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VOL. IV. LITTLE ROCK, WEDNESDAY MORNING, DECEMBER S3, 1846. ————————-— ■■ — - - No. 16. PRESIDENT’S MESSA8EI r tthw l td*?*9 of th€ SiMte r'anJ lh*t' of Rrprfttutaltrtt : . me your labor* in ibe service of I be people " ^leclof conjtrewtaiion ibet there ha* been no " " V iur past history, when *11 the elemenl* ol n». ^'oir-r been *« folly Oevelloped. Since "4’' , rL,n no afflicting dispensation baa nailed ^ ,irv general good health b«» pieva.letf; abun rC |Vr»«t" 'l the toil of the liu»bendn.«n ; *nd J*nCCu a'! bianche. i. receiving an ample reward, . „ in all Its biancnc* i» jcuc*--» bTe education, ack nee. and the a.t* are papidly en. r .Il.e meainofaocial happinea*. The progre** Urging her career of greatneM, i»c*l only in l°“:.'r.en,!"n of our lerritor... Urn,., and the rajnd 0(„ur population, but in reaource. and wealth rHn the happv condition of our people, w wilhoul i- the history of nation*. ‘".'"''he wi«dotn, strength and beneficence of our free institution* ate unfolded, every day add. Ireah mot.ve. eminent. and fresh incentive* to patriotism, "our devout and stneere acknne lodgement. are due 4rtci0u. Giver of *11 good, for the numberlea* uewung. which our beloved country enjoy.. l"' source of high .atisf.otion to know that lha re t . „f ihe United Stale* with *11 other nation*, with Se iiception. .re ol .ha mo*, ammabl. character. K.ncfeely attached to 'he pdie* of peace, early adopt. 1 steadily pursued by tbi* government, 1 have ' Jslv desired to cultivate and cheri.hfriend.hip and commerce with every foreign power The .prr.t *nd habits of the American people .re favorable to Ihr maintenance uf such international harmony. In adhering to this wise policy, a preliminary and para mou it duty obviously consist* in the protection of nur national interest from encroachment, or aaciifice, and uur psi.ottal honor from reproach. Tbeae mini ha m/utttined *t any hazard. rhe> adm.t of no com. ™’mi* or neglect, and mu.t be scrupulously and con. ai.ntlv guarded. In their vigilant vindication, colli*. Ion and corlltet With foreign powei. may sometime, become unavoidable. Such ha. been our scrupulous adherence to the dictate, of jua.tce, in all our foreign intercourse, though ate.d.ly and rapidly advancing in prosperity and power, we have given no just cause of complaint to any n.t.on, and have enjoyed the ble*. sines of peace for more than thirty year*. From a po. |„ y ao sacred 10 hiimaniiy, and SO salutary in ita el led* upon our political syatem, we ahould never be induced voluntarily to depart. The existing war with Mexico waa neither desired n0, provoked by the Untied State.. On the conli.ry oil honorable means was resorted to, to avert it. After veers of endurance of aggravated and unredreaeed wrongs on our part, Mexico, in violation of aolemn treaty Stipulations, and of every principle of jyalice recognized by civilized nations, commenced hoatilniea, and thus, by her own act, forced the war upon us. Long before the advance ol our army to the left bank of the Rio Grande, we had ample cause of war against Mt.ro: and had the United Statea ethorted to thie extremity, we might have appealed to the whole civil, tied world for the juat ice of our cause. 1 deem n to be my duty to prcaenl to you, on lb* present occasion, a coudenaed review of the injuries we had sustained, of the cause, which led to the war, ,nd of II* progresa Sint e its commencement. I lua la rendered the more necessary, lwcai.se of the mtaappre hensiona which have to some extent prevailed aa to ita origin and true character. The war haa been repre. sented aa unjust and unnecessary, as one of aggres. non on our part upon a weak and injured enemy. Such erroneous views, though entertained by few, have ken Widely and extensively circulated, not only at home, but have been spread throughout Mexico and ihe whole world. A more effectual mean* couU not have been devised to encourage the enemy and pro. tract the war, than to advocate and adherejo then cause, and thug give them “ aid and comfort. It is a source ol national pride and exultation, that the great body of our people have thrown no auch ob. sticks in the way of the government tn prosecuting ihe war aucceasfully. but have shown ibemaelve. to be eminently patriotic, and ready to v.nd.cale their country’s honor and intereata, at any sacrifice, i he alacrity and promptness with which our volunteer lorees rushed to the fielJ, on their country’, call, prove • C els.An rnnvirlinn that our cause is juat, . , .. The wrong* wl.icb we h»ve suffered from Mexico almost ever .inee .be became an independent power and .he pahent endu.ance -ith which we have borne them,...without, parallel in the bt.tory of modern and civilized i.aio.ns. There i» reason to believe that if these wrongs had been re«ented and resisted in the first instance, the present war might have been avoid, ed. One outrage, however, permitted to pasa with impunity, almost necessarily encouraged the perpe tration of another, until at last Mexico seemed to al tribute to weaklier* and indecision ,on our part a or bearance which was the offspring of magnanimity, and of a sincere desire to preserve friendly relation* with a sister republic. . . . . ,_ Scarcely had Mexico achieved her independence, which the I'nited Stales were among the first to ac. knowledge, when she commenced the ay-tero of insult and spoliation, which she haa ever eince pursue . ur c.dzens engaged «n lawful commerce were imprisoned, .heir vessel, sctxed, and our flag insulted in her pons. II money was w.nted the lawless tenure and confia cation of our merchant vessel, and their cargo*, wa. • ready resource ; and if to accomplish their purposes it beet me necessary to impriaonthc owner*, captains, and crew., it was done. Rulers superseded rulers in Mex.co in rapid succession, hut .1.11 there was no change in this system of depredation. I he govern larut of the U. States made repeated reclamation, nn behalf of its citizens, but these wer* answered by JM peipetrauon of new . uirsgea. Promise, ol redrew made by Mexico in the most aolemn forms wer* po*t pontd or evaded. The file* »«•<* record, of the Ue partmcnl of Sine contain conclusive proof. oT numer ous lawless act* perpetrated upon the property and persons of our citizens by Mexico, and of wanton in. suits to our national flag. The interposition of our government to ubtatn redrew wa* again and ',l* vokrd, under circumstance* which no nation ought to disregard. . \_,, ..j that Mexico would be restrained by ibt l»«* which regulate of civilized nation* »n thei# iiilifcoum with each other after tlie treaty of *nmy« coin* rnerce and navigation, of the 5th April, 1831, wta con cluded between the two republic*; but thia hope aoon proved tube tn vain. The course ol acizure and coo fiscatton of the property of our citizen*, the violation* ol their persons and the insults O our fl*g pursue y