OCR Interpretation


The Kansas herald of freedom. [volume] (Wakarusa, Kan. Territory) 1854-1860, April 14, 1855, Image 1

Image and text provided by Kansas State Historical Society; Topeka, KS

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82006863/1855-04-14/ed-1/seq-1/

What is OCR?


Thumbnail for

TEBJIS : Tiro Dollars per Anaan--Iii Adrance.
be Jtsf : Let Ail tIie ends thou aimest at be tht ccktrt's, cod Asii ikvrn'sj
BY G. W. BROWN & CO.
LAWRENCE, KANSAS TERRITORY, SATURDAY, APRIL 14, 1855.
NUMBER:i5Y0LMiSlt
The Kansas Emigrant's Song.
Trws: SutanjiaX.
i bid a qtilct Yankee home,
. Arotmd H all was peace ;
Mr aeihbon were all honest folk,
. And I was at my ease.
In the bright spring I sowed mr seed,
And whistled through the field ;
And. when mr crops I harvested,
I thanked ftod tor the yield
Oh, New England!
That was the land for rne -The
land of pwe and honest folk,
Of God and Liberty!
.Twas said our prairie in the West,
Once trod by atnre's brave
"Were to be blighted by the curoe
Of masters and of slaves !
1 could not bear the dreadful thoneht,
My blood nwhed quick and warm
For "Freedom had my father fought
For that I left mr'furm.
Oh, 2ew England ! fcc.
Foe Freedom I have left my home,
. Mfr home of early joys
Old jnehda I cherished from a child,
. And lnughin? jrjrls and boys.
When Memory brings their kindly tones
. Back to my ionjrfnjr earn,
Mr. heart relieves iuelf in moans,
My eyea are wet .with tears.
Oh, New Erif kad ! fcc
And now upon fair Kanaa soil "
111 life begin again.
And help to build New Tin gland homes -
On every hill and pluin.
And, if the master and the slave
Shall make their borne by me,
PI! welcome them, but each miut have
An equal liberty.
Oh. fair Kansas!
That w the land for me.
The land r peace and honest folk,
For God and Liberty !
And when old age shall lay his hand
Upon my frosty heaJ.
Ill bless the dav my fathers' God
My steps to Kansas kd.
Then, aa I see from my own door,
Each verdant hill and field
With happy homes all covered o'er,
I'll thank God for the yield.
Oh, fair Kansas! &c.
Information for Kansas Pioneers.
Office of the N. E. Em. Aid Co.,)
Xo. 3, Winter Street, Boston.
In answer to the numerous inquiries re
specting Kansas, addressed to the Sec
retary, both by letjer and in person, the
following circular has been prepared,
which contains as concise and definite re
plies as can be conveniently furnished at
short notice. It is scarcely necessary to
say that no methodic arrangement has
been attempted. I would premise that
The Company has not endeavored,
neither does it now endeavor, to entice
veople to qo to Kansas. Its course has
been, and still is, to collect the best and
most reliable information relative to the
Territory, and furnish the same to those
desiring it. Each individual having re
ceived and duly weighed the information,
must then decide for himself whether or
not it is advisable to immigrate. If the
decision be to go, the Company will do
all in its power to speed him on his des-1
lined way, ana anora nun sucn jatmura
in locating as it may from time to time be
enabled to do. The principle advantages to
be derived through the Company are,dimi
nution in ratesof fare; protection, as far as
possible, from the imposition practised on
the unwary by runners, speculators, and
others, advice through agents in Kan
sas relative to selecting suitable sites for
settlement, and (what we deem the para
mount advantage,) the opportunity of
forming communities at once, and thus
early enjoying all the benefits resulting
from association, instead of locating, as is
usually the case, at wide-spread distances,
and in consequence generations passing
by before any of the benefits and privil
eges of settlements can be realized. Be
yond extending these lacuities, the uom
pany docs not pledge itself; though, if
its appeal to the public be satisfactorily re-
sponded xo, it wm ao wuaiever may oe in
its power, in the way of improvements, to
promote the welfare and advance the
prosperity of such settlements as origin
ate under its auspices.
,Time of Departure. The first regu
lar spring party, numbering about two
hundred individuals, left Boston for Kan-
1 O r J' a
sas on the afternoon of Tuesday, March
13th. A second took its departure
on the ZUtn, ana subsequently one leaves
at least weekly, for the present, on Tues
day.
Fare. The passage fare for each
adult from here to Kansas city, Mo.,
will be thirty-seven dollars, until the
summer arrangement of railroads and
steamboats is made, after which it will be
somewhat less. For children between
the ages of 14 and 6 years, half , price ;
under 5 years, passage free; . over 14
years, full price. Tickets must be pro
cured at this office, or through some au
thorized agent of the Company.
. Meals and Lodging. These from
St. Louis to Kansas city are included in
the price above stated ; but both are ex
tra charges prior to reaching St. Louis, f
. The parties will spend the first night at
Albany if the western route at Rutland
if the Fitchburg route is taken ; lodging
and breakfast 75 cents. Subsequently,
accidents excepted, the journey will be
continued uninterrupedly to St. Louis,
inless a Sunday intervenes.
