OCR Interpretation

The Kansas herald of freedom. [volume] (Wakarusa, Kan. Territory) 1854-1860, March 31, 1855, Image 1

Image and text provided by Kansas State Historical Society; Topeka, KS

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82006863/1855-03-31/ed-1/seq-1/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

TERMS :-'-Tiro Dollars ptr Annum--In Advance.
A Fanilr Seirspaptr:..lEdtpnJtEt oa ill Saljcttj.
BT w. z. r. lU.tS.XU..
r Live them down
, ' ' Bear the rod
Look aloft
And trust in God.
It Enry'f poi?oned darts assail, '
Live them dowu ;
If Slander lisps her venomed tale,
- Do not frown ;
If bloated Pride should block your war,
Or Malice her cold steel display,
Or Hatred's firea your heart dismay,
Live tbem down 1
If squalid Foverty is yours, .
Look aloft! ' ' '";
If cold Ambition's flame allures,
'Ti ruin oft !
If sad misfortune o'er you lowers,
And stern Affliction's mournful powers
Should crudh your heart's most cherished flowers,
. . Look aloft!
If friends yon long have loved forget,
Bear tho rod !
If life's strong waves against you set,
Trust in God 1
Man 1 onward marching to the tomb, , -Ict
Chriotian hope your skies illume .
These self-same paths of doubt and gloom
Your Saviour trod!
Jtje .Sniglrajjfj
From tie Phretnittjgical Journal.
A Letter to Working People who Pro
pose Going West.
Header : Having acquired consider
able experience in western life, during a
residence of nearly twenty years in Illi
nois, Missouri; and Iowa, and observing
that emigration for these and other west
ern States and Territories is receiving a
new impulse, I have thought best to ad
dress this epistle to my fellow-working-men,
in the hope of rendering some slight
service to such of them as are about set
tling in these vast agricultural regions.
You need not expect a geographical or
geological description of the great West,
as I am not competent to such an under
taking, and I presume you do not wish
for it, and would not be as well pleased as
you will with what I shall write.
I am often asked for the best place to
go to, or settle in, in the West. There
is no best place ; so you might as well
make up your mind where you will stop
before you start; if your object is to set
tle down at once, and (here commence
the foundation of your future home.
I said there is no best place ; simply
because, taking townships, counties,
States, and, for aught I know, Territo
ries, and there is but little to choose be
tween them. The whole West is, as it
were, a vast garden, with scarcely any
waste land, with so little variety in scen
ery, soil, and productions, as to render it
rather tame and monotonous. This, I
think, i3 the general rule, though there
are exceptions. There are places, too,
which I should prefer above some others ;
but what would be my choice might not
be the choice of the majority ; still, we
should doubtless think alike upon some
points: for instance, none of us would
choose or prefer a situation where mos
quitoes and ague prevailed. And if one
builds in the high open prairie, with no
fields, low trees, or much shrubbery close
to their dwelling, so as to impede the free
circulation of air, the prospect for health
and freedom from mosquitoes is better
than many places in the older States
But to say that you are not rather more
liable to bilious attacks on that rich aim
rial soil, than you would be in a mouri
tainous, sterile country, is contrary to my
experience. But with the precaution that
I have and maysuggest,-your prospect
for healthon the whole, taking all dis
eases, is just about as good as in the more
eastern States, with this exception, per
haps I think a majority of persons
would enjoy better . health by , remaining
near their native place. 1 he climate,
soil, and productions of one's native
country are more in harmony with their
organizations than a foreign and dissimi
lar one can be. This is natural. If one
is more liable to bilious complaints West,
I think they are compensated somewhat
by being less liable to cataarh and pul
monary affections. Colds are not as
common, and are not prolonged as in the
eastern States ; but they are equally as
severe while they last, and not unfre
quently terminate fatally, in "fever or
Long, drizzling rain-storms are not
common, as, usually, when it rains it
comes in showers, and they are generally
accompanied with thunder and lightning,
not unfrequently of the most terrific kind;
especially in the rainy season, which usu
ally commences in May and ends in Jane,
and in which more rain usually falls than
in the rest of the year. So the farmer
should have his corn planted the first oi
May, so thai it may get up and have one
plowing before the rainy season sets
in, which Is generally near the middle of
the month. Though this is by no means
a uniform description of the weather,
still, I have observed it to be a very safe
rule for planting.
I might as well make some further re
marks here, not only on corn-raising but
all or various productions. In raising
corn, plant it as close as you can ; if cul
tivated with horse and plow, do not have
ihe hills more than three and a half feet
apart less, if possible; put plenty of
seed in the hill, but thin out so as to leave
iut two or three stalk3 to the hilL-and
see that every hill has its complement,
because you will have to plow all alike,
even if one half of your hills or stalks j
are missing ; and where you do not raise j
a crop of grain, nature will raise a crop j
-of weeds. She seems to be opposed to j
nakedness, and determined to clothe the j
earth whh something. Therefore, what-1
ever you plant, be it corn, vines, or any
thing else, plant close, so that when up
the earth will soon be shaded ; then na
ture seems satisfied, weeds will not grow,
and if your plants are too thick, you can --easily
thin them out, which, if you ex
pect a crop, must be done judiciously :
and; thoroughly, as they grow. Begin-!
We think the author is not well advised, and '
that Kansas it the best place" for the pioneer.