Mexico previous to that time were scarcely appended forevena brief period, although the treaty to clearly defines the right* snd dunes of she respective paritee that it is impossible to misunderstand or mistake them. In leaa than seven yesrs after the conclusion of that treaty our grievances had become so intolerable that, "in xbe opinion ol President Jackson, they should no fjoger be endured. In his message to Congress, Feb ruary, 1837, he pretexted them to the consideration of that body, and declared that “ The length of time since ao.ne of the injuries have been committed, the repeat ed and unavailing application for redrea*, the wanton character of some of the outrages, upon the property ■rid persona of our citizens, upon the officers and flag of the United State*, independent of recent insult* to tint government and people by the late cxtiaordmary Mexican minister, would justify m the eye* ol all na> 1 (»n* immediate war.” In a spirit of kindness and forbearance, however, h# *' mmended reprisal* as a milder mode of radrea*.— U' declared that war should not ba uaed aa a remedy, “*>y just and generous nation* confiding if) tkeir s'rengih for injuries committed, il it can be honorably • voided,” and added, “it has occurred to me that, con •Hering »he present ernbarraaaed cujjditfon of that f >untry, by giving Mexico one more opportunity to mone for the past, before we take rgdreaa into our own Hands, To avoid all misconception, on the part of Mexico, as well a» to protect our national character boin reproach, this opportunity should be given with 'He avowed design and fujf preparations to lake imme* Qiate satisfaction, if it «|»ould not be obtaioed on a re Iittitiuii oi the demand'for it. To thi:. end 1 recoin n»*nd ihAt an act hr pissed authorizing reprisals, and the use of ihe naval force of the United Siatea, by the hiecutive, against Mexico, to enforce them in the ,,tnl of § rtfusal lo the Mexican government to come ,0 an anurable adjustment of the matter* in eoniro* '•ray ovtween u*, upon another demand thereof, made bom on hoaid one of our vessels of war on the coaat °f Mexico. Committee* of both Houses of Congiess, to which this message of this President was referred, fully aua timed hi* view* of the character of ihe wrong* which ** htd suffered from Mexico, god re commended that mother demand for redress should be made before an. (hunting war or reprieala. The committee on Foreign Relatione of the Senate, in their report, cap, “Alter Mich a demand, ebuuld prompt justice be reftwed (by the Mexican government, we may appeal to all oa* none, not only for the equity and moderation with which we have acted toward* a enter Republic, bat for the neceaeity which will time compel ue to eeek redreee for our wronge theieby by actual war or re priaala. The subject will then be proeented before Congress, at the commencement of tbe neat aeaaion, in a cltar and diattnet form; and the committee can not doubt but that auch meat urea will be immediately adopted at may be neceeeary to vindicate the honor of our country, and inaure ample reparation to our in jured citiiens." The committee on Foreign Aflaira of tbe Hooac of Representatives, made a similar recommendation. In their report, tbay aay that they “fully concur with ibu President, that ampla causa sxiats for taking redress into onr own hands, and bclieva that we ehould be jollified in the opinion of ether nelione for taking auch a step. But they ars wilting to try tbs experiment of another demand, mad# iu tbe most solemn form, upon the justice ol the Mexican government, before aay further processings ere adopted.” No difference of opinion upon the aubject ie believed to have excited in Congress at that time. The Execs, ties and Legislative departments concurred; and ytt such has been our forbearance, and desire to preserve peace with Mexico, ihat the wronge of which we then complained, and which gave rise to these solemn pro- ' ceedinga, not only remain unredreeeed to this day, hot additional causes of complaint, ol an aggravated char actar, have ever since been accumulating. Shortly after these-proceedings, a special meaaaagai was despatched to Msxico, to make a final redress; and on the 30th of July. 1837, tbe demand was made. Tbe reply ol the Mexican government bean data an the 39ib of the same month, end ceiiuiae assurance of the “anxious with” of tha Mexican government “not to delay the moment of that final sad eqnitable adjustment which it to terminate the existing difficul ties between the two governments;" that “nothing should be left undone which may contributs to the most speedy and equitable determination of the sub jects which have so seriously engaged the attention of the American government," that ibe “Mexican guv eminent would adopt, aa tbs only guides for Ha con duct, the plainest principle* of public right, the sacred obligations imposed by internal law, sod tba religious faith of ireaues;" and that “wbalevsr reason and jus tics may dictata respecting each case, will be done." The aseuranc* wa* further given, that the decision of he Mexican government, upon each cause of com plaint, lor which redress had been demanded, ehould be communicated to the government of the U. Slates, by the Mexican Minister at Washington. These solemn assurances, in answer to our demand for redress, were disregarded. By making them, how ever, Mexico obtained further delay by President Van Bureti, in his annual message to Congress of the fifth December, 1837, state*, that “although the larger number” of oar demands for redress, and many of them aggravated caeca of peisonal wrongs, have been now for yean before the Mexican government, and some of the causes of national complaint, and those of the moot offensive character, admitted of immediate, simple, end satisfactory replies, it is only within a few days past that any specific communications in answer to our last demand, made five monthe ago, he* been received from the Mexican Minister," and that, “for nol one of our public complaints has satisfaction been given or offered, that but one of the case* of personal wrong hat been favorably considered, end that bet four cases of both description*, out of all those formal ly presented, aud earnestly pressed, here a* yat been derided noon bv the Mexican ffovernment." President Vss Buren, believing that it would be vain 10 make any farther attempt to obtain redress by the ordinary means within the power of the Execotue, communicated his opinion to Congress in the message referred to, in which he said, “on a careful and delib erate examination of the contents,*’ (of the eorreepon. dence with the Mexican government,} “and coneder ing the spirit manifested by the Mexican government it lias become my psinfnl duty to return the subject as now stands in Congress, to whom it belongs, to decide upon the time, the mode and the measure of redress." Had (he United States at that time adopted