The first parties will necessarily go the
whole distance to Alton by railroad. As
oon as the Lake Erie navigation re-opens
that route will be preferred, as it will af
ford aa opportunity for a second night's
rest . r .7 "
- Amount of Baggage.- Each whole
licket entitles the holder to carry 100 lbs
of baggage ; half price ticket 50 lbs. All
V Kanaaa city tb border of the Territo-
S, about two miles belowvthe month of the
msas river. 'Here parties disembark, and
make the necessary - arrangements for go
ing, at their own expense, to that ration of
Kanaaa Territory, where, by the advka of ,the
Co'a agents, or their own choice," they decide to
locate. - - - -
t On this part of the route regular meals, as at
hotels, cannot be had, and should not be expected;
as on all other railroad roo tea, at way . stations
persons have aa opportunity of taking a. lunch,
or of purchasing various articles of food ; so that
the cost need not average mora than 20 cents the
meal, and the whole expert to St. Loftis orbt
not to exceed $$ 00. Persons 'having families
with them can materially leosen their expenses,
by taking along in a tin can a boiled ham, or
tome corned beef, crackers, cheese, &c;
excess will be charged at the rate of about
$3 00 per 100 lbs. If sent as freight,
the charge will be from here to St. Louis
82 50 per 100 lbs. In eithercase, from
St. Louis to Kansas city the cost will va
ry from of a cent to 2 h cents the pound,
according to the season of the year, and
the competition prevailing. .
Packing and Directing. All bag
gage should be packed in trunks, chests,
or very moderate size well made boxes,
with strong handles; in no case should
large boxes, barrels, or ricketty packages
of any kind be used. The owner's name
and place of destination should be con
spicuouly marked on his baggage ; and in
addition, the following, in large letters
Kansas Partes Baggage.
Checks for Baggage. Those who
join the parties at Boston, "Worcester,
Springfield, or other places where the
baggage is checked, must be sure to have
it attended to, and to receive the dupli
cate or counter check from the baggage
master.
Change of Baggage. Whenever, on
the route, a change of baggage is to take
place, each individual should, Tor the
greater security, personally see that his
own is carried with the rest to the railroad
or boat, as the case may be. If mislaid,
prompt notice should be given to the
agent having charge of the party, that he
may at once notify the conductor, or other
suitable railroad or steamboat officer.,
Freight. When freight is to be sent;
the owner or his agent should obtainfrom
the transportation or forwarding agent at
Boston, a receipt in duplicate for its safe
delivery at St. Louis. On the owner's
arrival at St. Louis, if in advance of the
freight, he should leave one of the receipts
with the Company's agent, Mr. B. Slater,
19 Levee, who will take charge of ship
ping it to Kansas city. Theownershould
not pay freightage until the goods are de
livered to him or his order at Kansas city.
All articles not immediately wanted,
liad better, for economy's sake, be sent as
freight. The charge per 100 lbs. from
Boston to St. Louis, will be about 82 50;
average time 18 days.
Shipping Freight. It will be still
more economical, and far better, where
the quantity of freight is large, to ship it
to New Orleans, and thence send it by
steamer to St. Louis. In this case, mark
as before, with name and destination ; and
in addition, Care of E. M. Dally fc.Co.,
New Orleans, to be forwarded to B. Sla
ter, 19 Levee, St. Louis. Such freight
left with Messrs. Allen & Welsh, No. 129
State street, Boston, will be duly shipped.
Freight to. New Orleans, 5 to 6 cents per
cubic foot; 82 to 83 per ton; barrels,
capable of holding 1 50 lbs., 25 to 30 cents
each. Cost from New Orleans to St.
Louis, about 50 cents the 100 lbs. TimeJ
usually twenty days to New Orleans, and
about the same thence to St. Louis. In
surance the whole distance, 2i per cent.
No Pledge Required. The emigrants
pledge to the Company ; they leave here
come under no written obligation or
free agents, and it is hoped they will con
tinue so to be. Still, knowing that the
great object is to secure freedom for all,
it is presumed that no one will be so dis
honest as to avail himself of the advanta
ges and privileges that may be secured
through the Company's means, and then
war against its principles.
Neitheris it necessary for an individual
who purposes removing to Kansas, to be
come a member of the Company, in or
der to join one of its parties. Unless
such an one has ample means, instead of
subscribing for stock, let him husband
his means, in order to make them as avail
able as possible after he arrives at his
new abode.
What to take, and where to but.
Most articles not owned, had better not
be Tmrchascd nrior tn rhinc- St. Trmis
or Kansas c ity. Good clothing suited
( for service, not show, such as is adapted
for this section of the country ; also bed
ding, (not beds on accountof their bulk,)
and perhaps some choice articles of fur
niture, had better be sent along ; but most
of the necessaries for house-keeping, also
1 r-. '
agricultural implements, &c, can be ob
tained on reasonable terms at the places
j above designated. Mechanics, who will
j require their tools immediately, had bet-
ter take them along at baggage prices;
time being to them money, they will save
by this course.
Cattle.- The price of good working
cattle, horses, cows, etc., is nearly the
same in Kansas and its vicinity as it is in
New England.' During the month of
April the price of cows ranged from
625 to $35; oxen per yoke, from $75 to
3100; horses from 875 to 8100 each;
common sheep from 82 to 82 50 each.
Consult Compant's Agents. In re
gard to these and other purchases, as well
as for information about the Territory,
desirable places, for settlement, &c, par
ties on their arrival at Kansas city are
recommended to consult Samuel C. Pom
eroy, Esq., one of the Company's agents,
who will at all times cheerfully and
promptly furnish reliable information,
and conscientiously advise them how, in
his judgment, they are most likely to ad
vance their own interests, and aid in ac
complishing the prime object had in view
by the Company. Dr. Charles Robin
son and Charles II. Branseomb, Esq.,
both active, highly efficient, and perfect
ly reliable agents, will counsel and ad
vise all who apply to them ; and any other
agents, who may be from time to time
employed, will be instructed to offer ev
ery facility that consistently can be done
to all who migrate under the Company's!
auspices.