Oar reasons for each- conclusions, sr found in j
jreviutts numbers of the Iljuu or Fsexdox I
ncrs often miss on this point ; when plants
are young and growing finely, five or six
in a hill, looking so fresh and vigorous,
it does seem almost wasteful to pull out
half or more ;-but spare them not, if you
want good corn, melons, beets, tc.
In going to a new country, tike no nice
articles of the furniture, crockery, or
glass kind, r ine clothing, jewelry, mu
sical instruments, and what silver-ware
you can anord, you might as well have
there as elsewhere; if they give you
pleasure here, I am sure they would there;
but take nothing that is easily broken, or
requires tight dry rooms to preserve it in,
for it will cause you more trouble than
pleasure, as the care of it is so great.
Take plenty of the common dry goods
blankets, sheetings, - shirtings, and
goods for common clothing, and such tools
of a good quality as you may have on
hand, or can get very cheap ; for you can
get all such things as tools and hardware,
stoves and farming implements, as cheap
on the Mississippi river, at and above St.
Louis, as this side of the mountains.
A hand-mill, too, would be an excel
lent article to take ; for sometimes you
can get corn and wheat when and where
you cannot get flour or meal.
If possible, every adult person should
also take a small canvas house, or tent,
say six by twelve feet, so constructed that
it can be easily tied up. It should be
good and strong, so that one can sleep
and ketrp their clothing and other per
sonal matters in it. Where a company
or large family are together, these little
houses would be very desirable, especi
ally to those who have been accustomed
to have separate rooms, and it is partic
ularly desirable where there are both
sexes, which, if possible, should be the
case, as this seems to be the natural
course; and what is natural, I reckon
must be about right. I do not approve
of tin plan of having men go out and
live in the wilds alone, without females.
I see many -reasons against it, and none
in favor of such an unnatural course.
No ; let man's help-meet go with him and
share in the toils and pleasures of erect
ing a new home, which are neither few
nor need be particularly disagreeable.
A large tent, too, I think would be an
excellent thing for a company or several
families to take, especially should they be
going so far out that lumber could not be
had conveniently. Tent-cloth would al
ways be useful until fairly worn out,
should it List until you had built good
houses and barns, and even after that, for j
covering threshed grain, and to erect in !
harvest-fields for shelter. By the way,
I am surprised that tents are not more
used now for this very purpose in the
settled parts of the West. 1 do think it
would be a matter of health and econo
my. A good strong tent or canvas house
would answer some time for a dwelling, j
I should prefer it in many respects to an 1
ordinary log house, which, of all human j
habitations that I have ever seen or had '
anything to do with, is the least desira
ble, and about one of the hardest and
most expensive in constructing, especially 1
if made neat and comfortable. In short,
I would try every conceivable way of
building before I would use logs. The
reasons are unanswerable, and almost in-;
numerable, why I would do it. j
I have had some experience in this'
manner of building, and perhaps, after
all that I could say, you would not bo
satisfied but by learning the same way.
If so, go ahead; you may be satisfied
with the result. There are many, doubt
less, who do like log cabins, but were I :
now going West, I would sooner take a
canvas house, or perhaps several small
ones or rooms, that could be securely tied ,
together to a light frame. For a large !
tent or honse, it seems to me that the hex- j
agon form would be economical and com-'
fortable ; one of thirty -six feet in diame
ter would contain seven rooms, six around ;
the seventh central one, and not a foot of
waste canvas or room. I would use no !
water-proof or fire-proof preparation on !
the canvas, as it causes it to crack, and
makes it much heavier; consequently, it
will not last as longhand adds materially
to the expense. Should your canvas not
be thick enough to keep out wet and cold,
line or double it. Bv all means take all
kinds of fruit-seeds or stones, especially
should you go out to the border of civil
ization; and whatever else you neglect,
do not nesrlect them. Put them in the
ground at the proper time, and watch,
them with care, as health and wealth win :
flow to you from their culture and use.
Just heed what I am now saying, and act ;
up to it; don t say, My neighbor is going j
largely into the business, and will supply
us all. Don't leave this matter to your;
neighbor, any more than vou would to j
supply your daily wants; for should he
go into the business, there will ba room
enough for you and him too.
A few quarts of fruit-seeds, properly i
attended .to, will lay the foundation of a I
fortune in any new country where fruit !
will grow, llad I folio wed. the. advice
which I now give you when I first went
West, I might now have been sitting un
der my own trees and vines, with an
abundance around me, instead of being
a poor wandering journeyman mechanic,
without home or trees, except hired ones.
After having bought your land, look
around for berry bushes and vines. Set
out all you can of those, and with good
care they will soon furnish, you the most
desirable, healthful, and consequently
important food .you and your family can
have, especially if eaten in their natural
sta.e, and fully ripe.
I hardly think one could get sick, if ;
good ripe strawberries, raspberries, and j
blackberries, with good coarse bread,
were their main articles of food in the
summer months. Especially if they did j
not work too hard ia the hot sun, and were ;
correct and regular in all other habits. J
Use no milk with fruits, and the least,
of it you use the better. I am confident j
that its almost universal use at the West !
i one of the main causes of the bilious s
diseases which are said to be so preva
lent there, but which, by the way, are
probably not near so numerous as eastern
people suppose; but whatever there are
of them, have a causa for their existence,'
and among these causes I do think milk
stands pre-eminent. It is milk, milk,
morning, noon, and night, with many
families, especially in the summer, when
plenty. Milk, hot dodger, light biscuit,
and fried bacon in the morning. - Milk,
with boiled smoked pork and greens or
beans, cabbage and corn, at noon. Cof
fee, hot biscuit, and butter, chicken, and
milk for supper. I do not wish to ridi
cule any one's, food, but I must say this
kind of living never did agree well with
me, and I do believe that it is not the
food best adapted to stomachs in general.