compul sory measures, and taken redress into their own hands all our difficulties with Mexico would probably have been long since adjusted, and the existing war have been averted. Magnanimity and moderation on our part only had the effect to complicate these difficulties and render amicable settlement of them the more em barrassing. That sixth measures of redress under sim ilar provocations, committed by any of the powerful nations of Europe, would have been promptly resorted to by the United States, cannot be doubted. The na. tiooal honor, and the preservation of the national character throughout the wo, Id, as well as our own self respect and the protection due to our own citixens, would have rendered such a resort indispensable. The history of no civilised nation in modern times, has presented in so brief a period, so many wanton at tacks upon the honor of its flag, and upon the property and persona of its citixens as had at that tinis been borne by the United States fiom the Mexican authori ties and people. But Mexico was a sister Republic, on the North American continent, occupying a terri. lory contiguous to our own, and was in a feeble and distracted condition; and these considerations, it is presumed, induced Congress to forbear still longer. Instead of taking redress into our owu hands a new negotiation was entered into upon fair promises on the part of Mexico, but with the real purpose, as the event has proved, of indefinitely postponing the reparation which we demanded, aod which was so justly due.— This negotiation, after more than a year’s delay, re. suited in the convention of the 11th April, 1839, “for the adjustment of claims of citixens of the U. 8tates of America, upon the government of the Mexican Re. public." The joint board of commissioners created by the convention to examine and decide upon these claims, was not organised until the month of August, 1840, under the terms of Ibe convention, they were to terminate ibeir duties w ithin eighteen months of that lime. Four of the eighteen montha were con. sumed in preliminary discussions on frivolous and dila. lory poioie raised by the Mexican commissioners ; and it was not until the month of December, 1840, that they commenced the examination of the claims of our citixens upon Mexico. ruunecn munm* wnij ictiwhwh — cide upon ilim numerous and complicated cates. In the mnnih of February, 1843, the term of the commis sion expired, leavmp many claims undisposed of lor want of lime. The claims which were allowed by the board, and by the umpire anthoiiaed by the convention to deride in case of di.sgrterr.cS! between the Mexi can and Ametiean commissioners, amounted to two million, twenty-six thousand ooe hundred and thirty nine dollars and siity.eifht cents. There ware pend ing before the umpire, when the commission expired, additional claims srhich had been examined and awarded by the American commiseionera, and had not been allowed by the Mexican eommiasionem, amouu. ling io nine hundred and twenty-tighl thousand, aix hundred and twcnty.aeven dollars and eighty-eight cents, upon which he did not decide, alleging that his authority had crassd with ihs termination of the pint commission. fit sides these claims, there were others of American citizens amounting to three miliums, three hundred end thirty six thousand eight hundred and thirty seven dollars and live cents, which bad bean submitted to the Duard, and upon which they had not lime to de ride before their final adjournment. The sum of two million twenty aix thousand one hundred and thirty nine dollars and sixty right cents, which bad been awarded to the claimants was a liqui 1 dated and ascertained debt due by Mexico, about ' which there could be no dispute, and which she was 1 bound to pay according to the terms of the convention. 1 Soon alter the final awards for this amount had been made, ihe Mexican government asked for a postpone. | meni of tho lime of making payment, alleging that it j would be inoouvsnient to make the payment at the | tune etipulated. In the epirit of I >rbeari«g kindness j towards a sister Republic, which Mexico has so long sbusd, the U. States promptly complied with her re. quest. A second convention was accordingly conclu ded between the two governments on the 13th of Jan uary, 1813, which upon ils face declares that ibia “new arrangement entered into for the accommodation of Mexico.** By tha terms of this eoneeetion, all tba in terest dus on the awards which bed been in favor ol the claimants under the convention of tbs 11th of April, 1839, was to be paid to them on (be 30th of April, I 1843, and “the principal of tba said awards, and tfis i interest accruiug thereon," was stipulated to “be in five rest*, iii equal instalments evory three months.” Not. withstanding this new contention cm colored into oi tko request of Mexico, and for (he po.-poee of ielteein( •wr from embarrassment, the claim an (a have only is caivad tha iniareai doe oa the 30ib of April, 1849, and ibraa of the twenty ioacatmaola. Although tba payment of iba aoai thoa liquidated ami confessedly dao tty Mexico to our citixene, aa iudamoi' ty for acknowledged acta <>f outrage and wrong, wat aaearad by treaty, the obligatioua of which are oeai bald sacred by all just nation*, yet Jfasieo bae violated »bia aulemn engagement by faihog and refusing Ui make the payment. Tha two inetalmente doe in April and July, 1844, under tba peculiar circumstances connected with them, bare bean aaeumed by the II. Stataa, and discharged to tha claimant*, but they are •till due by Mexico. But tbia ie not all, of which we bare juet cauae of complaint. To provide a remedy for tba claimants whose caora were net decided by tba joint commission under the Convention of Apnl 11 ih, 1899, it wee expreeeiy stipulated by the sixth ar. tide of the Convention of the 30’h of Jnnusry, 1849, that, “a new Convention ahall be entered into for ibe aeitlemanl of all claimeof the government and ciiixem of the U. Siaiee tgainat the Republic of Af-vteo, wbicli were not finally decided by the late eonimissitn which mot in the City of Waabington, end of all claims of the government and citixena of Mexico agaiuel the United States." By a sweeping decree of a Congress subservient to tha will of ibe dictator, the several State constitutions warn abolished, end the States themselves converted into mere departments of the Central government.