Means.- As regards the amount of
means requisite to make a person "com
fortable," people will vary m their esti
mate according to their ideas of what
constitutes comfort' '.- With a hundred
dollars clear of expenses, wherewith to
commence territorial life, a person of good
moral habits, and reasonable and moder
ate desires,' should be able always to
keep above want, whatever pursuit or av
ocation he may follow, whether that of a
farmer, mechanic, or laborer; provided
he is blessed, with ordinary health, and
proves active, energetic, and industrious.
Lass, how acqutsib; The land is to
be purchased of the United States, at
81 25 per acre; 160 acres and no more
can be taken, and this only by an actual
settler in person; the individual must be a
citizen of the United States, or have filed
his, declaration of intention to become
such, and either be the head of a family,
or a widow, or a single man over the age
of 21 years Payment may be made at
any time after the government survey,
out need not be until immediately prior
to the commencement of the public sale in
that district ; the money cannot be paid
portions at a time ; locations may be made
anywhere, save on the government, or
Indian reserves, oroncertaintracts which,
by law, are exempted from the operations
of .the Pre-emption Act ; the person must
be an inhabitant of the tract, and, in per
son, have made a settlement, and erected
a dwelling thereon ; within three months
after it has been surveyed by the United
States, jt must be duly entered atthclteg
istry office of the district within which it
is located.
To quiet the fears of those who appre
hend that all of the desirable portions of
the Territory have been, or in a few weeks
will be, secured, it may be suthcient to
say that there are millions of acres from
which farm lots may now be selected,
and that the quantity of land now open
to pre-emption is sufficient to accommo
date seventy -five thousand families, em
bracing half a million of individuals.' Al
though, therefore, the farm lots in the
immediate vicinity of, perhaps for miles
around Lawrence, may be, and probably
are, ere this, secured, there is a plenty of
as good ones awaiting new comers. Let
them found other xsew England or rather
Liberty settlements, of a similar charac
ter. " To effect this requires neither magic
nor supernatural power; New England
energy, industry, and perseverance, sec
onded by the efforts of true sons of liber
ty, who went forth from various sections
of the Union, brought the one, and can
bring others, into existence. anous
sites for such settlements have been se
lected, and on application will be desig
nated by the Company's agents
AVood and Iimber. 1 here is not an
extreme scarcity, and there is far from
an over-abundance of wood ; Sufficient
can be procured ou reasonable terms for
all ordinary purposes. The advantage
resulting from the limited supply is far
greater than the disadvantage ; for the
consequence is a freedom from roots and
stumps, the frequent occurrence of which,
in many sections of our country, proves
a serious inconvenience to the agricultu
rist, and requires for removal an expendi
ture of much time, money, and labor, in
order to place the ground in an arable
condition. The law of compensation is
here found admirably exemplified; for
the under-supply of wood for fuel is more
than made good by the vast coal deposits
known to exist in the Territory ; the un
der supply of timber for building purpo
ses is made good by the abundance of
lime and clay ; the deficiency of fencing
stuff by suitable material for walls : and in
a few years by cultivating the Osage or
ange, which will grow luxuriantly, hedg
es will supersede the necessity of any
other means for forming inclosures. 1 ho
timber, to a person from a lumber region,
would seem scarce, the scarcity is not one
that will necessarily be constantly on the
increase, as settlements multiply, and the
lands are reclaimed from their present
state; inasmuch as the limited growth
arises, not from uncongeniality of climate,
unsuitableness of soil, or absence of
seed, but from the frequent prevalence,
year after year, of vast prairie fires that
sweep everything before them, and thus
stint, or entirely prevent, the growth of
tree or shrub- Arrest the fires, and
woodlands will soon abound. Small,
however, as the proportion of woodland is
now said to be, one pf the Company's
agents, a few months since, contracted
for 600 cords of standing wood at 25 cents
per cord, and 600 logs of timber at 50
cents per log, the logs averaging half a
thousand each. About half of the quan
titv is now cut, and yet there is nopercep
tiDie aimmuuon or winning out ol trees.
The principal varieties of wood are bass
or hnwood, cottonwood, hickory, oak,
black walnut, ash, sycamore, hackberry,
&c.
Weather. There hasTeen no neces
sary suffering the past or present season,
from inclemency of the weather, at Law
rence. The Governor states that the List
of December a fire was unnecessary ; and
a resident at the Company's settlement
writes that "on the 27th of December,
mechanics and others were comfortably
at work in the open air without their
coats, whilst the few idlers were basking
m the sun like snakes in June. There
has not been, however, an entire freedom
from cold and stormy weather. Up to
the close of the year there had occurred
but one fall of snow, which was to the
depth of two inches, and disappeared
within three days ; in January only five
iirciies oi snow ien.
A gentleman who has resided at one
of the Missions for fifteen years, says the
greatest depth ol snow at any one time
during that long period was six inches.
The ; past season there was no frost in
the ground before the close of December;
frost generally disappears by the begin
ning oi March. - , -
Th6 annual fall of rain is under thirty
inches. The rainy season usually com
mences in March, and continues about
two months ; during which the roads are
somewhat heavy, and traveling tedious.
Few days, however, pass by without the
sun showing itself. . ' -
According to thermometries! tables
carefully kept at Lawrence by Dr. H.