But the question naturally arises, What
shall we eat? or what would be the best
food for settlers in a newcountry like'the
West? As far as possible, use that kind
of food you have been accustomed to,
that agreed well with your organization,
And gradually make all changes in your First, then, we will begin with the
diet, so the system will recive no sudden soil, as being of primary importance.
revolution ; for revolutions are generaUy In the eastern portion oi' Kansas we have
destructive and tend to discord, for the ' a rich and inviting soil, consisting of
time being, at least, politically and social- rolling prairie, bottom and timber land ;
ly, as well as physically, though they are the prairie greatly predominating, yield
sometimes necessary and ultimately tend ing an exuberant growth of grass, indi
to harmony. J cative of great fertility One hundred
A very safe diet, if you are accustom- and sixty, acres of this land, taken as a
ed to a mixed one, which most of us are, j body, as rich as any in the world, lies at
is wild game, good bread, dried apples the option of any person who ehooses to
and peaches; all of which can generally j make it his home, at 61 25 per acre,
begot anywhere withina reasonable dis- j with something like two years or more
tanco of the Mississippi river or its nav- ! for a pay day, in all probability, during
igable tributaries.. And most of the sea- J which time the purchase money can be
son you will find a great variety of veg-; made from the land itself by making kn
etables that are well adapted to give you mediate improvements.
health and strength, without the flesh of j Many of you, no doubt, are working
domestic animals, or milk, which are both ; lands in Ohio on shares, at an expense of
more or less diseased, and the latter not one half of your labor, or on a rental of
adapted to the stomachs of any but the i from $5 to 510 per acre. . What, then,
un weaned. -would be the result of the same amount
As to health among the native popula-: ef labor bestowed upon lands jn Kansas
tion West, I think it will compare favor- for two years only ? Let us see. av-
ably with the older States, especially in
the open prairie country, and where a ;
large proportion . of vegetable food and
fruits are used I do insist that it is of
the first importance that the young es-
pecially should have an abundance of the
pleasant acid, fruits berries, kc.;. and .
there can be no good reason why one however, in au unusually dry season, bo
should not have them by the second year, an entire failure ; but they generally pro
in the mean time raising an aoundance duce from ten to twenty bushels to
of tomatoes and melons ; and do not fear the acre say twelve for an average.
to make a free use of them, especially if ; At fifty cents per bushel and we think
the appetite should crave them, in sick-.it will not soon be less it would leave a
ness or health. I would hardly dare say j balance tlie first year of three dollars per
so much in regard to fruit3 and their use 1 acre for planting and harvesting, alter
by children, had I not reared children ; deducting the breaking. .
there ; and with my experience, I cer-j The second year the land will be in
tainly feel that I have not said too much, condition to bring good crops from thirty
And I do think one is much more likely to sixty bushels per acre say forty for a
to be sick when the food consists princi-: safe estimate. Twenty acres, at forty
pally of the flesh of domestic animals, bushels per acre, would be eight hundred
(particularly hogs, ) milk, and eggs. j bushels, which, at fifty cents, would bs
After all, it is not the food alone that j 6400. ' Half of this 6400 will pay for a
causes all the sickness. Too much labor ! quarter section ; which half, were you
and care is another cause of sickness, working land oa shares, would go to the
especially to those who have had every- landlord. One more crop will remuner
thiug about them convenient and agreea-j ate you for your fencing, fec. Thus, in
ble; and woman, particularly, suffers, for j three years, you have a farm improved
by her constitution and training she can j and paid for out of what you would pay
not as well adapt herself to the incon- j for the rent of lands of the same quality,
veniences of a new country; hence the ' Here, then, we can see one great funda
sickness is more common and more fatal mental inducement for all those who have
among them than it is among men. j no farms, but desire them, and are wil-
But much of this sickness, care, and ling to work them, to come to Kansas,
toil might be avoided if. men would not j - But.it may be objected, that our esti
attempt to. do so much Every tlnng is of he ice of J in . uo high ; and
on a large scale at the West especially this leads J to th3bconsidento o
prairies and rivers ; and the farmer who j prospects of the markets for ome Tears to
has been confined to little fields of from 17 permit us to say that V3 can
two to five acres of rough sterile, stony seo nothinrbut what is cheering and
land, has his ideas wonderfully expand-promisi For five years atJea!t the
ed when he gets on to the creamy soil of tioQ wffl bcontinualiy
the prairies, and immediately goeson the 5 int0 our.Stat8 will make a' fivelv
other extreme, and attempts to mcbse en- home markctfor all UjaS theolder settler
tirely too much, especially when he has caasuppiy. and a3 as theeastrn
so many other things to do-house to porf onSf Kaiwas can afford a surplus,
build, well to dig, kc, &c. He attempts . there, will be a constant! v increasing outlet
and means ; the consequence is toil, care.
sickness, and short crops. N
Keep within your means; far better
do too little than too much ; but whatev
er you undertake, do it right. And by
ii i l
aii means ao nos mi to purcnase a piece ,
oi land and rav tor it all down, though
it may not be more than an acre for each
member of your family. And to me-
. J . ' , i
chamcs I would say. do not think that
you will better your condition by going
W est and depending entirely upon your
trades for a supp rt, without getting you
a home of your own ; as you will do no
better there than in the eastern States, as
a general thing; and all over the country,
both East and V est you will find men
who have tried it and found it so. But
consume; so, if business is dull, or prices j
too low at your, trades, you can cultivate
the soil, and thereby retain that independ- j
ence which is so agreeable and so essen-!
tial to the true dignity and happiness of
man. And if you have not means to
get such a place near alarge town or city,
go where you can get it. Do not think
you must huddle together in order to live.