— The people of Teaae were unwilling to ihia usurpation. Resistance to euch tytanny became a high duty. Tex. as was folly absolved from all allegiance to ibe Can. tral Government of Mexico fiorn the moment that gov. ernment had abolished her 8tate constitution, and in its place subelituted an arbitrary sod despotic Central government. Such were the principal causes nf the Texas revolu tion. The people of Texas at once determined upon rested nee and flew to arms. Io lbs midst of these im. portsnt end exciting events however, they did not ontit to place their liberties upon a secure and permanent foundation. They elected members to a convention, who, io the month of March, 1896, issued e formal de. ftaratton that their "political connection with the Mex. lean nation haa forever ended, and that the people of Texas do now constitute a free, sovereign, end inde pendent republic," and ere fully invented with ell the rights end attributes which properly belong to “inde pendent nations." They also adopted for their govern ment a liberal republican constitution. About the earns time Send Anna, then the Dicdtor of Mexico', invaded Texas with e numerous army for the purpose of subduing her people, and enforcing obedience to his arbitrary and despotic government. On the 21st ol April, 1896, he wee met by the Texan citiaen soldiers, and on that day waa achieved by them the memorable victory of 8an Jacinto, by which they conquered their independence. Considering the numbers engaged in the respective sides, history does not record a more brilliant achievement, Sand Anna himself was among the captives. i. -f u.. town a. k_.1 edged, bjr a treaty with the Texan authorities, in the moat solemn form, “the full, entire and perfect inde pendence of the Republic of Texas.” ft is true he was then a prisoner of war, but it is equally true he failed to conquer Texas, and had met with signal defeat; that his authority had not been revoked, and that by virtue of this treaty be obtained his personal release. By it hostilities were suspended, and the army which had invaded Texas under his command returned in pursu ance of this arrangement, unmolested to Mexico. % From the day that the battle of Ban Jacinto was ■ought until the present hour, Metioo has never pos sessed the power to re-conquer Texas. In the Ian goage of the Secretary of State of the United States, in a despatch to our Minister in Mexict^nder date of tbe eighth of July, 1843, " Mexico may have chosen to consider and may stiff choose to consider Texas as having been, at time* since 1835. and a* still contiou. ing, a rebellious province, but tbe world has been obliged to take a very different view of the matter.” From the time of the battle of San Jacinto, in April, 1836, to the present moment, Texas has exhibited the same external signs of national independence as Mex. ico herself, and with quite as much stability of liov. ernment. Practically free mid independent, acknowledged as a political sovereignty by all the principal powers of the world, no histile foot finding rest within her trrri. lory for six or seven years, aud Mexico herself refrain, ing for all that period front any further attempt to re. establish her own authority over the territory, it can. not but be surprising to find Mr. de Roncanerga, (the secretary o.'Foreign Affaire of Mexico,) “ complaining that for the whole period, citixens of the United Slates, or its government have been favoring tb c rebels of Texas, and supplying them with vesaela, ammunition and money, aa if the war for the reduction of the pro. vttice ofTexaa.had been conatanlly ptoaecuied by Mex. ieo and success prevented by these influences from abroad:” In tbe aatne despatch, the Secretary of State affirms that “since 1837 the United 8tatea have re girded Texts at an independent sovereignty , as much as Mexico; and that trade and commerce with citixens of a government at war with Mexico, cannot, on that account, be regarded aa an intercourse by which as sistance and succor are given to Afexican rebels. The whole current uf Mr. de Bocanerga’s remarks run in the same direction aa if the independence of Toxae had not been acknowledged. It baa been acknowledged —it waa acknowledged in 1837 .against the remori. airancea and protcat of Mexico; and most of the acta of any importance, of which Mr. Bocanerge complains, flow necessarily from that recognition. He speaks of Texaa »• still being “an integral part of tbe territory of the Mesican Republic,” but he can. not but understand that the United States do not so regard it. The real complaint of Mesico, therefore, ia, in substance, neither more nor leas than a complaint against the recognition of Texas, independence. It may be thought rather late to repent that complaint, and not quite juat to confide it to the United States, to the exemption of England, France, and Belgium, tin lea* the United Slates having been the first toecknuwl. edge the independence of Mexico herself, are to he blamed for setting an example for the recognition of that of Texaa. And he added, that “the constitution, public treaties, the laws oblige the President to regard Texaa as an independent state, and ita territory ae no part of the territory of Mexico." Texaa hae been an independent elate, with an organised government, de fying the power of Mexico to overthrow or reconquer her for more then ten years before Mexico commenced the present war against the United Slates. Trias hid given such evidence to tbe world of her ability to maintain ber separate existence aa an independent na tion, that sue had btefi formally recognised as such, not only by tha United Statee, but by several of the principal powers of Eurupe. I., o.sskf.irmiiv with ilufl at imitation, a third convert lion m concluded and signed ai the Cuy <>l .Mexico on the SWih day of November, 1843. by the plempo. tenliariee of the two governments by which provision waa made for ascertaining end paying those claima— In January, 1844, this convention waa ratified by the Senate of the United Siatei, with two aniciidmei.u which were manifeally reasonable in their character. Upon a reference of the amendinenia prop.wed to the government of Mexico, the aame evasions, difficulties, and delay* were interpoeeJ which have so loll/ marked the policy of that government lowarda the U. Stale*, ll ha* not eveo yet decided whether ii would or would not accede to them, although the subject ha* been re peatedly preaeed upon i’.a coneideralton. Mexico has thus violated a second time the faith of treaties, by failing or refusing to carry into effect the sixth article of the Convention of January, 1843. 