Clark, the average temperature in No
vember, at sunrise, was 29deg.- F.; at 1
o'clock, M ' 49deg.; and at of afc
hour past sunset 44deg. : The average
in December, at the same periods were,
25Jdeg., 49deg., and 42deg.;andin Jan
uary r 23deg., 38 deg., and 324eg. ,
The Kansas Herald ot Freedom, un
der date of Feb. 10th, says, "but once
has the mercury gone down to lero ; and
by those long on the ground we are assu
We trost that Dr. 3ark vill continue hi
highly interesting and Tahuble meteorological
obrtrTatMBftt
red that this is an uncommon occurrence;
while the mean of all the observations
will average only at the freezing point.
Where, we ask, could a more delightful
winter temperature be found? "None
who have designed to make Kansas their
homes,, need be deterred from earning
from any fear in respect to extreme cold.
When the time shall arrive that we shall
be surrounded with the comforts and con
veniences of theolder States, such a thing
as discomfort on this account will bo un
known." .
Provisions. There has been no defi
ciency of these ; for in Lawrence, as else
where, the demand has created a supply,
by prompting those residing ou the bor
ders of the Territory to bring of their
abundance to the settlement ; and the com
petition has been sufficient to keep prices
reasonable. This undoubtedly will hold
true at other settlements. j of many Western places, intermittents,
After the first year, the settlements will or fever and agua ; (chills and fever, as
not only supply themselves, but have a 'popularly termed;) cases can and do oc
surplus to dispose of. ' cur there, mainly, however, from im-
A market for all such surplus may, for prudence ; and probably will be met with
years to come, be found near at hand, in- to some extent, on the first breaking up
asmuch as thousands are passing through of the lands ; but such is the character of
that region every year along the Califor-
nia, Santa Fe, and Great Salt Laks city
routes, all of whom require more or less
supplies ; besides, the Missouri and Mis
sissippi rivers, and soon a line of railroads,
wui anora iacmties ior reacning other
markets.
Modes of Conveyance. Vehicles are
almost daily passing between Kansas
City, Lawrence, and Topeka, by which
means those who intend settling in the
vicinity of said towns will be conveyed
there, for about two dollars the passage.
Persons and Parties destined for other
sections of the Territory may engage
conveyances at Kansas City ; or will
probably adopt the course pursued by
some who have preceded them ; viz. those
who intend to be farmers will purchase
their teams, and thus afford means for
taking along the baggage of all their as
sociates. In the course of the season one
or more steamboats and flat boats, con
structed for the purpose, will ply on the
Kansas river ascending 1 50 miles or
more, according to the stage of the water,
and the encouragement extended to the
enterprise.
Accommodations in the Ierritoby.
Receiving houses are or will be estab
lished at a few places in the Territory,
(as Lawrence and iopeka,) unless, as
now appears probable, the necessity for
them is superseded by the opening ot
boarding-houses. Jot, however, being
constructed on a locomotive principle,
settlers, must not be so unreasonable as
to expect to meet with them every where
throughout that vast region ; neither are
they necessary, (however convenient,)
inasmuch as all who go out this Spring
and Summer, will, if industrious, have
ample time to provide themselves with
shelter, prior to the ensuing winter.
The quickest, cheapest, and most com
fortable way of securing shelter at the
onset, is to take along tents. These should
be procured on the way out, at St. Louis.
One of sufficient size to lodge tour or nve
individuals may be had for 88 to 815.
Families. Whether or not to take
one's family along or go ahead and pre
pare the way for it, depends on many cir
cumstances, varying greatly in different
cases, a knowledge of which is essential,
satisfactorily to decide the question.
Where the wife is feeble, has an infant,
or several young children, or from any
cause cannot lend a helping hand, she
had better remain behind, until the new
home is provided for her ; or, if taken
along, she had better be boarded at the
nearest convenient place to the spot se
lected for a location. If. on" the other
hand, the woman is the man, or is in
truth a helpmate, and can cheerfully sub
mit to roughing it for a while, if the
children be of an age and character suit
ed to prove serviceable, let them be taken
along. If families remain back, it will
be unnecessary to return for them, as
there will always be some one going out
under whose charge they can be placed.
Board. This can be obtained at
Kansas City and Parkville, Mo., at Law
rence and Topeka, K. T., and perhaps at
some of the Missions, for from 82.30 to
83.50 per week. -
Employment. Work is not guaranteed
by the Company to any one ; but wher
ever settlements already are, or hereafter
may be started, good mechanics will find
employment at remunerative prices ; par
ticularly carpenters, masons, black
smiths, harness-makers, brick-makers,
die. Gov. Reeder savs
This is a most lovely and promising
country. Thereis .no finer- under the
sun, and next summer it will be a rich
harvest for all kind of building mechanics
and laborers. Last season stone masons
and carpenters got 82.25 and 82.50 a
day, laborers 8 1 .25 and 81 .50. A lei
gion of them will be needed early in the
spring and all summer. If you have any
to spare send them along. We shall pay
out in the Territory near a million of dol
lars in building, and a man can be earn
ing the highest wages and getting a good
farm at 81.25 per acre at the same time.