This crowding up' in towns and cities is
no doubt a fruitful cause of crime, pov
erty, and sickness, and surely there is no
need of it at the West, for you can get a
good living almost anywhere by work
enough to keep in good health.
Kansas Circular
The following circular, addressed to
the people of Ohio, fell into our hands a
few days ago, .issued, by gentlemen of
probity residing here formerlv from the i
Buckeye State. It will be found to be
very interesting:
At a meeting.of emigrants from Ohio,
held at Union Hall, in the town of Law-
tr m a 1 J
committee to prepare an aaoress, ana ,
unite in the toiiowing:
Believing that manj -of ; their ; fnends
wnom they have left behind i wdl be in-
terested in a candid and reliable sate-
menfc of facts as they exist m the Ter-
ntory, ana knowing inai many connict-
impressions many ot which persons
reuce, ruis&s lerniory, oa uie oa aay j wnrcn win oe an ornament ana sure pro- j e are neiuier, then, out of the world preach the gospel at Rome also. He
of March, 1855,. for the purpose of en- j Section to the farm, instead of the rickety, ; nor on the borders of oblivion. - Many ; sows the seed among the toiling and toil
couraging emigration from the State of failing, and insecure worm fences, that; of you remember the hardships, toils, pri-! worn, always the regenerators f the
Ohio, the undersigned were appointed a - require half the winter in repairing, and vat ions of tlie early settlement of Ohio, j world. They receive the divine truth.
iug repreuuwjviua uwu oy nui pwut irom experience, tor the period gie moatn accomplishes as much as the goes to decay, nerer to be restored again
persons that have paid a flying visit to of a full year, as none of us came here pre-, revolution of a year did ia Ohio in early nntil the West becomesthe East, andcrr
the Territory, ekued or depressed by first vious to May last; but what we have seen, Jimea.: Your children wilL scarcely ilization and empire have spread around
oursoil we have addressed vou this cir-1
cularas embodying the best judgment
and experience of a residence in this
Territory from its first settlement to the j themiddleof July to the middle of March,
present time which we can command. ! we have but little rain. We have not
Our chief object being to set forth a seen a mud puddle since we have been in
truthful statement of matters and things the Territory. Everywhere the roads are
as they exist mixing the bitter with the smooth, dry, and hard ; but we do expect
sweet r stating obstacles as well as' ad-', a different state of things when the spring
vantages ;. we shall cheerfully leave it rains begin to fall, i The atmosphere is
with the sagacious reader to determine ' clear, healthful, and invigorating. We
whether there are sufficient inducements have in the son an almost constant com
forhimto emigrate to Kansas. Allow panion. An Indian-like summer seems
us, first, to present in a succinct and con- T to prevail most of the time through the
cise manner what we think, are. the ad- Ifaljand winter -Up to the 26th of Janu
vantages. possessed by this Territory j ary, our winter hadnot set in. - February
and then we will cheerfully submit all t
1 1 J'fv. !. 1. . ii !
f the difficulties, impediments, and draw-!
backs to its settlement, of which we are i
ing out the fencing for the present, of
which wo shall speak hereafter, we will
set down the breaking of twenty acres of
prairie at three dollars per acre. This
planted with corn costs nothing but the
planting, as it is not customarv to tend
corn on sod ground. Sod crops may,
m the new States that are destined to
grow up west of us on or near the route
of the great Pacific railroad, and Kansas
must be the larder in the prosemuiort of j
that great work; and whenever the woik j
iro. iiuiuc w iuwi:aau cine?, uit tnu ui ;wnose trreai-
now to th iaau c, in j
. r . i
j son to fear a repletion; or that tillcr
Lcci ilt u j
u'e maiier oi marKeis,
ei for hU effort We are fullconfident
; that the of farm produo can ner.
er recede hcre unless ffc, bfJ from wme
h; h ratea eaused b a3
jat the present time . t t
We have spoken thus confidently of
!our &rmiQ5 faciUties. Wo ,desirJ to
? gpsak rcey of it3 obstaclS . and the first
j which occur to vou oa comw into
there j3 not timDer sufficient to fence the
prairies is most certain ; while we believe
tnat there is for all building purposes.