8 jcb i* a history of the wrongs which we have auf fered and patiently endured from Mexico, through a I ong serie* of year*. So far from a IT .rding reasonable satisfaction for the injuries and intuit* we had borne —a great aggravation of them consist* in tbe fact, that while the Untied Slate*, antious lo preserve a good understanding with Mexico, have eonaianily, hut va*n ly employed in seeking rsdrea* for past wrongs, new outrages war* constantly occurring, which have con tinned to increase our cau,oa of complsmt, end to swell tbe smount of oar demands. While the eitiaena of the United Slates Were conducting a lawiul co - . merce with A/hxico, tinder tbe guaranty of a tieaty ,<l “amity, c.xnmerce, and navigation," many of thaaa have suffered all the injuries which would have result ed from optn war. Tina steely, instead of affording proteeliaa to our eitixeus, b»* been til* w.eans of in vtnng them into the porta of Mexico, that they be, at they have fceeu in numerous instance*, piuodered o 1 their property, end deprived of their perwunl tiber'l if ibojrdarMiMiri.aUMirngbs. Bad the u*Li*fe< MisaM of Amimu property end the trials no* of par. MMl liberty of ear eittaeae, te toy nevhiwg of Um ia. •“lie to oar Itf which here occurred ia rite parte of Moxtco, take* piece as ike high mm, they voeM tkemeeleea loo* sines here souewiuted • etaie of oc. MMl wer between the tw« eeeatrice. Ie ee long ref. frring Mexico le viofate her most solemn tree ty of oh. ligetieite, plunder oar cJttxcue of their druperty, end iafgiecm their pemuus, without affording them any to. ddMe, we here faded te perform one of the Cm end highest deliea which every government ok re to tt* citfaenu; end tha conteijucnce bee been that many of them here bene reduced from e irate iflhmnt to bankruptcy. The proud name of American ciitxen which ought te protect all whe bear it from iaaelt and iejory throughout tha wo,Id, hat affTerdcd au tech pi<r tection to our eitteeaa ie Mexico. Wo had aetpie cause of wer egaiael Mexico lung before the breaking oat of hostilities. Bet even then we lor bore te take redreee in our ewe hoods, unitl Mexico herself he. came the eggreeeor, by invsdtng oar soil in hostile ar ray, and shedding the Mend of <nor citisene. Such are the grace causes of complaint on the pen of the United Slates agaiaat Mexico-—causes which existed long before the aneeaeiion of Texas to the U. Street end yet, animated by the love of peace, end e taagseaimoue moderation, we did not adopt those save earee of tsdraas which, andrr sack circumstances, ere the justified resort of ntjared set ion*. Tha annexation ef Texas to the United States con. atituted no jest causa ef offence to Mexico. The pre text that it did so ia wholly inconsistent, and irtscon. citable with tha well am booties tad tecta connected with the revolution by which Texet became independ ent of Mexico. Thai tbie may be the more manifest, it ntay he proper te advert to the causae and to the history of the principal events of that revolution. Texas conciliated s portion of the ancient province of Louisiana, ceded to the United States by France in the year 1803. in the year 1819, tha U. States, by the Florida treaty, ceded to Spain all that part of Louis, tans within the present limits of Texas; and Mexico, by the revolution which separated bar (rum Spain, and rendered her an independent nation, succeeded to the rights of the mother country over this territory. In the )ear 1894, Mexico estebliebed x federal constitu tion. under which the Mexican trpublic wee composed of a number of eovereign .States, confederated togeth er in n federal Uuion similar to our own. Each of these Slates bad its own Executive, legislature and judiciary, and for aH, except federal purposes, was as independent of the general government, and that of the other States, aa ia Pennsylvania or Virginia under our constitution. Texas and Cos bulls uoited and for med one of these Mexican States. Tha Slate coneti. lotion which they adopted, and which was approved by the Mexican confederacy, asserted that they ware “free and independent of the other Mexicaa United States, and of every other power and dominion what soever,” aud proclaimed the great principle of human liberty, that **ihlt sovereignty ol the State resides origi. nslly end essentially in the general mam of individuals who compose h." To the government under this constitution, aa well aa to that under the federal consti. failinti iks MnnU <if Tstffi itttfd allfoinnm Emigrant! from Foreign coumnee, including the U. Stater, were invited by tbe colonisation laws of the Dllte and of the Frdhral government to eetllc in Traea. ’ Advantageous terma were offered to induce them to leave their own country and become Mexican citizcna. Thin invitation waa accepted by many of our citiaene, in the full faith that in their new home they would be governed by lawa enacted by representatives elected by themselves, and that their livea, liberty and properly would be protected bv constitutional guarantees simi lar 10 those which existed in tee republic they had ten. Under a government thus organised, they continued until the year 1435, when a military revolution bruit out in the city uf Meaico, which entirely subverted the federal and alata constitutions, and placed a military dictator at the head of the government. These powers had entered into treaties of amity,, comnaorce and navigation with her. They had rrcet vedand accredited her minister* and diplomatic agents at their respective courts, and they had comtniaaiontd ministers and diplomatic agents on their pari to the government of Texas- If Mexico, nutwsthstaudi'ig all ibis, and her utter inability tu subdueor reconquer Texas, still atubornly refused to recognise her aa an independent nation, ebe waa none the leaf so on that accu'int. Mexico herself had been recognised as an independent nation by the United States, and by other powers, many years before Spain, of which, before her revolution, she htui been a colony, would agree to recognise her as such; and yet Mesiro was at that time in the rsitmstiop of the civilised world, end in fact, none of the lea* an independent power, because Spain still claimed her aa a colony. II Spain bad cuu linued, until tbe present period that Mexico was one of her colonies in rebellion against her, ibis would not make her eo, or change the lact of her independent existence. Texas, at the period of her annexation to the United State*, bore the same relation to Mexico that Mexico had borne to Spain for many years before Spain acknowledged her independence, with tins tin. portent difference,—ihal before the annexation of Texas to the United Slain was consummated, Mex ico herself, by a formal act of her governmsn’, had acknowledged the independence ot Texas as a nation. It i* true, that in the act of recognition, the presetibe* a condition which she had no power or authority to impose, that Texas should not annex herself to any other power, but this could not detract in any degree from the recognition which Mexico then made of her independence. Upon this plain statement of facta, it is abiuid for Mexico to alledge,as a pretext for com mcncing hoetilitiea against tbe United Stales, that Texas is a part of her territory. • But there are those who, conceding all this to be true, amiime the ground that the tiue western bounds, ry of Texas it the Neuces, instead of the Rio Giande ; and that, therefore, in marching our army to the eaai bank of the latter river, wa passed the Texas line, and invaded ibe territory of Mexico. A simple statement of facta, known to exist, will conclusively refuie such an assumption. Texas, a* ceded to tha United Stairs by France in 1803, baa been always claimed aa extend, ing west to tbe