The Government alone will spend 8100,-
000 or 8150,000 in stone buildings, at
rortluiey. I ho stone mason, carpen
ter, bnckmaker, bricklayer, plasterer.
laborer, - limeburner, ike, can lay the
foundation of a fortune here the first
year. Send them on, l Know tney . win
not repent it. We have as yet had" noth-
in I would call winter, and I doubt if it
will be any colder. Spring opens . about
the 1st of March, and mechanics, .: Ac,
should be here at that time. There are
some twenty towns laid out, the greater
part of which must be bdilt up, to say
nothing of farm houses, Ac" -. f ii '
, As already suggested, the Company
advises' no one, ; entirely destitute of
means, to go out, at this early ; period ;
individuals who can command the re
quisite funds, (which . indeed are -. but
small,) to sustain them the first yev in
other werds until a crop is raised, of em
ployment is sure can go in perfect safety,
and unquestionably would better their
condition by going ; others may find suf
ficient work to supply means, but it is
premature for avery .laree number -of
such to go, although thus far the supply
of laborers has not kept pace with the de
maDd ; men of determined energy, great
seu-renance, industrious and temperate
habits, who are .not easily disheartened,
and whose indomitable perseverance will
enable them to surmount such obstacles
as the settlers of new regions will be
obliged to Encounter, though - less per
haps in Kansas than iu most unreclaim
ed regions, such need not hesitate to im
migrate, though dependent solely on their
hands and daily exertions for a livelihood ;
all others, who are thus destitute, should
''bide their time." - . : - :.
Cum ate.- Professional, men pro
nounce the climate a remarkably healthy
one, admirably adapted to those having
a tendency to diseases of the lungs. It
is iu a crreat measure free from that txst
the country, and consequent deficieucy
of exciting materiel, it can never become
a prevalent or permanent disease. ; "
lhe only omection we have found to
the climate of Kansas, thus- far," (says
the Herald of Freedom,) "is the heavy
wmas, wnicn usually plow irom one to
three days at a time over the prairies,
making it rather disagreeable to bo ex
posed out of doors. We think the wind
and storms are not more violent than in
Western Pennsvlvania and Eastern
Ohio."
Cost ov B,,,n"'0- TKio r
must vary according to the materialused,
the size, style, tc. The main aim at
first, .when so many important matters
wilf require attention, should be to put up
a cheap, temporary shelter. A tent
costing from 88 to 8 1 5, will accommodate,
tolerably well, five or six persons ; a sod
cabin, (Lawrence style of architecture,)
which will make a comfortable dwelling
in winter, even, may be constructed in a
couple of days or less, at an expense of
eight to twelve dollars. The mode of
building these, is thus described in the
Kansas Herald of Freedom : " Select a
spot where good sod can be obtained easi
ly ; with an axe cut the turf into blocks
two feet square ; insert a spade under the
surface about five inches, lift the sod,
and ' place it as you would a stone in
building fences. When the walls are
sufficiently high, lay on the rafters in the
usual form ; then lay sticks across from
one rafter to another, about twelve inches
apart ; on top of these throw some hay,
and on the hay lay the sods. Cut in a
uoor and window, and a stove win make
a comfortable home for the winter."
Time of commencing farm wore, cost,
KIND, AND VALUE OF CROPS, KC. Un
these points, we avail of information fur
nished for publication by an individual
bitterly and uncompromisingly opposed
to the present A ew Lngland movement,
and who has exerted himself to throw all
the impediments and discouragements
possible in the way of those who contem
plate emigrating from the r ree States ;
wheu such a person is .compelled to make
so flatterbg statements as the subjoined,
there is no necessity for our friends offer
ing any extra iilducements to freemen to
become citizens of Kansas. . It may - be
well to premise that the cost of hiring
prairie land broken up, will be about
three dollars per acre ; and we . under
stand that individuals, suitably prepared,
and acquainted with the business,' pur
pose pursuing it as a vocation ; so that
what Gen. btnngfellow deems an insuper
able difficulty in the way of New Eng
land and Western Farmers, can easily be
obviated ; and where no one can be hired,
resort will be had to a very common prac
tice, of which he seems ignorant, of
doubling, or trebling teams, and thus
mutually aiding one another. He says:
" The greatest difficulty is in the com
mand of the requisite labor the hands
and team necessary to break and enclose
the land. To one who has this, it is far
easier and cheaper to make a farm of one
hundred acres or more, in the .prairie
than in the timber. Indeed, in Missouri,
it is deemed better and cheaper in the
end to make a farm of three hundred
acres in the prairie and to .haul the rails
ten miles than to clear timbered land.
"The plough used will turn over from
twenty to twenty -six inches, . and . one
team will break from two to two and a
half acres per day. The cattle require
no other feed, but will keep fat on lhe
grass while at work. The proper season
for breaking prairie is from the first of
May to the middle of July ; up to which
time corn can be planted, . lhe corn is
dropped in the furrow, by a boy who
can sit on the plough, and is covered by
the plough. It will usually mature and
make good corn if planted as late as the
1st of June. That planted later . will
make good stock feed. '
"Prairie may be broken as late as the
middle of . August, and will, if sown,
yield a wheat crop equal to any that can
be afterwards grown On the grotftid.
"To one who has stock to feed, the crop
of corn oil the sod is always worth the
cost of breaking rand will, in a good sea
son, pay for breaking and enclosing.
"In the second year, the farm is in per
fect condition ! There are no . stumps,
but the sod is rotted, and your field clear
oi wwus uu gi?, u "
s an ash-bank In the prairie, too, A
! hand can cultivate one-third more than
in the timber.
"I ought here to say that both in Mis
souri and Kansas the winters are all al
ways dry, and with but - little'snow, and
hence hands are able to work during the
entire winter.' - -
As regards yield of tnsp&i tits same
writer makes the following statement to
show the great profit of slave labor and
we will hot insult lhe good sense of our
friends, by doutftirig for a rhoSrieht that a
freeman can accomplish as much' as a
bondman. He says: .