Thi. at first, will armr tn manv a an
insurmountable objection ; but let us not
be frightened too -soon. That we can be
well supplied with building material is
clearly established, and flattering pros
pects of ample coal fields relieve us of all
apprehension on the score of fuel. -
Then there remains the fence question
only to be seriously . considered. - We
shall not be required to feace against hogs;
which will reduce the expense more than
one half. A post and rail fence sufficient
to turn cattle we believe can be construct-;
ed as cheap upon our prairies as an ordi
nary hog fence is made iu Ohio. A tem
porary fence formed of prairie sods, fa
ced with a ditch, can " be easily made to
protect the farm until a hedge can be
! wn,cn musl evensuaiiy come inio
S:uerai use mrouguauioe western o;au.
ut what will be the resultof this fencing
difficulty ? Inconvenience at first, but in
the end good durable life-long hedges,
' -m . . j ...
a good portion ot the summer m hunting
jhogholes. Thus stands the fence ques-
two, which has deterred more people
from coming to Kansas than any other
The next thing we shall call your at-
tendon to is the climate. Ofthiswecan-
and what we can learn irom pldresidnts,
will communicate: Our 'rains fall
mostly in the latter cart of sprin? and1
! beginning of summer, at the time they
.'are most needed for vegetation.7 From
has given us some cold weather, accom
1 '.t 1
panied with sharp and piercinc winds.
and for a few days only was the ther-
mometer below zero. The weather is
now mild, (20th March,) balmy as May, National migrations seem to be prompted
and soon the plows will be started. Al- hj divine and human purposes.
together, we deem the climate much mild- There are always tyrants to conquer, op
er than the southern part of the State of preSsors to flee from, a Bed Sea to cross,
Ohio. But as there is nothing perfect ia a wilderness to traverse, and a promised
this orld, we have also to state that we iaUd to attain and possess in the end. '
are subject to strong and high winds, j The history of the world might be di
which sometimes are very unpleasant, but x-ldeA iike a drama, into five acts, four of
seldom cold.
Lands in Kansas are not yet purchasa
ble. They are acquired bv makim? a
residence on them and improving them, j
- -
men entities tne occupant to enter them
at government price in preference to any :
other person. The first settler on a quar- j
ter section is the one that will be permitted
io pre-empt, x ms occasions tne erecting
of cheap , and temporary houses, which
must give way to more costly and com
modious ones as soon as the hues are run.
The timbered lands in this part of the
Territory are nearly all claimed, but tim
ber can be obtained reasonably, and there
is yet much timbered land in the south
and western parts of Kansas unclaimed.
We have plenty of choice prairie that
is waiting to welcome the new-comer with
her blandest smiles and gayest attire, pre
senting everywhere a cheerful face and
bosom, ready and willing to yield back
with ample interest everything confided.
There is enough for all that may choose
to come for the next three years, and we
believe that all may be suited, save only
in the matter of timber. Nevertheless,
it is important to come soon, as no man
ever made anything by delay in investing
in a new country.
As many pe rsons of all classes, from tho
day laborer to the capitalist, may be look
ins Kansas-ward, and all anxious to know
what their, chances : will be, we would
simply say if you are able and willing
to work, you may safely come, though it"
you have not a dollar when you get here
you can lay the foundation of a competen
cy, if you like; or you can bo thriftless
and penniless here as easy as you can at
home. - To the man of - moderate means
we would say; come along. You can
thrive best when in a race with even com
panions, free from that discouraging dis
tance in point of wealth that exists iu most
of the old States. .
To tlie capitalist we need scarcely say
a word ; for what moneyed man is there
who is not aware-of the proceeds of cap
ital invested in pew Stales. Kansas is
to be settled, and that mora densely than
any other western State. All other States
have been in market with their lands be
fore they have been much settled, and
large tracts have for years been precluded
from settlement by the unholy appetites
of land gourmands.'
Not so with Kansas. The sordid gripe
of speculation cannot fasten upon one
acre of her soil, for (thanks to the pre
emption law) long ere her lands will be
exposed to public sale each quarter sec
tion of desirable land will have its occu
pant. Then imagine a country like Kan
sas, with a yeoman upon every quarter
section of choice sow, and what State
can produce a like spectacle. Will not
such a country require innumerable towns
.. . rv v r
tilist disposed to accept the proffered
boon ? Mills and factories of all kinds
required in new countries will pay "well
as soon as settled. - With saw-mills wc
cannot be over-stocked.
Stock-raising, either on a large or lim
ited scale, can be ;made profitable here,
from the fact that tlie price of all kinds
of stock, . compared with the expense of
raising them, will contrast favorably "with
any other State. . ' -
In short, there is an opening in Kan
sas for all matter-of-fact and operating
men that can take hold and lift lustily at
the wheel. But, above, all other things,
we would caution the blane mange nurse
lings of feather beds to eschew Kansas.
She has suffered enough in repute..
7 But we wish to speak further ofthe fu
ture prospects of Kansas. It needs not
much prophetic ken to predict for her
a glorious future. That the present emi
grants in Kansas are a superior class of
persons to those who usually pioneer new
countries,- caunot be denied by any that
are acquainted with the facts. - Time was
when stolid men occupied the frontier ;
but now intelligence and sagacity seems
first to plant itself oa tho silent western
prairie. To our Ohio friends, we would
say, have no tears oi pmnging your
selves into barbarism or obscurity in com-(in
ing to Kansas. Lying near the center of
the destined confederacy, soon she will
Pss from a border to a middle State, hav
mr- :j. : LI.
j inr tho Missouri on one side, a navigable
river through the interior, and almost ia
. and instinctively shrink from the pros-
pect of enduring them again ia aTnew!
country. But new . countries are 'not
settled now as they were : then. Instead
i of the alow process of years, you find
yourself surrounded by .1 neighbors the
first season; and the revolutionof a sin-
have time to unpack their books ere the
ffclwoHouse will -be ready to "receive
communication oy rauroaa wiui tne j inrougn. perus, tarouga storms, through
ic cities, lying alon the great high-persecution and suffering, he has come
wayoi me continent irom ocean to ocean, even into me presence ot JMero, saying,
whocaadoabt for a moment her destiny?; "So far as in me lies,,! am willing to
- , T v - . O'
them. The last vibrations of the church
) going "bell will hardly have died upon
your ear when you hear the hymn of
thanksgiving and praise on the western
prairie. - But if you fear that Kansas is
n jw scarcely whatyou wouhi like, come,
then, and help to make her what she
should be. :" '
- J. K. GOODINV Committee.
