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One of the grandest American ideas to which the American people have most zealously, and steadfastly adhered is that of free public schools. It was the natural out-growth from the seed which the Pilgrim fathers planted, whose first thought, after they had built their humble dwellings, was to provide school houses where their children might be instructed. It might well be said that the idea of a free public school system is pecu liarly a Northern one. New England, the Middle and Western States gave their cordial endorsement to this system and devoted their best thought to its developement. The North said "educa tion for all," for the children of the poor as well as for those of the rich. But the South—with her four millions of slaves—saw that universal enlighten ment would be equivalent to universal liberty, and so she made ignorance her ally, and opened tho doors of education to the favored alone. Labor—in re gard of the South —was degrading, and so the millions of jpoor whites through out that portion of our country were excluded from all educational advanta ges and were kept almost as debased as the blacks themselves. None of the industrial or mechanical arts flourishing anywhere in the south before tho war. The north made all the machinery and implements «Used in the south, even to their very hoe han dles. And moreover the sons of their rich men went to northern schools and colleges for their elucation. It is only since the war that the south has adop ted the moro liberal plan of public sohools. And to-day we rejoice at the fact that Richmond, Virginia, the great slave mart of former years, has mado most generous appropriations for public schools, the doors of which are freely opened to those very people whom they once regarded as nothing more than chattels. Edward Everett in expressing his ad miration for, and faith in, our free pub lic schools, once said, that colored miration for, and faith in, our free pub lic schools, once said, that a colored boy, who was a class mate of his sou in the Latin, or Highschool, out-ranked either in the classics or mathamatics, and Mr. Everett rejoiced in that per feet equality, which opens a fair field to all in securing a good education. It has furthermore been the testimony of many of oiir ablest educators, a testimo ny amply sustained too, by statistics- that our free public schools, as a gen : eral rule, are far superior to private or, as they are sometimes called, select Schools. The mental drill of the former far more thorough, and the promo is tion of pupils from lower to higher classes rests upon a sounder basis of scholarship.— W. W. Union. Proposals for Mail Carrying. Washington, Dec. 8.—The postoffi ce department has completed and is now issuing a printed advertisement in pamphlet form inviting proposals for carrying the mails on all routes on the Pacific Coast states and territories dur ing the term of four years commencing the first day of next July. No adver tisements will be mado in newspapers , af heretofore, but those intending to be bidders may procure pamphlets contain ing time schedules, forms of proposals, etc., on application to tho department or can inspect a copy which the law re quires to be posted at each and every postoffice within the district. * The above designated proposals will be re ceived until 3 p. m., February 2d and awards announced on or before March 80th. The routes to be let include 167 id California. 64 in Oregon, 84 in Ne vada, 30 in Washington Territory, 118 in Utah, Arizona, New Mexico Monta na and Idaho. A good little boy who was kicked by a mule did pot say naughty words or go home crying to his mother. He just tied the mule within five feet of a bee hive backed him arotyid to it aud let him kick. is Statc or no State. The Watchman a short time ago took ground against a state government for Washington on account of the ex pense, to which we suggested a pro vision in tho constitution exempting our brother from bearing any part of this expense. W. W. Boone Esq., of Colfax, in the Gazette rubbed him gently, and now Bro., Besserer says : "If, as Mr. Boone says, it will take nearly threo years before the present move of becoming a State is fiilly con sumated, then, of course, our objection thereto would naturally evaporate. However, it is well that the question should be dilligcntly discussed in a spirit of fairness and honesty, Don't mind the ammunition we should waste. Such occurranees are inevitable in all conflicts, whether fought with the pen or sword." Query ! Was it the soundness of Boone's logic, or our suggestion of his being exempt, that caused bis objection to evaporate ? To us it is of no conse quence which, so long as he wheels into line with the people upon this matter. We hope however he will not permit the "Intelligencer" to ruffle his temper. Keep cool ; let no man fret you. In for Annexation. If the Lewiston Teller indicates the sentiment of the people of its locality Northern Idaho is in for annexation to Washington in the most unqualified manner. They have petitioned Con gress for this matter, they have urged it upon our Legislature, they have talked and written it whenever and wherever they had an opportunity of doing so to any advantage. In this is their hope ; in a new Territory, or in annexation to Oregon, their fear. They want to come and wo want them, and the efforts now being made indicate al most to a certainty that the two pieces of our territory disunited in 1863 will be reunited in *1878.