Lying id the sanSe latitude, lnlrrJedi-'
atery west, ' and along side of Missouri,
the soil and climate of ' Kansas cannot
differ materially from those of Missouri,
tam inclined to believe that Kansas' will
prove even healthier than Missouri, there
being less low marshy land in Kansas.
." Before leaving home, I pro
cured from intelligent farmers in Platte,
a county boraenng on Kansas, a state
ment showing the amount of land which
one hand can cultivate, with the yield
per acre, and the market price of the
products at home. 1 have no hesitation
in attesting its correctness.
Amount of land to hand and yield per
acre.
Hemp-7 to 8 acres.
800 to 12001b.
10 to 20 bis.
20 to 45 bush.
. 30 to 50 "
Uorn 10 to 15 acres,
Wheat-10 to 15 acres,
Oats-lOto 15 acres,
VALUE OF PRODUCTS AT HOME. "
Hemp 2i tons at SCO per ton, 8200 00
Corn-100 barrels at SI per bL
100 00
Wheat-5 acres-100 bushels at
80 cents per bushel,
80 00
Oats-5 acres-150 bushels at
30 cents per bushel.
45 00
Totalleastyieldatlowest prices, 8425 00
Hemp-4 tons at 8130 per ton,
585 00
600 00
225 00
100 00
Uorn-300 bis. at 82 per barrel,
Wheat-5 acres-225 bushels at
81 per bushel,
Oats-5 acres-250 bushels at
40 cents per bushel,
Greatestyieldathighestprices, 81,510 00
" 1 his will, doubtless, seem an extrava
gant estimate ; yet the quotations of the
markets will show that the maximum
prices arc less than the present market
prices. Hemp has sold during the past
season for 8150 per " ton. Wheat is
avldl O,0 .1 O
per Darrei. a ne yield, too, is oiten
greater than the highest. But it is not
less true that the greatest yield and high
est nrice are not often together. Mv ob
ject is rather to show the least yield and
the lowest price.
"Toa distaneeof 1 50 miles west, the soil
is but little, if any inferior to that of Mis
souri. Its great staples must be hemp
and tobacco I need hardly
say that the grains and grasses . will all
succeed, where hemp and tobacco can be
grown.
"i have said that Kansas was not suited
to the poor man ; I only intended to refer
to those who design to till the ground.
!!! But to the poor mechanic, it of
fers great inducements. .To all carpen
ters especially, and to stone and brick ma
sons, it will give constant employment at
high wages. The rudest beginner re
ceives 81,50 per day good workmen,
as journeymen, receive in regular em
ployment from two to three dollars per
day. Their expenses are light, the cost
of living being low.'
To the preceding we would add, three
of the best branches of business to en
gage in, are wool growing, stock raising,
and dairy farming, for which purposes
there probably is not to be found a superi
or region ; and those who early embark
in either, will in a few years realize large
fortunes, as the fruits of their industry.
Fencing, &c. To fence with rails will
cost about eighty cents" per rod ; stone
walls can be built for about one dollar
and fifty cents per rod.
Indians. rrom the Indians, the
original and rightful owners of tho soil,
the settler has nothing to fear so long as
in his intercourse with them, he squares
his conduct by the Golden Rule. The
poor native -has in times past suae red
more, and now has lar more to appre
hend, from the white man, than the
white man from him. Most of those
with whom the settlers will come in con
tact, are in, what we call, a semi-civilized
state ; they are not roving, wild Indi
ans," here to-day and there to-morrow,
but have permanent locations, cultivate
the soil, raise some cattle, sow and plant ;
and front them, on fair terras, the immi
grants rhay obtain vegetables, . fencing
stuff; &c, &c.
SETTLEMENTS.fThere are, at the pres
ent time", three settlemeritSj under the
auspices of the Company; viz: Lawrence,
situated about fifty miles above the
mouth of the Kansas riveri lying south of
it, and between it and the Wakarusa, -
Topeka, of more recent date, situated CU
the Kansas river, about twenty-five miles
above Lawrence, and Osawattamie,' in
the Osage country. -. Other settlements
will be made the present season. The
Company neither persuades persons to
go to, nor dissuades them from settling
at, either ; each has its advantages, each
its peculiarities ; and whatever might be
the opinion of the Company, every indi
vidual would or ought to select the one or
the other, or avoid all as "his own interest
dictates. ,
The Company, it should he distinctly
understood, Is sending to Kansas ; it
knows neither North, South, East, nor
West, to the exclusion of the remainder ;
it is desirous of seeing the whole peopled
with good men and true, who will main
tain their own rights, arid respect those"
of others ; who, whilst they resolutely re
sist being encroached Upon by the law
less arid reckless, whenccsoever they
may come, will carefully refrain " frcrcrt
committing unjust acts, or uttering
harsh epithets against others, simply for
a difference of opinion; who, save hi ex
treme cases, will rely for victory upon
the teachings of the Bible and Ballot-bol,
instead of the bottle and musket i dis
carding the bottle1 altogether, and rcserr
iris the last as a dernier resort. r
Religion and - EDrcATio.-At Law
rence there sire, several regularly consti
tuted' religious societies of various de
nominations, A free school is establish
ed there, in which the ordinary branches
ire tarfght, and measures Are fa train to
found an Academy for instruction iu the
higher branches; . . An Athenaeum : has
ftlsn hp-fin Jr.Ktihitftd hr members of
wliic'h,' discissions are" regularly held,
and ledtures.deliTered " Connected with
this Institution is "a P'ublic Library.
Sunday School Libraries also exist there.