Rto Grande, or Rio Bravo. This fact is established by the authority of our moat eminent statesmen, at a period wbeu the question was as well if not better understood than at present. During Mr. Jefferson'* administration, M***r*. Mon. roe and Pinckney, who h»d been tent on ■ special mission to Madrid, charged, wnb other Ibinga, with the adjustment of boundary between the two couniriea, in a nuts addreaaed lo the Spanish Mmisierol Foreign Affair*, uodai dale of lha twemy-eighth January 1805, assert that the boundaries of Louisiana, as ceded to the Untied States by Fiance, " are the river Pcidwto on the east, and the river Bravo on the weal; ” and they add, that *' the facte end principle* which justify this conclusion arc so satisfactory to our Government as It convince it that the United States have not a better right to ibe island of New Orleans, under the cession referred to than they has* to tbs whole district of ter. ntoiy which is above described." Down to the con elusion of the Florida treaty in February, 1819, by which this tenitory tea* ceded lo Spam, the United Slates asserted and maintained their territorial right* 10 iht* extent. In ths month of June, 1818, during Mr. Monroe's administration, information having been rrceived that a number of fereigu advealurcis had iunded at Galves. ton, with the avowed purpose ol I •rnniig a ssitlemeni in that vicinity, a special messenger wav dtepa.thcd by the government of the United States, with instruc tions from the Secretery of Slste to warn them to dt sun, should they be lound 'here " or eny other piece north of the Rio llrsvo, end within the territory denn ed by (he United States." lie *es instructed should they be I mud in ihe country north of the ritree, to make known to them “the surprise with which ihe Prasi. dim lias seen possession thus taken without authority from the United Slates, of a place wiibin their leintori at limits, and upon which no Uwlul settlement cen be made without their sanction.” lie was iitotrucit-d U call upon them lo " avow under what national author i ,iy they profess lo act," and to give them due waruuif ! •• that the placa is within the United Slates, who wn \ suffer no permanent settlement lo be medc there, un ! der snv authority o'ber then their own " As tele at the 8th of July, 1819, the Secretary of State of th< United State#, in a note addressed to our minister ti Mexico, maintain* that, by ihe Florida treaty of 1819 the territory so lar west as the Rio Grande wa* con filmed to Spain. In that not* he stale* that " by th< treaty of (he 49J February. 1*1». between the Unit* States and Spam, tbe Sabine was adopted as the Ins of boundary between the two countries. Up to (he period, no conaideiabla colonisation had been effects in Texas, but tba territory between <bf 6»btne and tb Gteadb Mmt confirmed to Homi by the imi?. i^ftwaiioM «m mad* H that power for grams ef tM4i sod toeb grants, Of permissions «(miI«mm, war* m feet Mfo bp the Spanish aetfcoemes in faeorwf cnisrnt of dm United State* proposing to emigrate to Texes ia Mmmn families, brf .ro tin demists lion of independence »y Mexico.” Tbo Tnaa which was ceded to Spat* by tbs Fieri, da treaty of Wit, embraced sH tbo country now claimed by ibb State uf Tcaaa, between tbo Nearer and the Rio Grande. Tbo republic »f Texas always claimed this river ae her western boundary, and ia bet treaty made with Santa Ann* in May, IMfi.botecog ataed it ae each. By tbe Ceutiitutiua which Trisa adopted in March, IKK, senatorial and rrpreeoniative die trie la were organised, e*tc tiding weal of the N cures. The Congress of JVaas, on ibe 19th of December. I8SC, peered “An act to define tbe republic of Texas,” ia which they declared the Rio Grande from its mouth in its source, to be ifceif'bwtiadery, and by tba earn act they extended their “ eieil and political jurisdiction” oeer the coootry up to that boundary. During • pa. riod uf mere then nine yearn, which intervened be tween the adoption of her coneiituima end her annex ation aa one >4 the State* of our Unto*, Texas asset ted aud exercised many acta of sovereignty and junedbtia* oeac tbs temtnry and inhabitants went of the Nw*ess. Sha mgauixed and defined the limits nf craortas r*. tending to the Rio Glands. She established courts of jueiice, snd extended her judicial system ever the | territory. She established a custom-house, and col. lecled dunes,snd also port offices snd post roods in it. She establish'd a land office, snd issued numerous grants for land, within its limits, A Senator snd s Representative residing m it, wrre elected to tbs Con gress of the RepaMic, and'served as such bcf.tre the act of annexation took piece. In both the Congress and Convention of Texts which give their assent to thu terms of annexation to tbs U. States, proposed by our Congress, were r«|ce senta'tves residing went of the Nueces, who took pen in the set of annexation itself. This was the Texas which, by tbe act of our Congress uf the twenty.ninth of December, 1815, was admitted aaone of tl^ States of ver Union—That the Congress of the L'oittd State understood the State of Texas which they admitted into the Union to extend beyutid the Narco* is appa rent from the fact, that on the thirty fits! of December, !845, only two days after the act of admirsinn, they pssssd a law “to establish a collection district in the i Stats of Texas," by which they crested a port of de. I livery uf Corpsa Christi, situated west of the Nuerea, I and being the same point at which the Texas custom, house, under the laws of that republic, had been luca. ted, and directed thsr a suiveyor to collect the irvenue should be appointed fur that port by thu Prrstdt-ni, by and with tbe advice and consent of tbs Senate. A surveyor wa* accordingly nominated and confirmed by tbe Senate, and has been ever since in the performance of his dunes. All these acts of the republic' of Texas, and of our Congress, preceded the orders for the ad vance of our army lo the cast bank of the Kio Grande. Subsequently, Congress passed an set ‘Vstsblishmg : certain post routes,’* extending st>t id the Nueces. pail of dm of the Congressional dispirit of Texas and ia represented iu the IIdum of Representatives The Senator* from ihai Slain wric chosen by a legra lature in which the country a cat of itiia river was rep rearnied.