' From th Odd &2lrt Cad ft.
The Westward March of Empire.
Human hJstnrv i n Twrrvhial exodus.
which are already played out The cur
tain is just rising on the fifth and last.
1. The Are nw Pji-nrrrvs on the Arte
or Artistic Beaut:. Fifteen hundred
Tears before the birth of our Savior, the
VOrld wasin a petrified condition. It had
no history, no States. All that had been
done in Assyria, in Persia, and in Egypt,
jwas in a -stagnant condition. At that
j jriod, action began to ooze out, taking
its origin in Western Asia, - the souro of
all future civilization. Two young men
are students in Ejrrpt. Each is intent
upon ' his unknown but lofty purpose,
which he first matures, and then sets out
to accomplish '. Ono crosses to Greece.
He brings letters with him, and sows on
Greek ground the primary seeds of civili
zation. Nine years afterwards, the other
a man of down-trodden race, an out
cast, ' a man who was born to. overthrow
tyranny, and who burned under its influ
ence sets outon his expedition, and leads
his brethren over sea and land, into the
wilderness. With these two f Cadmus
and Moses) originates the history of the
world, secular and sacred. Passing on
to about 700 B. C, we find genius devel
oped into beauty. ' It is the age of beauty
in art, in sculpture, in architecture, m
literature, and philosophy everywhere
beauty.-- It is the age of Socrates and
Plato, of Aristotle and Euripides, of He
soid. and Sophocles, of Jischines and
Demosthenes, and Praxiteles and Phidias;
in a word, the age of Pericles, for in him
all the elements of the highest Grecian
culture were exemplified. He was re
splendent with all that could communi
cate grandeur. Ho stood forth, amid
forms of artistic excellence, the exponent
of a beauty that the world has since only !
approximated. In literature, in painting, i
in statuary, in architecture, the world ; tians copied them in structures above
has only dug up the defaced and broken I ground. The Greeks borrowed or stole
fragments of these days, and yet they are 'all that went before them, (it is a mark of
master-pieces which its best workmen j great genius to be a good thief many of
have never since been able to equal. the greatest intellects have become so by
2. The Ace or Augustus, oa the Agk J appropriating other men's ideas. ) The
of Martial Foece. A colony of adven- j Dorians took the column and perfected it,
turers are driven upon the Italian coast ; ! making it a model of beauty. They pla
they lay there the foundation of a future ced the entablature oa the colonade, and
city, and as they are digging the first ; upon the pediments opened a space for
trench of its 'walls, the soothsayers, taking ' geniu3 todevelop its thought in sculpture,
their inspiration from the sight of a bloody j The Romans invented the arch, and this,
head, (caput, ) predict its future greatness. I in turn, was the germ of the dome adopt-
This," say they, "shall be the bloody ' ed by nations still further west. It was
caput; the warlike metropolis, the capital 'this which first gave enlarged space and
of all the world." Oriental knmior o-ives : proportion to architecture, for the Greek
way to strength and vigor. The brigands
go on gathering energy from their super-
stitinn. Thev fro out acrainst theirneurh-
bora and subjugate them. They conquer
new territories, and each conquest paves peaces ior religious woremp. iub iwjui
the way for another, and another, until ;ca were the .finest buildings of the age,
from the shores of the Mediterranean to and so, when Christianity became the re
the healthy hills of Scotland.'' from the lunonof the government, they were ta-
Euphrates to the Rhine, there is but one
government, one language, one religion, rooms Decame ccurcuw. w
It is a grand amalgam of nations, a blend-1 the place of the judge, the male and fe
ing Of all tribes. ' It is' just perfected male ponions of the congregation took
whenthe Roman Emperor proclaims him-je place of male and female .witnesses,
self Pontifex Maximus.- The monument and the choir was substitued for the bar.
of that age is the Pantheon. ' All the i From Rome and Byzantium the current
great monuments of human progress are
architectural. What the Pantheon was
to Greece the Pantheon is to Rome. It
is a type of the people, gross as they are
themselves : not beautiful, like its Grecian
prototype, but bearing Greek beauty de
faced and defiled by Roman toucn ; the
touch of iron muscle and iron mind. That
Pantheon is filled with the deities of con-
ouered nations. As province after pro v-
inco is subjugated
filled. KtatHA atfcr s
after god takes its place among the divin
ities of, Rome, until the list is complete.
Then as the sculptor is putting the last
touch to the marble, a light breaks in the
East. - It comes from tlie fountain head
of civilization ; just as tlie field is cleared
of the obstructions of martial force, just
as the world is prepared for universal re
ligion. - He is born in Bethlehem, who
is to dethrone all these gods, enlighten
and bless all lands, and send out a re
deeming influence, westward, all over the
world. -' "
3. The Age of Leo X, or the Age of
Exlabged IjTVEjmoif. A man, Asiatic
temperament, European in education,
j towering above all the people in noble-
ness and culture, lands on the coast of
Italy. Jle, too, comes from the East-
He is the predestined herd, qualified to
appear just at this ripe period in Europe.
and Christianity comes upon the earth.
