should discover the means of preserving. peace and religion ) first thought ot lasong an impression irom wooden blocks inked over, and the hand of Infinite Wisdom Hf5ed,"-through the hand of Guttenberg,the first proof-sheet: and God said for the second time, "Let there be light." Andthere was- light. ben the omniscient and almost omnipo. tent press was giTen to ahake the world, annihilate oppression, and diffuse wisdom and freedom and truth. The loom, the telescope, the press, the magnet, the graver, were all gathered at last in England, just at the time when the struggle began between the Cavaliers and Roundheads. Elements of colonial em pire were wanted, and these two factions were tossed and shifted to and fro until the right elements came uppermost, when the Cavaliers went to Virginia, and the Roundheads to Massachusetts. The one represented the dignified and educated gentleman, the other the sturdy and rough woikingman of the future State While the one laid out broad estates and planta tions in the fertile fields of the South, the other was subduing the bleak and sterile rocks of New England, and found ing the churches and schools of America. These Cavaliers and Roundheads were always quarreling; and they are disposed to quarrel still. Take a small descendant of the southern Cavaliers, and a small specimen of the northern Roundhead el ement and put them together, and you have a small fight directly. In 1 GO I God put the Dutchman in between them, to keep the peace, and he laid the founda tions of rnew lork. The discovery of America was a lucky blunder. Columbus was not looking for it, but for the northwest passage to India. So it was with Hudson's discovery of New York. He was looking for the northwest passage, and sailed up here to Albany after it. Why were the Holland ers Drought to settle Iew ioikTv At that time Holland was the great liberal and commercial power of the globe. bhe was the earner for all Lurope. And it was designed that the city they settled should be the commercial metropolis first of the continent of the world. The Huguenot from France William Penn, the representative of peace Lord Baltimore, the representative of tolera tion- these were the chief founders in America. Then arose Patrick Henry to strike the first blow against civil oppres sion; itoger Williams to introduce for the first time true religious toleration; and finally, Washington, to open the path to universal empire and freedom. The colonies in time became crowded. and the President purchased Louisiana to give them room. As Napoleon signed the treaty ceding it, he said, propheti cally: "In thus ceding Louisiana, I lave to the young States of America the pow er to compete with the only prince in the world that 1 have reason to dread." Just at this period, when we fell heirs to a great inland navigation, Fulton comes in with his invention of the steamboat. It spreads and extends pur empire west ward. Whilrt -thla ia rminnr nn ttrifa arises again between some Cavaliers and Roundheads about the expediency of dis solving the Union. But there has grown up a power behind them which they can not resist The freest and most patriotic portion of the citizens have gone west ward into the valley of the Mississippi. itefugees from the old world, equally de voted to liberty, have joined them there ; and the great West arises like a giant, to . inform the little couth that it means to hold them at peace. At this, moment gold, hid till now, is found, and a rush of free labor takes place to the Pacific coast. A free State is placed on that shore, se curing union, and giving liberty forever the preponderance. When irulton launched his paddle wheels on the Hudson, and started off for Albany against winl and tide, America was just beginning to go. When the da guerreotype was perfected in New York, America was just oegmning 10 see ui face in the sun. When Morse transmit ted words hundreds of miles along a wire in a moment's time, America was just beginning to talk.' It is no idle boast that we are " Young America." We are the youth six thousand years old. . cix thousand years have been spent in educa tion, and now. we are -just entering upon our career. " Self-Made Men. We have, indeed, had our self-educated men, and some of them have acted a very distinguished part in the history of our country ; but, as a general fact, t elf -ed ucated men are uneducated, or Ao-edu-cated at the best. They usually betray, if not a want of discipline and knowledge, at least a want of symmetry and 'com pieteness. .lhey are iiot sale guides. 1 1 hey generally prove inadequate to try ing emergencies ; and tho wisest and best class have been among tho , recognize the necessity, and to aid in the advancement of college ed ucation. The sagacious Franklin, with" ' the mod sense which was charactp'ristir: of him. drew Tin a nroieei for thA found ation of a college, in which he strongly recommended the study of the ancient languages lor ail tne students, and lnsisxs ? -O . .... . on n ior tnose woo mieuu to cugag? m the learned professions. - "The Father of his Country" was a : self-made man ; but he felt the deficiency, and had recourse to a graduate of Colum bia College (Alexander Hamaton) in the preparation of his -most important State papers. In .bis own writings he often showed a want of that minute accuracy , which belongs to a thoroughly educated ; nan, so that President Sparks, with or v without sufficient reason, felt under the -necessity of sometimes - correcting his r language, when he edited his correspond- r ence. And with the magnanimity and public spirit for which he was so remark able, he bore testimony to the alue of the literary advantages which he did ;not ' enjoy, by laying the foundation of a col- . lege in his native State, which honors, while it is nonored by, the name of Wash ington. V I ; ' v - -7 ; The distinguished orator . and states- ' man of Kentucky was a self-taught man. But bitterly did he deplore his limited -opportunities for early education.'. EpP-, cially in some of his severe conflicts with ' " John Randolph on the floor of Congress, v when taunted by him on the incorrect use of a word, Henry Clay would acknowl edge, with tears, the disadvantage which V he suffered, owing to the . want of that v liberal -education which his antagonist had enjoyed. IT! S. Tyler.- - "