—In view of all three facia, ii ia difficult to conceive upon what (round it can be mainaioed that in occupying the country weal of the Nitrera with our army, wiih a view aulrly to in eecurily and defence, we invaded the territory of Mrtico. But it would have been still more difficult to justify die Executive, whose dmy it n to tee that the las t be faithfully eases, ted, if in the face of all tbeae proceeding*, both of the Congers* of Teaaa and of the U. Statca, lie had aa. aunied the reapunaibility of yielding up the territory west uf the Nuecea to Mciieo, or of rrfu-ing to pro. tect and defend thie territory and M* inhabitants, inclu. dtng Corpus Chiialt. aa well aa ibe reiuoindtr of Teaaa, against the threatened Mexican invasion. Out Meaico brtsclf lias never placed the war which she baa waged upon the grounds that our army occu pied the intermediate territory betw een the Nuccea and the IUo Grande. Her refuted pretention* that Texas was not in fact an indapendent State, but a rebellious province, waa obstinately persevered in, end her avowed purpose in commencing a war with the United States waa to re.conquer Texas; and to resioie Mexi can authority over the whole territory, not to the Nua. cat only, but to the Sabine. In view of ibe pi oc I* nurd ntrnancea of Meaico to this effect. 1 denned it my du. ty, aa a measure of precaution and defence to order our army to occupy a position on our frontier as a military post, from winch our troops could beat resist and repel any anampied invasion which Mexico might make. Our army bad occupied a position at Corpus Cliritti, west of ibe Nuacea, aa early aa Augun, 1843, without complaint from any quariar. flad die li-jaew been re. garded aa the true western boundary ut Teaaa. ib.i boundary had been passed by our army many month* before it advanced to the eastern bank of the Rio Grande. In my annual message of December l.isi, I informed Congress that Upon invitation of both the Congress and Convention of Teaaa, 1 had dfemed it proper to order a strong squadron to the coast ol Mexico to concen trate an efficient military force on ilia VVearern frontier of Texas, to protect and defend the inhabitant* against the mrnanred invasion of Mexico. In ibat message I informed Congreas that the moment the terms ut an. nexation offered by the United Stales waa accepted by Texas, the lattar became so furs part of our own coun. try aa to make it our duty to afford aucb protection and defence; and for that puipoac our squadron had been otdered to the Gulf, and our artnv “to take a position between tbe Nuecea and the l)cl Norte,"or Rio Grande, and, "to repel any invasion of the Texan territory which might be attempted by the Mexican fotce*'" It was proper to lessen Ibis order, because, soon af ter, tbe President of Texas, in April, 1S45, had issued his proclamation convening llie Congress of that re public, for the purpose of submitting to that body tbe terms of annexation proposed to the United States, the Mexican government made serious threats of inva ding the Trxian teriitory. These threat became more imposing as it became more apparent, in the progress of the question, that the people of Texas would de. ctde in favor of accepting the terms of annexation, and. finally, they had assumed such a formidable char ter, as induced both the Congee** ami Convention of Texas to tequeat that a military force should be sent by the United State* into her territory for the purpose of defending her against the threatened invasion. It would have been a violation of good faith toward* the people of Texas to have refused to afford tbe aid which they desired against a threatened invasion, to which they had been exposed hy Ihelr fr*. (bUtwlutis* to annex themselves to our Union, ui rnauphsure with the overture made to them by tbe joint lesoiulion id our Congress. Accordingly, a portion ol the army was ordered to advance into fexas. CorpnsChrUti #n the position (elected by Gen. Taylor. He encamped at Ova! place in August, IStJ, and the array remained in that poai tioii until the Ilth March, IMd, when it was moved westw ard, and on tlie 2r»th of that month reached the east bank of the Rio Granite opposite to Matamoiaa. This movement was made in pursuance of orders from (lie War Department, issued on the |:<th January, 1S48. Before these orders were issued, the despatches , of our minister in Mexico, traiumitting the decision ! of the Council of Government of Mexico, advising i that he should not be received, end also tha despatch t of our consul residing in the city of Mexico—the for mer bearing date on the l?th, and the latter on the t&th December, ISO, coni s of both of which accompani ed my message to Congress of the I Itli May last— Were received at the Dvpaitinent ol" State. These communications rendered it highly probable. H oot ab solutely certain, that our minister would not be recei ved by the g w eminent of lien. Ilrirera. It was atac well known that but little hope could be entertained i of a dillerent result from Gen. Parades in case the mo I lutionary movement n Inch he was prosecuting shouk prove successful, as was highly probable. The parti tans of Parades, as our mirnste'. in the despatches re ferred to. slates, breathes the fiercest hostility against the United States, denounced the pniposed negotiation as treason, and njienly catted upon the troops and tin people to put down the government of Herrera bt force. The conquest of Texas, and wav with the U States, >*ere openly threatened. These weir the cir 1 eumstanees existing, when it was deemed pioper t , ordei the army uinter the command of Gen. Taykn t advance to the western frontier of Teaas, and occup i a position on or near lb* Rio Grande I The apprebeusvoat of a contemplated Mexican ii i vision have been since fully justified by’ tbs event - t The determination of Mexico to rush into beotititu i with the U. States eras alter wards manifested Croat tt e whole tenor of the note of tha Mexican Minuter i II appear* also. that on the 4th A aril follow! a* fieri l^a lhwmgh hi. Minim* rf^LrKPaSSi to the Mexican General ia command on the Te •rentier te ■ attack our army ‘ war permit*.” — - ■ - ged to the »»*y i volution April, ISM, “* that^ frontier, ,n which he stated to him, '- * “ ■ ‘ rS3 •'at the present date, I snppnos too at Hw head aft f valiant *my, either flgbti^Tlimiy, . earn pay.; snd.upjwwin, you airily itEthl of epenHinaa, and ~ indespensaUe that hostilities be ..., taking the initiative, afloat the enemy.’ °* T,rtraJ °* *•**° Ormada MM • uv wvvfiwm vi vvi ugfmj OQ UN lUO UnfiM WM made by the commanding general ander positive orders two countries aa peacafel, unleaa Mexico rieie war, or commit acts of heetility indicative ef a ■tale of war; and theae order* he faithfully rwrnUd «•* tank of the tie Grande, within the hmita of Texan, then recently admiring m one of the States of our Union, thT “ » eral of the Mexican force*, who, hi r~—rirt’iT er collected a larva army an den of hi* government, had__ _ m the oppo.it* chore of the Rio Grande, crossed the rl w, invaded our tern lory, and commttiead bflrtifltm by attacking our forcet. Thua, alter all thelnjuriei wWch we had racaivnd and borne from Mexico, after »he had insultingly re jerted a minister tent te her on a mission ■ -— and whom .he had solemnly .creed to receivCsbi consummated her long Cotfrse of otrtrage again*! onr Cr “'I?