That same man lives to write a letter to
Cesar's family. Though that truth is to
be gradually corrupted and obscured and
misrepresented, it will emerge at the end
all the brighter for its trials. - ;
i . Atthe end ofthe fifth century, the East
ilizafjnn nri pynniro hare ed read
the world in a track of unbroken splendor,
- The rugged North, omes dowp, and ap
. niche after niche : is ' the fourteenth century; u Trinity Church men of this
tatne is erected Gad i m New oik is an example; of the sur foremost to
parently annihilates the effete South,
though it, in reality, is I but combining
in both the leroentsof their future great
ness.. Through the season of danger, By
zantium preserves the treasures of science,
of art, of philosophy, and literature ; and
then, when it has passed, gives them back
again to the West and disappears.
Then came the so-called Dark Ages;
for the Middle Ages are much tnisrepre
sented by such a designation There were
icn centuries oi great aegraaauon ana ig
norance; but in these ten centuries there
were elementsof light which are not to be
found in the world at this day. A young
man, wearied with tlie crimes and seek
ing to escape the temptations ofthe great
city,' leaves Rome. " He goes out to Sub
iacco, makes for himself a lonely retreat
there, and gives himself up to study and
prayer Others, led by the same motives,
follow him, and adopt him as their lead
er. He becomes their instructor and pa
tron. It is Benedict, the founder of - the
Benedictine order of monks the class of
men to whom we are indebted, more than
any other, for modern civilization. When
all around them was ignorance, and deg
radation, and darkness, they planted the
schools, the colleges, and the universities
all over Europe. All the English colleges
wero founded by them. ; AU the schools
along the Rhine and Danube are indebt
ed to them for existence.' Charlemagne,
when Emperor, could not write hi3 name
until they taught him; and they -swayed
his influence to work their own great
purposes. . They were the literary aristoc
racy of those centuries, the conservatives
of literature and art. The other similar
great orders were founded by Francis and
Dominic. These r ranciscan and Domin
ican monks were the literary democrats
of that day ; they were the first itinerant
preachers, the Methodists of the Middle .
Ages. They were not scholars, immers
ed in books and libraries, but teachers of
the workmen, out of doors, in streets, in
fields and workshops. They trere all
mighty in diffusing truth. In England,
the names of the localities . indicate the
first schools founded by each Blackfri-
ars, by the Benedictines ; Grey friars, by
the Franciscans ; and Whitefriars,by the
Dominicans. The first press in Italy and
the first one in England were put to work
by the Benedictines.-. All of the finest
cathedrals were built by the Benedictines.
The best editions of tlie classics were is
sued by the Benedictines." The greatest
of the painters were monks. ' Most of the
masterpieces of the fine arts were execu
ted in the cloister by them, or by their
pupils and proteges. The Dominicans
excelled in sculpture. : The Benedictines
are more famous m classic research and
in architecture.
Everything in art and philosophy is
continually going forward toward the set-
ting sun
lake architecture a3 an exam-
pie. The Asiatics dug caves, the Egyp
temples were narrow and small, and their
openings limited to the superimposed
blocks of marble. -When .Constantine
; became Emperor, there were no suitable
: ten for purposes of worship, and the court
of architectural procrress went north
and west, dividing on its way into the
Normaa and German, or Gothie type.
Lombardy supplied the campanile, which
has since become the steeple. : Exeter,
Winchester, and Salisbury Cathedrals, in
England, are examples of the perfection
' that was finally reached, jrrommcmour
ten models are copied. 1 he cathedral m
Albany i3 a fine specimen of the stylo of
teenin century, or tne last and, most per
fect 8tyle of all
But the architecture stopped.' From
the sixteenth century to this day, there
has not been an original building erected.
The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park came
pretty near it; but that is. the only one
that even made the attempt, and that, too,'
is a type . of the times-an exemplifica
tion r the spirit Of tho nineteenth centu
ry with a heart of iron, and looking into
everybody's windows. -
4. The Age ot Washijtotox, oa the
Age or UisrvEasAL CivtuzatIox. This
commenced when the Italian astronomer
raised his tube to the sky, and after un
certain grbpings amid the darkness, at
last learned and ventured to weigh the
world and walls amid the stars. It com
menced when a pilgrim from Genoa went
wandering about from court to coqrt to
find means to eratifv the impulse myste
riously implanted in his heart, to seek a!
path to the East througn tne unejwic
seas, and at last, after long trials and
weary voyages,' found in the West a pew
world. The mind of the sixteenth cen
tury has gone westward, and is going still.
On the banks of the Rhine, a soldier at
Mayence (bear in mind that as a priest
invented gunpowder, and a clergyman
percussion caps,' it was only reasonable
tJiat a soldier should discover the means
of preserving. peace and religion ) first
thought ot lasong an impression irom
wooden blocks inked over, and the hand
of Infinite Wisdom Hf5ed,"-through the
hand of Guttenberg,the first proof-sheet:
and God said for the second time, "Let
there be light." Andthere was- light.
ben the omniscient and almost omnipo.
tent press was giTen to ahake the world,
annihilate oppression, and diffuse wisdom
and freedom and truth.