All of these means, for securing nd
devating the rnenta1, and rdoral octidi
tkniof the conrfflunity will soon be in
full operation at Topeka', rfnd th other
settlements of the Company- - . ;
In behalf of each and all, the Secreta
ry earnestly, solicits contributions in
money or hooks ; the lormer ne wm en
deavor judiciously to convert into books ;
of the latter, almost every one has more
or less, which, having done their mission
here, will still prove of exceeding value,
for a similar purpose, in our new settle
ments. If the Secretary's efforts are ap
proved and seconded by our friends here,
he will be enabled to transmit to the Ter
ritory, by every Party, a package, the
contents of which may prove, of incalcu
lable importance to our friends there.
brzE of Parties. Parties, for their
own comfort and convenience, should
not exceed one hundred person's ; and a
larger number the Company does not
advise to go at once ; neither is there a
necessity for it, as at least weekly oppor
tunities will be furnished. " The capacity
and arid accommodations of the Missouri
river boats vary; but a certain number
can ba well cared for ; and the Company
discountenances any unreasonable crowd
ing on board of those boats ; it possesses
not the magic power, as some Unreason
ably think, of enlarging, the fioats' capac
ity to correspond with a Party's wants,
or desires. The Agents therefore are
enjoined against countenancing or per
mitting so far as they can exorcise a
control, one over the proper, numberi
from taking passage in any boat ; if a
contrary course be persisted in however,
it must be at the risk of those who will
not be advised, and not on the responsi
bility of the Company
As however there.will unquestionably
be for scfhld time a great rush, and Parties
will be very large notwithstanding the
advice of tho Company, every one Who
arv tmlsr. Kr intent to submit
ous inconveniences, more especially in
the boats and at the houses of entertain
ment where they may temporarily stop.
Those who go out early in the bpnng
will of course meet with more annoyance
than those who leave later ; but, on the
other hand, they will have a greater
choice as regards location, and there will
be more probability of their arriving in
season to enyqy the right of exercising
the glorious privileges of freemen, at the
first election ; a matter of great moment
to them, and of vast moment to all who
may subsequently become citizens of the
Territory. ..- .
Temporary Organizations. Parties
are advised to pursue the course of those
who went out last season, and form on
the route, (whilst steamboating " it up
from St. Louis, or previously,) some
temporary organization for the benefit of
all.
By doing this, and appointing com
mittees to act for all, there will be little
danger, of what many fear, that undue
uaui vsi w Ajci a&aauj t.ai 9 wtab uuuuo I v j" . r r
advantages will be taken of them bTP4-- II ? &rjnore likely they were
tie and produce dealers at Kansas City
and elsewhere. Should impositions be
attempted, by deputing certain individ
uals of shrewdness and good judgment
to go to the towns a little removed from
the river borders and make the requisite
purchases, sellers will soon find it for
their interest to deal justly and act up
rightly ; and none but fair prices will be
demanded. In these cases, as in all oth
ers of doubt, take counsel of the Compa
ny s Agents, as your and their interests
are not antagonistic.
Modes or Communication. All let
ters sent to the care oi Csamuel U. I'ome
roy, Esq., Kansas City, Mo., will be for
warded, as opportunities offer, to the in
dividual's address. Those intended for
Lawrence, K. T., may be addressed di
rect, as a Post Office has been establish
ed there. In cases requiring more speed
communication, advantage can be taken
of the Telegraph, as an Office is estab
lished at Kansas City, by means of
which intelligence may be speedily con
veyed to, or received from all prominent
points throughout Hew England, the
Western, Middle, and Southern States.
Company's Aid. To Correct an error
that extensively prevails,- it is well td
state, what may be inferred from our in
troductory remarks, that the Company
furnishes no direct pecuniary aid to in-,
dividuals. Its mam objects are not
eleemosynary or charitable, in the ordi
nary acceptation of the" word, :but phi
lanthropic. It has not the mpans to as
sist, nor, had it, could its officers devote
the repuisite time to investigating the
merits of individual cases ; these must
be left to the care of the local auxiliary
Leagues which are recommended, if
they extend a helping hand, to aid, not
by gift, but by loan.
lhe Company s means hate been, and
if continued to theui, will be, employed
to encourage the formation of settlements,
and to advance the prosperity and pro
mote ine weiiare oi we various commun
ities that may be established i in a word,
to make, as far and as fast as possible,
each place, a settlement of freemen, by
introducing such convenierices, founding
and encouraging such institutions and es
tablishments, as now characterize New
England homes, and sudh as the true
principles of Freedom and the pure spirit
of Liberty invariably show are so essen
tial to the perpetuity of good Govern
ments, and prove absolutely -requisite
for securing arid sustaining the greatest
good of the greatest number. '
The Company deals with persons as
constituting Communities ; the Auxiliary
Societies or local Leagues deal With them
ra their individual capacities.
The importance of .publishing these
remarks as early as possible,- prevents our
replying to many other inquiries that
ha hpprf rrfciie of us. For the present.
at least, inquirers must therefore be re
ferred for additional intelligent to the
following authorities.. : -. . -. ' ' ;-
SOCBCES OT IirrXteMATION. NkWSPA-
Those who are des?rous - of pro
curing a large amount of infonndtion, at a
small expense, and of being kepi posted
tfpori Territorial iflairs,- should subscribe
fr. tha Kansas Herald of Freedom, pub
lished weeklf at Lawreribe, K. 1? . ; the1
fourteen numbers already issued contain a
greater quantity ci material erf a practical
character thari is dsewhere' to be found;
Br sendm address and. subscristidn,
82, J to the fc&cretarV, tho Paper will
n due time be forwarded. - - ' v
Books. Rev Edward E. Hale of
Worcester, Mass., has prepared a work
entitled Kansas and ebrasfcL and
Rev. C. lloynton, of Cincinnati, another,
styled " Journey through Kansas ;" both
of these deserve a perusal. Price of each
in paper covers, 50 cts; in cloth binding
75cts: y : - ; -Maps.