— Pacific Tribune. A consumption devoutly to be wished by nineteen twentieths of all North Ida ho, if not ninety-nine liundreths. It of : of is Contrast.— The Chicago Tribune has this to say of the ovation to Joseph at Bismarck : The tuft-hunters of Bismarck, Dako ta, have r^de a lion out of Chief Jose ph, of the captured Nez Perces, and have put him through a course of re ceptions and dinners strongly suggestive of Martin Chuzzlowit's triumphal trip down tho Ohio river. Having been feted his brief hour at Bismarck, he is now feted to indefinite captivity at Fort Leavenworth. Don't Believe It.—T he editor of the Dayton News who was a volunteer in the early part of the war with Joseph says of the opinion of the court of in qury in the case of Col. Perry as fol lows : If wo were to express our opinion is to this decision we would say that ve do not believe the opinion of the court founded on a single fact. The News man is not alone. Large numbers think with him. Washington, Dec., 6.—The Iloasc committee on territory to-day heard Colonel E. Brearley, delegate from the Black Hills country, in advocacy of the organization of the new territory to include that region to x be called the Territory of Lincoln.— Tel. Removing the Mystery.—A fe male writer declares that she will re move the mystery that surrounds the girls, and the Louisville Journal coolly replies. "The rest of you may close your eyes, but hanged if I will." Indian Affairs. —The Secretary of the interior admits the difficulty, not to say the impossibility, of detecting frauds under our present system of man aging Indians. He says that when an investigation is ordered a warning is given which enables guilty parties to conceal evidences of fraud. He recom mends an appropriate» for the support of a roving commission, composed ot ef ficient agents who can pounce down up on the point to be investigated without given notice. It is possible that an ap propriation for the purpose mentioned might do good, but what is apparently of even greater importance is the pun ishment of rascally Indian agents when caught.— W. W. Statesman. Coming Home to Boost.—A Bis marck special dispatch to the Herald of Dec. 5th says : "A heavy wagon train on the Custer road has becn^eaptured, and Bismarck's Josephs are banqueting upon the blood of defenseless men and women." The natural result of feting Joseph and his pals in crime, by the citizens of Bismarck. When, Oh ! When .will such foolishness die out? Put in Wheat. —The Sacramento Record Union predicts a scant rain fall in California and advises all in that, state who can, to prepare to irrigate. This is only one of many indications that,whc-at will bring a biir price again Lext year. Farmers iD tins country would do well to sow all the wheat arid other grains they can during this splen did weather.— IF. IF. Union. ;R : Wholesale and Retail Dealer in II, it Jim LEWISTON. I. T„ 18-tf JOHN IMSJEARIÆV. BROKER AND ASSAYER 'N. \V. Cor. iUomeoiiiorj- & Fourth Street*, LEWISTON. I. T. PURCHASER OF Gold Dust and Gold Bars. I.egal Ten ders and Government Vouchers Bought aud Sold. AI.SO EXCMATCGE SOLD ON Port and and San Francisco. 1-tf LIVERY STABLE, M. ISOLAND & W. A. CALDWELL. PROPRIETORS. A t the old stand formerly kept by II. Crites, on the north side of E Street. LEWISTON, NORTH IDAHO. GENERAL FEED, SALE AND LIVERY BUSINESS. Old and new Patrons arc invited, whe will find the management "Not So Coarse.'' i-tf EST ABLISttE 1861 J. C. BALDty Wholesale and Retail Dealer i„ general 11ERC1IMD1 34-tf LEWISTON. I. t g. c s; a ^ - * I wi g GO HN F. VOLLME Wholesale and Retail Dealer in OF ALL KINDS, A GENERAL ASSORTMENT OF fll Goods, Clothing, Groceries, Crocke. and Glassware, Cutlery, Tobacco, Hi w Goods, Etc., Ere., Etc. Lewiston, I. T., Oct., 21, 1S76. 1-t! MANUFACTURED BY ALLEGES, BOWLBT & CO. WASHINGTON X. J. V e elaim that our organs are equal in every respect to any in market. The tone so closely resembles tho PIPE ORGAN TONE that it is difficult, to distinguish between the two. For power, sweetness of tone, elasticity ot touch, style, finish, and durability, they CAWNOT BE SURPASSED. We use the Munroe patent, organ reed which is acknowledged by tho most competent judges, to be the * BEST REED MANUFACTliBED. Our eases are all made of solid black walnut, thoroughly kiln-dried, and put up by skilled workmen, aided by the MOST APPROVED MACHINERY, run by steam power. With Rolfs wood carver, we cut all pannelsand mouldings on the solid wood, which adds greatly to the beauty»' well as the durability of tho organ. NO INFERIOR WORIv and nothing but the best quality of materia can be found in any organ bearing our lame! They contain All the latest improvements, and are warranted for five years. Agent* wanted for every coffnty in the United States and Canada. Illustrated catalogues free. ADDRESS ALLEGER BOWLBY & CO* » Washington, N.J. 17-iy. in w BARBER SHOP. B etween j. p. vollmers and the old store formerly kept bv Loewenberg Pros. SHAVING and HAIR-DRESS ING done up in the latest styles with neat" ness and dispatch. J. A. Hoag, 2-2-3m Proprietor.