- ^ “ •****• shsd ■line the blood of onr citizen* on our own anil. The U. State* never attempted to acquire Texas by conquest On the contrary, at aa earfy period, after the people of Texas had achieved their Mininrtsnra thev sought te be annexed te the U. Statea. At a gen eral election in September. ISM, they decided with great unanimity, in favor of •annexation/ aad in No vember loilow mg, the Congress of the republic au thorized the appointment of * minister te bear their rcqne*t to this government. This government, how ever. having remained neutral between Texas and Mexico, during the war between them, and consider to the 1-— mg it due to the honor of our country, and our Mir fame among the nation* of the earth, that wa «h«—H not at this early period, consent to annexation, nor until it should be manifest in tha w hole world that tho conquest of Texas by Mexico war impossible, tofu fused to accede to the overtures made by Texas. Ow the 13th April. 1944, and after more than 7 year* had elapsed since Texas had established her independence, a treaty was concluded ter the annexation of dint re public to the l’. Statea, which was rejected hr the So nala VinoIIv cvn Ihn I at hi. to aa ft *<*d a joint resolution for annexing her to the u. State*, upon certain preliminary conditions, In which her as* sent was required. The solemnities which charsets#* iced the deliberations and conduct of the government and people of Texas, on the deeply interesting ques tions presented by these resolutions, are known to the world. The Congress, the Executive, and the people of Texas, in a convention elected for that purpose ac cepted, with great unanimity, the proposed leans of annexation: and thus consummated, on her part, the great act of lento ring to our Fedeiai L'nioo a vast ter ritory, which had been receded to Rpaiu by the Florida treaty more than a quarter of a century lie lore. After the joint resolution for the annexation of Tex as to the lT. States had been passed by our Cornett, the Mexican Minister at Washington, addressed a note to the Secretary cf State, bearing date of the «lh March, 1845, protesting against it as an act of aggres sion, the most unjust which can be found recorded in the annals of modern history; namely: that of despoil ing a friendly nation, like Mexico, of a considerable portion of her territory; and protesting against a reso lution of annexation, as being an act, “whereby the province of Texas, an integral poition of the Mexican territory, is agreed and admitted into the American Union; and be announced that, as a consequence, hit mission to the United States had terminated, and de manded his passports, wb ch were granted. It was u|K>n the absurd pretext, made by Mexico, herself in debted tor her independence to a successful revolution the republic of Texas still continued to be, not withstanding all that hail passed, a province of Mexi ! co. that this step was taken hr the Mexican miniater. Every honorable effort has been used by me to avoid the war which iollowed, but all have proved vain. All our attempts to preserve peace have been met by in sult and resistance on the part of Mexico. My efforts to this end commenced in the note of the Secretarv of State of the 10th March, 1819, in answer to that of the Mexican Minister. Whilst designing to re-open a discussion which had already been exhausted, and pro ving again what was known to the whole world, that Texas had long since achieved tier independence, the Secretary of State expressing the regret of this gov ernment that Mexico should nave takenodence at the resolution of annexation passed by Congress, and gate assurance that our “most streoous efforts shall be de voted to the amicable adjustment of every cause of conipiaii.t between the two governments, and the cul | tivation of the kindest cud most friendly relations be tween the two sister republics. That I have acted In the spirit of this assurance, will appear from the events scinch have since oecuired. 1 Notwithstanding Mexico had abruptly terminated ail diplomatic inteiconrve with the U. Stales, and ought, ttieiefore, to have been the first to ask lor its resump tion, yet, waiting all ceremony, 1 embraced the ear. lies! favorable op|>oriiinity “toascertain from the Mex ican government whether they would lecrive an en voy from the U. Mates intrusted with lull power to adjust all the questions in dispute between the two go vernments” In September, 1849,1 believed the pro. pitious moment lor such an overture bad arrived Tex as, by the enthusiastic and almost unanimous will of her people, had pronounced in tavov of annexation. Mexico herself bad agreed to acknowledge the inde pendence of Texas, subject to a condition, it is true, which she had no right to impose, and no power to . enforce. The last lingering nope of Mexico, if she rmild sun have retained any, tl.at Texas would ever again become of her provinces must have been aban doned 1'ha-i „f ik„ VI ai.t.. 41 aia.. r II • . 1 was. therefore. instructed hr the Secretary of State, : on the I Jilt Rcplembef', 1*44, to Maks inquiry ol the Mexican government. The exiean government the enquiry was mart on tbs IVh October, IMS, the Minister of Foreign Af fsits of the Mexican government, in a net* addressed to our consul, gas* n favorable response, at tbs taste tune, that our naval forces might be Withdrawn from Veta Crus while negotiations should be pending. Up on the receipt of this note, the naval force was prompt ly withdrawn from Vera Crus. A minister was its mediately appointed, and departed for Mexico. Every thing bore a premising aspect for a speedy and peace-, ful adjustment of all our difficulties. At the date of my annual message to Congress in December last, no doubt was entertained but that be would be received br tbe Meucan government, ami the hope was cherished that all cause ol maunder standing between the two countries would be speedily removed. In the confident hope that such would be the result of his mission, I informed Congress that I forbore at that time to recommend such ulterior mea sures ol redress for the wrongs and injuries we had so tong home, as St would have Wen proper to make had no such negotiation been instituted-'* To my surprise and regret, the Mexican govern, meat, though solemnly pledged to do so, upon the arrival of our minister in Mexico, refused to receive and accredit him. Whcu be reached Vera Crus, on the SMh of November, 1*43, be found that the aspect ol affairs bad undergone an unhappy change. The govern meat of Gen. Herrera, who was at that time President of the republic, was tottering to its fall — lien. Paredes (a military leader) had uauiieeted his determination to overthrow the government of Herrera, by a military revolution; and os* of the principal mesa* which be employed to effect his put . pose, and render the government of Herrera, odious , to lbs army and people of Mexico, was by ku*liv condemning its aieleiminattoa to lecaive a minister of peace from the United States, dismember tbe territo ry of Mexieo, by ceding awty the department of Tex