3b satisfactory .Map, has yet
appeared ; neither can an accurate one
be constructed until-, the Territory has
been surveyed.' A Map, which may
answer for general purposes, although it
presents many inaccuracies, has been
published by J; II. Colton, New York ;
price 25 cents. .Another one, which we
have riot seen, but judge to be at least as
good, from the character of the gentle
man by Whom it was constructed, Lieut.
S. Eastman, U. S. A;, has been more re
cently issued by a Philadelphia house.
Plans. A Plan of Lawrence has been
published from actual survey; price,
mounted and vanished, 81.25; in sheets.
on drawing paper, 73 cents ; on bank
note paper; suitable for mailing, 50 cents.
Any of the preceding may be had by
addressing the Secretary, postage paid,
inc losing me price, and it to De trans
mitted by mail, the amount of additional
cost,) in current money or postage
stamps. THOMAS H. WEBB, ...
becy of A , E. Aid Co.,
Boston, Mass.
Antiquities:
We havo now in our possession for
safe keeping and as a nucleus of a collec
tion of curiosities, scrub Tery curious and
singular articles made of copper. They
were found near the west shore of tho
river, about a mile above the mouth, at
a iditrx tthftrt .noria.Jt hrtckraril-and
these were disinterred by those digging
in search of good brick clay. After
taking off from the surface of the ground
about two feet of sand, the clay was ex
posed, and the stump of a tree was dis
covered. Digging still lower, about six
or eight inches into the clay, and over
turning the stump, these articles were
brought to lighti : - ; -
First, a copper spear, about fourteen
inches in length, and at its base a groovo
or dovetail is made, in which to insert a
wooden shaft or handle ; two other
spears each about twelfe inches, m
length, and similar to tho first' Third,
two pieces of copper that ha"d evidently
been very nicely forged,. but for what
purposes they could eter have been ap
plied is by no means plain, and it is quito
difficult to give in writing a clear de
scription of them. As good an idea of
their shape, however, can be got by sup
posing them to be the matrix in which
was cast one of the spears lhis is not,
however, the purpose to which they wero
used as cutticgitocls, hut then there is
no means apparent by which the imple
ment can be held, no place for fastening
it to a handle. Ihese are about fourteen
inches long, and two inches wide; lipon
one end there is the appearance of an
attempt to make a cutting edge. lhey
weigh about three pounds each, and are
specimens of good workmanship; -
The question naturally arises, who
made these things T Did the earliest
French discoverers make them ; or aro
they the work of a race long ago extinct,
the same who first opened these mines ?
It seems to us for we can only inf
dulge in speculation on the subject-that
these tools could not have been the work
of the Europeans who came here, for
they would not have made a tool like the
Lost two, about the use of -which wo"
should be ignorant. They are made of
copper, A material riot nearly so good as
iron or steel for cutting purposes, the
manufacture of which we are familiar
with, and would most likely, bring with
thent. ; ; : . '
Our Indians do not, nor hare they the
skill or implements to work so well any
metal, and they all are ignorant of tho
use of such tools. They havo among
them traditions of the existence of a raco
of men to whom they ascribe all the skill
necessary to accomplish these workings
we find at the mines, and. make the tools'
we now find:
That these tools are the work of those
who livdd here years ago Kiirii the more
likely from the place and position in
which they were found, being la the
strata of clay lyirig under the roots of a
sturdp, and about forty feet arjovo the
present level of the river and lake. The
tree had grown up since these articles
had been put there, and the deposit of
sand made above the clay to the depth of
two feet. To do that, the river arid tho
Like must have been forty feet higher
than its present level: This; cf course.
Was fears ago, before the memory of the
present races now inhabitingthls coun
try. Lake superior Mirting Aev!i;
Kansas Emigration.; r
The New- England Companies aro
making preparations for the. immediate
removal of a large" number of persons to
Kansas; Some sixty, left Easton; Pa.,
about the first of March ; about one
hundred and fifty left Pitubutgh by boat
direct on Saturday, amonrtg them Kev.
Joseph Cants and 'family. The Cincin
nati Colombian- says: .Negotiations
are now being made to procure a steam
boat to convey a large riumber of emi
grants frcni this placed as high a point
as can be reached on the Kansas river;
This will probably be Fort Biley. The
emigrants wish to start between the fif
teenth and twentieth of the rtesent month:
Among them will be one hundred", emi
grants from Darks and Preble counties.
nfty from Bourbon, county, Kentucky,
fifty Germans frotfl ; Ilarciiton. county
Ohio, and a party from Dayton.1 'Jiuji
Devtocraqf. ' ....
. .Xfo OoVerrimenti r . .
, It is stated, and we belie te corrrectly,
that Labrador, with a population of 20,
000 inhabitants, 'has nefthe governor,
rMgisrrate; c'oristablC fieri f lawyer i 7
Tiotence' and disorder .are . vicdvaim
amewg. them-a fact highly creditable
to their morals. Their chief occupation
is hunting . and fishing, the produce of
which is o1d chiefly 'to tins trader ftovi
the United States, from whom . they re
ceive the most of their supplies.

xml | txt