The loom, the telescope, the press, the
magnet, the graver, were all gathered at
last in England, just at the time when the
struggle began between the Cavaliers and
Roundheads. Elements of colonial em
pire were wanted, and these two factions
were tossed and shifted to and fro until
the right elements came uppermost, when
the Cavaliers went to Virginia, and the
Roundheads to Massachusetts. The one
represented the dignified and educated
gentleman, the other the sturdy and rough
woikingman of the future State While
the one laid out broad estates and planta
tions in the fertile fields of the South,
the other was subduing the bleak and
sterile rocks of New England, and found
ing the churches and schools of America.
These Cavaliers and Roundheads were
always quarreling; and they are disposed
to quarrel still. Take a small descendant
of the southern Cavaliers, and a small
specimen of the northern Roundhead el
ement and put them together, and you
have a small fight directly. In 1 GO I God
put the Dutchman in between them, to
keep the peace, and he laid the founda
tions of rnew lork.
The discovery of America was a lucky
blunder. Columbus was not looking for
it, but for the northwest passage to India.
So it was with Hudson's discovery of
New York. He was looking for the
northwest passage, and sailed up here to
Albany after it. Why were the Holland
ers Drought to settle Iew ioikTv At
that time Holland was the great liberal
and commercial power of the globe.
bhe was the earner for all Lurope. And
it was designed that the city they settled
should be the commercial metropolis
first of the continent of the world.
The Huguenot from France William
Penn, the representative of peace Lord
Baltimore, the representative of tolera
tion- these were the chief founders in
America. Then arose Patrick Henry to
strike the first blow against civil oppres
sion; itoger Williams to introduce for
the first time true religious toleration;
and finally, Washington, to open the path
to universal empire and freedom.
The colonies in time became crowded.
and the President purchased Louisiana to
give them room. As Napoleon signed
the treaty ceding it, he said, propheti
cally: "In thus ceding Louisiana, I lave
to the young States of America the pow
er to compete with the only prince in the
world that 1 have reason to dread."
Just at this period, when we fell heirs
to a great inland navigation, Fulton comes
in with his invention of the steamboat.
It spreads and extends pur empire west
ward. Whilrt -thla ia rminnr nn ttrifa
arises again between some Cavaliers and
Roundheads about the expediency of dis
solving the Union. But there has grown
up a power behind them which they can
not resist The freest and most patriotic
portion of the citizens have gone west
ward into the valley of the Mississippi.
itefugees from the old world, equally de
voted to liberty, have joined them there ;
and the great West arises like a giant, to .
inform the little couth that it means to
hold them at peace. At this, moment
gold, hid till now, is found, and a rush of
free labor takes place to the Pacific coast.
A free State is placed on that shore, se
curing union, and giving liberty forever
the preponderance.
When irulton launched his paddle
wheels on the Hudson, and started off for
Albany against winl and tide, America
was just beginning to go. When the da
guerreotype was perfected in New York,
America was just oegmning 10 see ui
face in the sun. When Morse transmit
ted words hundreds of miles along a wire
in a moment's time, America was just
beginning to talk.' It is no idle boast
that we are " Young America." We are
the youth six thousand years old. . cix
thousand years have been spent in educa
tion, and now. we are -just entering upon
our career. "
Self-Made Men.
We have, indeed, had our self-educated
men, and some of them have acted a very
distinguished part in the history of our
country ; but, as a general fact, t elf -ed
ucated men are uneducated, or Ao-edu-cated
at the best. They usually betray,
if not a want of discipline and knowledge,
at least a want of symmetry and 'com
pieteness. .lhey are iiot sale guides.
1 1 hey generally prove inadequate to try
ing emergencies ; and tho wisest and best
class have been among tho ,
recognize the necessity, and
to aid in the advancement of college ed
ucation. The sagacious Franklin, with" '
the mod sense which was charactp'ristir:
of him. drew Tin a nroieei for thA found
ation of a college, in which he strongly
recommended the study of the ancient
languages lor ail tne students, and lnsisxs
? -O . .... .
on n ior tnose woo mieuu to cugag? m
the learned professions. -
"The Father of his Country" was a :
self-made man ; but he felt the deficiency,
and had recourse to a graduate of Colum
bia College (Alexander Hamaton) in the
preparation of his -most important State
papers. In .bis own writings he often
showed a want of that minute accuracy ,
which belongs to a thoroughly educated ;
nan, so that President Sparks, with or v
without sufficient reason, felt under the -necessity
of sometimes - correcting his r
language, when he edited his correspond- r
ence. And with the magnanimity and
public spirit for which he was so remark
able, he bore testimony to the alue of
the literary advantages which he did ;not '
enjoy, by laying the foundation of a col- .
lege in his native State, which honors,
while it is nonored by, the name of Wash
ington. V I ; ' v - -7 ;
The distinguished orator . and states- '
man of Kentucky was a self-taught man.
But bitterly did he deplore his limited -opportunities
for early education.'. EpP-,
cially in some of his severe conflicts with ' "
John Randolph on the floor of Congress, v
when taunted by him on the incorrect use
of a word, Henry Clay would acknowl
edge, with tears, the disadvantage which V
he suffered, owing to the . want of that v
liberal -education which his antagonist
had enjoyed. IT! S. Tyler.- - "

xml | txt